WACB100 Communication in Business and Economics

WACB100 Communication in Business and Economics

WACB100 Communication in Business and Economics


The research report introduces to the notion of sanitation services and the impact of these services on the developing countries.  The entire research report will be discussed by focusing on the four major sectors which are health, Business economy, society and environment. Sanitation usually denotes to the facility or services for the purpose of disposal of human feces and urine. Maintaining sanitation is really important for the developing countries(Ellis and Schoenberger, 2017).The term sanitation also denotes to the management of the hygienic environment. The sanitation in broader term highlights the maintenance of the public health conditions (Simiyu, et. al., 2017). Further, the research report highlights the data, charts, and facts about the sanitation services.

Literature review:

According to LeGagnoux(2014), it is necessary to improve the sanitation facilities in the developing countries because improved sanitation is having prodigious impacts on the health of the people. Apart from health,sanitation services have an impact on the economy, society, and environment of the developing countries. An improved sanitation service is one which hygienically split up the excreta of human from its direct contact. Improved sanitation usually contains proper facilities to dispose the excreta or to safely dispose of the excreta as per the joint WHO and UNICEF report, 36 % of the total world’s population cannot access to the basic sanitation services and almost 768 million people fare consuming water which is not clean. Sanitation states to the services and facilities for disposing of the human waste. In other words, basic latrines, toilets and insufficient access to the clean water kill almost 4,000 children each day. Improper sanitation adds to the cycle of poverty for the communities who are living in developing countries (LeGagnoux, 2014).

According to Harris, et. al. (2017), sanitation has a direct impact on the society and environment of the developing countries. Approximately 2.6 billion persons are not using proper sanitation services, two-thirds of such person are living in sub-Saharan and Asia. Nearly 53% of inhabitants of the developing countries are having access to basic sanitation services. Within developing countries, the metropolitan sanitation treatment is around 71%, while the countryside treatment is around 39%. Sanitation services destroy the environment of developing countries. Accumulation of polluted water, human excreta will disturb the natural surroundings of the developing countries (Harris, et. al., 2017).

According to Hathi, et. al. (2017), poor sanitation is highly responsible for increasing the burden of the existing disease in developing countries. The diseases which are associated with the poor sanitation and unsafe water are around 10% of the worldwide weight of disease. Diseases which are related with poor sanitation are generally under nutrition, acute respiratory infections and other tropical sicknesses like schistosomiasis and helminth infections. These diseases are considered to be the most common sanitation diseases. Internationally, around 1.7 million persons die each year from the diarrheal diseases and about 90% are offspring who are under the age of 5 years. This situation is mostly faced by the developing countries. Internationally, 88% of cases of diarrhea diseases are due to dangerous water, improper sanitation, and poor cleanliness (Hathi, et. al., 2017).

(Source: United Nations Children's Fund, 2017)

From the findings, it is said that around 5 billion people in the world are using improve sanitation facilities which was not common with another household and classified under basic sanitation services while 8% of the total population around 600 million people used shared facilities which are classified under limited sanitation services. The graph also says that Australia and New Zealand followed by North America and Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Western Asia and Northern Africa, Eastern and south eastern Asia, central Asia and south Asia, Oceania and Sub-Saharan Africa are the countries where basic sanitation facilities are the top countries where least basic sanitation services are used as according to the statistics of 2015. Australia and New Zealand is the only country in the world that has basic sanitation facilities among rest of the countries. Around 892 million people in the world still practicing open defecation. The small island and developing states use majority of least sanitation facilities. Landlocked developing countries have 40% share to basic sanitation facilities and 32% in least developed countries.


The use of sanitation facilities has increased since the last years as comparatively with the drinking water services between 2000 and 2015. From the results it can be evidently said that there will be more improvement of the sanitation facilities in the coming years due to the growing concern of countries towards the need and importance of sanitation facilities. There is still 32% population in the world which terms around 2.3 million people still lacks basic sanitation facilities or used unimproved facilities that lacks hygiene. Some million populations used the shared household facilities. The share household facilities are due to the constraints in the social and business economic practices in the mostly populated areas of the world. For universal basic sanitation, 14 countries are consistently improving the sanitation facilities and services while the growth rate of 84 countries for universal sanitation is still too slow. With this speed, it would not be possible for the countries to develop and improve the basic sanitation facilities which are very important in the present world where behind the increasing diseases and health problems, sanitation is the major reason. For the sustainable growth of the world in terms of health and hygiene, sanitation facilities are important for the balanced equation of the ecological system (United Nations Children's Fund, 2017).

1. Ellis, H. and Schoenberger, E., (2017). On the Identification of Associations between Five World Health Organization Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Phenotypes and Six Predictors in Low and Middle-Income Countries. PloS one12(1).
2. Harris, M., Alzua, M.L., Osbert, N. and Pickering, A.J., (2017). Community-level sanitation coverage is more strongly associated with child growth and household drinking water quality than access to a private toilet in rural Mali. Environmental Science & Technology.
3. Hathi, P., Haque, S., Pant, L., Coffey, D. and Spears, D., (2017). Place and Child Health: The Interaction of Population Density and Sanitation in Developing Countries. Demography54(1), pp.337-360.
4. LeGagnoux, M., (2014).Sanitation in Developing Countries. Blog.
5. Simiyu, S., Swilling, M., Rheingans, R. and Cairncross, S., (2017). Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study. International journal of environmental research and public health14(1), pp.49.
6.United Nations Children's Fund (2017).Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/JMP-2017-report-launch-version_0.pdf, viewed 5 November 2017