Total Quality management Assignment

Total Quality management Assignment

Total Quality management Assignment is about Quality management that has become an important part of the business management in current scenario looking at the various benefits and opportunities offered.

Introduction

Today’s markets are more focused on the consumers due to their increasing bargaining power in the market.  Due to their increasing bargaining power consumers are demanding high-quality products which need to be obtained by using best technologies and methodologies at the workplace. Total Quality management Assignment is a process of quality management,  Hence, in order to supply the high-quality products companies across the world, is taking help of some of the proven methodologies in the operation management area i.e. total quality management (Philip, 2009). Kuwait’s manufacturing sector is one of the fast growing manufacturing segments and manufacturer in Kuwait are well aware of the importance and need of the total quality management in manufacturing segment very well.

Implementation of total quality management is not that easy for the companies hence, some of the firms have failed miserably in order to establish Total Quality Management Assignment at their workplace while only a small number of the firms have become successful in order to establish the TQM (Ward, and Tatikonda, 2010).  Total quality management initiatives till now has focused majorly on elements of TQM and process which would be used in order to establish successful TQM activities but not much authors to date have focused their attention towards success factors which needs to be considered while implementing the Total Quality Management Assignment Help process at the workplace.

In the recent times, authors have carried out several types of research which have tried to identify the factors which can bring success in the implementation process of TQM. Porter and Black (1996) have developed a model for identification of the critical success factors for TQM implementation and this model would also help in order to study the interdependence of these factors so as to achieve overall aim of the TQM implementation process. The ANP methodology for studying the critical factors in TQM implementation for present research would add value to the overall literature present on TQM.

The aim of the present paper is to investigate the implementation of the TQM in Kuwait manufacturing industry and factors which are crucial in order to implement TQM in manufacturing industry in Kuwait (Chong, 1998). Kuwait manufacturing industry constitutes a major part of the overall organisations implementing TQM in their organisations. The present study would make use of the ANP process in order to identify crucial factors which need to be followed for successful implementation of TQM process in manufacturing industry in Kuwait.

The present paper has tried to build a framework in order to highlight the importance of several factors for Total Quality management Assignment Help  implementation process. Also, ANP application in the field of TQM implementation is a relatively new concept as earlier several authors have tried AHP process in order to develop TQM (Ahire, 2007). The present paper has surveyed 51 manufacturing units in Kuwait in order to study implementation issues and benefits in TQM for Kuwait manufacturing industry. The present paper would provide the relevant literature for TQM implementation, a methodology which has been adopted for the research and final results of the survey which has been conducted among the manufacturing units in Kuwait.

Literature review

There is a large amount of literature available on the subject of total quality management and it emphasis mainly on three aspects of the business which are customer centric, teamwork and improvement on a continuous basis. Also, it is assumed that main aim of the total quality management process is to bring innovation in Business management through continuous improvement in the product, services and processes etc (Schroeder et al, 2001). Most of the literature have focused on the process which is followed in order to implement TQM but less focus has been given to the success factors for implementation of TQM process.

A study was conducted in order to find out usage of quality management processes in manufacturing industry in Kuwait. The major constructs which were used in order to find out quality management process supported by top management, customer relationship management, workflow management and work attitude etc (Tari et al, 2004). In order to implement the total quality management strategic planning, cross-functional planning and quality councils are some of the main processes which need to be carried in order to implement the TQM process.

There is a lot of difference in the critical success factors which can be used before quality management process in manufacturing and service industry firms. Some of the major factors which need to be implemented in the service sector for quality management are training and development, supervisory leadership, communication within the company,  top management support and continuous improvement etc (Black & Porter, 2006). Hence, from the several studies which have been conducted in the field quality management highlighted some of the major constructs which were common in many studies and these factors were continuous improvement, top management support, process management, quality management and customer focus etc.

The present study gathers common constructs of the quality management process which comprises expected benefits, cost and risk involved in the process of quality management in manufacturing industry in Kuwait (Chan & Quazi, 2002). The present research also includes some of the manufacturing industry specific variables such as the availability of the country specific TQM models, process flow, training & development and conflicts arising in management etc.

Methodology

The present study would be carried out with thehelp of Analytical network process which is one of the most important decision-making methodology followed in the operation management framework. In order to make a decision among several variables super decision software would be used which is highly user-friendly and easy to use. Our present concern is to make the decision for critical variables in order to implement quality management process. There are several variables which have been identified for the manufacturing industry in Kuwait basis on the literature review and survey conducted in the 50 manufacturing firms in Kuwait.

Analytical network process is the general form of the analytical hierarchical process and consists of two major parts. The first part of the analytical network process relates to the control hierarchy regarding the criteria and sub-criteria which is used in order to produce the feedback network. The second part of the analytical network process consists of the influence network which forms the problem factors and these factors are grouped into clusters (Thomson, 2003). There are several decision networks present into the system which comprises of the clusters, their elements and the crucial links among the several elements.

There is a link present between the element and which connect it further to the cluster and forms the whole pair-wise comparison set. Links among the clusters are known as dependencies, the link between same element and cluster is called as inner dependence and the link between an inner element and some other cluster would be called as the outer dependency. The overall process of the analytical network process is quite complex and we would be able to detail only important stages of the process which are given as below:

Stage-1: The first step for analytical network process is to generate the priority set for the process depending upon the overall importance level of the elements. In case all the elements are having similar weights then the multiplicative analysis would be carried out and if there is different importance level attached to each element in that case additive analysis would be performed (Chan et al, 2002).

Stage-2: Second stage of the process is known as the model construction and it helps in determination of decision network for each merit such as benefit, cost and risk. There would be some merits which are not of much importance and these can be left out and decision network can be built with rest of the elements.

Stage-3: This stage of analytical network process would be helpful in comparison of the elements and their clusters. This stage would compare several clusters which are helpful in affecting the decision, elements in each cluster would be compared against other elements present and their impact would be analysed on the elements outside the cluster. Finally, the alternative present would be compared to the elements which are connected with each other.

Stage-4: The stage above has helped in order to obtain a super matrix which is not weighted but out main focus should be to achieve the weighted supermatrix which can be achieved through column stochastic process.

Stage-5: Finally the resulting ratings can be used in order to obtain the multiplication for benefits and risk of the process (Chan et al, 2002). This can be used in order to obtain the priority level for each matrix and finally factor having highest priority can be selected for the implementation of the quality management process.

Survey & result from analysis

In order to find out critical factors for quality management a survey was conducted in manufacturing industry in Kuwait with 50 manufacturing firms and service firms were not made part of this survey. Responses were gathered through a questionnaire formed and respondents for our survey were the directors and quality managers of the firm. There were two main sections in the questionnaire, first contains the information regarding the demographic variables and TQM implementation issues while the second part of the questionnaire contains information regarding factors which are critical for TQM implementation process. In total, there were 45 main factors identified through literature review and survey which were critical for quality management. Though most of the factors identified through literature review were the main factors while rest of the factors have been achieved through a survey only. Further refining the identified variables has resulted into 32 key variables while 13 variables were found of no use. All these 32 factors have been categorised into advantages, opportunities, risk and disadvantages which are given as below:

AdvantagesAdvantage to customerComplaint reduction
Quality improvement
Price reduction
On time delivery
Advantage to workforceWF quality
Worker participation
Work satisfaction
Operational advantagesZero defects
WIP
Financial advantagesHigher revenue
Market share
Internal costs
External costs
Appraisal costs
OpportunitiesPotential benefitsLong term competitive power
Achieving quality culture
WF harmony
DisadvantagesManagement structureConflict management
TQM expenses
Quality education & training
Family companies
Company supplier relationship
Difficulty of achieving teamwork
RiskManagerial riskUpper management support
Quality education and training
Dynamic structure
Workers support
Change in perception
Co-operation level
Technical riskKnowledge of statistics

Figure1: Showing the network structure for several nodes

In order to carry out the ANP decision model, three main factors were used in order to decide the priorities for each of the above 32 factors which along with their relative importance are: TQM implementation cost (0.6), Impact on product quality (0.2) and time are taken for implementation (0.1). These three factors fulfil BOCR matrix criteria for the present problem of decision making. Priority ratings for these factors in accordance with the four matrix variables can be given as below:

AdvantageOpportunityDisadvantageRisk
CostVery lowLowVery highHigh
QualityVery highHighVery lowVery low
TimeVery lowLowVery highHigh
Priorities0.350.250.150.25

Very low (0.05), Low (0.1), Medium (0.15), High (0.25), Very high (0.5)

Figure2: Showing the relative importance structure

Model construction has been done through adding several sub-factors in the four probable matrixes which are advantages, disadvantages, risk and opportunities as shown in figure 1. Also, pair-wise comparison was done in order to identify impact of a particular variable on other associated variables and thus advantage cluster matrix was formed which is as below:

ClusterAdv to custAdv to WFOper advFinan adv
Add to cust0.450.000.000.31
Add to WF0.230.900.000.00
Oper adv0.100.000.900.15
Finan adv0.180.000.000.49

Figure 3: Showing the cluster matrix for pair-wise comparison

Hence, a supermatrix has been prepared which would help in determining the factors and their priorities for the advantage network which can be given as below:

ClusterFactorsLocal priorityGlobal priority
Advantage to customerComplaint reduction0.120.01
Quality improvement0.600.08
Price reduction0.190.02
On time delivery0.070.01
Advantage to workforceWF quality0.250.03
Worker participation0.250.04
Work satisfaction0.290.04
Operational advantagesZero defects0.950.13
WIP0.040.00
Financial advantagesHigher revenue0.210.02
Market share0.130.01
Internal costs0.150.02
External costs0.400.05
Appraisal costs0.080.01

Figure 4: Showing the supermatrix for advantage matrix

Based on the outcome of the above super matrix and the pair-wise comparison is done for several factors and cluster we can make out the final outcome of the survey which would ascertain about application of supply chain management  in manufacturing industry in Kuwait which is as below:

AdvantageopportunitydisadvriskFinal outcome (additive)Final outcome(Multiplicative)
Apply TQM0.780.820.170.210.570.61
Not apply TQM0.160.14 0.800.690.400.37

Figure 5: Overall results of TQM application

Conclusion and recommendations

In this paper, we have focused on analysis regarding the critical factors for TQM implementation in Kuwait manufacturing industry based on the four major matrix factors which are advantages, disadvantages, risk and opportunities. A survey was done in 50 manufacturing firms in Kuwait in order to find out the readiness of the TQM application in the manufacturing industry. It has been found out from the study that Kuwait manufacturing industry is 57.2% supportive for implementation of TQM processes as shown by the final outcome of the additive method. As per the literature review quality improvement and complaint, reduction were two most important factors for the TQM implementation. But as per results of the survey and ANP method quality improvement is the second most important variable among the advantage matrix while complaint reduction is one of the least important variables.

Zero defects which were not given much importance in the literature came out to be one of the most important parameters for quality management. Hence, there has been many contrast and similarity obtained in the results carried out through literature review and survey. Also, a survey conducted in Kuwait has highlighted that implementing TQM has more advantages and opportunities in Kuwait manufacturing industry as compared to the risk and disadvantages in implementing the TQM process. Hence, it would be quite beneficial for the manufacturing firms in Kuwait to implement the TQM.

Also, from results and literature of the above research, it can be recommended that quality management is a long-term continuous process which requires integrated efforts from management and quality managers. TQM implementation can have a great impact on the work culture of a firm and it just needs identification of the critical factors related to that particular industry. Hence, the present research and model used for developing TQM can be used for study in other countries and industries as well provide relevant critical factors are identified.

References

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  • Chin, K.S., Tummala, V.M.R., Chan, K.M., 2002, Quality management practice based on seven core elements in HongKong manufacturing industries. Technovation: International Journal of Technical Innovation and Entrepreneurship 22 (4), 213–230.