UTS42908 Engineering Project Preparation Assignment

UTS42908 Engineering Project Preparation Assignment

UTS42908 Engineering Project Preparation Assignment

Introduction

The soil is a natural body consisting of several layers that are made up of the minerals of the soil mixed together. The top layers are made up of the organic materials some of which are different from their parent material. The properties of the soil are affected by the color, chemical properties, consistency and other characteristics of the soil. Soli is made up of an important medium in which some of the animals live. It is interesting to note that soil as a nation was valuable. Pollution occurs when part of the surrounding is affected by the by the industrial wastewater that makes it harmful to the organism and also to the humans. The addition of the hazardous chemical where none had existed before has become a common event.All these chemicals normally become very harmful when the concentration is very high. These effects were true even on some of the chemicals that are harmless in the lower concentration. Many toxins that are added to the soil normally pose a threat to the point that the healthcare of the plants and the animals are affected.

The recycling process of the soil organic matter and nutrients are effectively reduced and slowed down since the microbial activities of the organisms are affected. The extensive and intimate role of the soil is to provide a suitable surrounding and also to reduce the process of the pollution.The quality of the soil is a measure of the soil condition as compared to the requirements of more than one biotic species. Among the different industries, the cement industry is known to cause pollution to the agricultural soils. The soil PH is increased by the accumulation of the alkaline from the cement. The dust of the cement, when deposited on the agricultural land, changes the chemistry of the soil (Adrover, Farrús, Moyà and Vadell 2012)...

The rapid growth of the population in very many arid and semi-arid areas continues to explore the rate of the pollution. The demand for water continues to put more pressure on the limited supplies of water. Most of the cities are struggling to strike a balance on the users of the industrial water, domestic and agricultural water (Hanjra et al 2012). It is interesting to note that the increase in the population has not only increased the demand on the freshwater but also led to the increased volume of the wastewater that is being generated within the towns. The treated water has remained to be the only source of water that is increasing in terms of the volume while other sources are becoming limited. The use of the recycled wastewater is considered as one of the techniques of ensuring that the pressure on the on the freshwater sources are reduced. These water sources are therefore not used in the irrigation process. In some countries, there has been the use of untreated water for irrigation. This practice, however, has been found to very illegal in some of the countries.

Literature Review

Other than acting as a source of nutrients and compactness, the soil water normally acts as a transport agent and also a solvent. The soil moisture is normally obtained from the water that has infiltrated from that surface runoff. The dry weight of the soil is defined as the total dry weight per unit volume. There are types of the soil that are known to be very inhibitive to the infiltration and also to the permeability. The level of the soil PH is considered to be a factor of nature. The most effective way of measuring the soil PH is by taking the measurement on the session of the water. The suspended water will always provide the information on the chemical properties of the soil. The soil PH will affect some of the characteristics of the soil including decomposition, primary production, and mineral formation (Hussain, Alamzeb and Begum 2013).

The above-named factors make the soil PH to be considered a bio-geochemical factor. There are circumstances where the concentration of the salinity of the soil becomes more 200mg.In whatever way, there is a need to follow a proper model to ensure that removal of salinization is achieved. The sewage water is known to be having a high content of the salt. Such level of the production is known to be constant even after the application of anti-saline chemicals. The problem of the salinity can be common in the cases where there is no flushing. The commonly suggested methods in the maintenance will be drainage and Leeching so as to avoid salinization of the soil.

Most of the water pollution has had their assessment focused on the physical and the chemical properties of the water. Very little attention has been given to the biological aspect. This has been because the chemical and the physical characteristics of the water are normally easy to take their measurements. Most of the farmers, however, use that water from the sewage considering that it is cheap and also very abundant. This water is readily available during the drought and has nutrients like phosphates and nitrates.These compounds act as a source of the fertilizer. The research work has found that the use of the sewage water by the farmers to solve the shortage of water for irrigation is increasingly becoming common (Mara 2013).

Most of the authorities have responded by imposing a ban but again this cannot be the best solution. The decision makers and the planners must just face the reality and provide innovative means or ways to solve such kind of the problems. One of the most effective means to use waste effluent water is for the purposes of irrigation. This is because this kind of water mostly contains nutrients that are required for the plant's growth. Effluents can be used in the small flows when controlled to manage vegetable farms. The effects of these effects must be put into the consideration since the chemical comp [position of the soil is subject to these factors. Irrigation can, therefore, be defined as the application of water into the soil by the intention of increasing the level of the soil mixture that supports the lives of the plants (Negreanu, Pasternak, Jurkevitch and Cytryn 2012).

Evaluation

The result of the chemical characteristics that was used for irrigation has been the .matter of discussion. The investigation partly has been in agreement with the work that has been performed by other people that had conducted research on the use of sewage water for irrigation. There has been increased in the level of salinity which has been kept constant alongside other exchangeable ions. The availability of the plant phosphorus and also decreased in the PH of the soil. In the cases for the comparison of the level of the heavy metals, the level has been less than 0.5. There has been a significant increase in the composition of Fe by almost 4.48%. This is because the percentage of the heavy metal in the sewage water is low (Pettygrove 2017).

The water for irrigation showed very little concentration of the heavy metals. The results that indicated very high levels of the metals could be as a result of the prolonged use of the sewerage water for irrigation. The long use of the irrigation results into the accumulation of the heavy mates hence the subsequently raised percentage (Malchi et al 2014). The same results were obtained for the investigation of the chemicals properties of the water and their subsequent effects on the arid and semi-arid land. The business research has indicated that the reuse of sewage water normally produces no effect on the increase in the volume of the individual elements in the entire season (Singh, Deshbhratar and Ramteke 2012).

The present results that sought to compare the influence and also the difference that exist between the grass crop and the levels of the chemicals in the soil. The water that was used has been characterized as the source of the irrigation water. The results showed that that the water parameters are normally affected by the use of the sewage water. The irrigation of the farms using the water that had been obtained from the sewage resulted in the increase in the soil PH. The results also indicated the effects of using sewage water that is below 0.005 concentration of the level of the heavy metals.

Conclusion

The soil has a major role in maintaining higher levels of the quality of the soil. The quality of the environment is improved considering that filtration process will remove the toxic and dangerous. The indoor results that have been used in the illustration of the changes in the soil characteristics. The percolation of the effluent water that has been obtained from the industries is known to alter the chemical and the physical properties of the soil. The result of such activities is deposition of very heavy metals. Some of the commonly found heavy metals include the following; chromium, leads, and Cadmium. Such heavy metals normally have their presence detected using special gadgets. The release of the waste from the industries prior to the treatment can potentially cause damage to the underground water. The underground water may seep into the freshwater thereby resulting in the pollution of the protected water sources. The research works concluded that the activities of the industries may appear to be very significant as far as the pollution of the surrounding is concerned. The production of the Anastasia grade of the oxide if titanium that is normally extracted from the sulphuric acid has affected the surrounding areas. The percolation of the effluent water that has been obtained from the various sources that is relatively permanent (Yao et al 2012).

References

1. Adrover, M., Farrús, E., Moyà, G. and Vadell, J., 2012. Chemical properties and biological activity in soils of Mallorca following twenty years of treated wastewater irrigation. Journal of environmental management95, pp.S188-S192.
2. Becerra-Castro, C., Lopes, A.R., Vaz-Moreira, I., Silva, E.F., Manaia, C.M. and Nunes, O.C., 2015. Wastewater reuse in irrigation: A microbiological perspective on implications in soil fertility and human and environmental health. Environment international75, pp.117-135.
3. Chiroma, T.M., Ebewele, R.O. and Hymore, F.K., 2014. Comparative assessment of heavy metal levels in soil, vegetables and urban grey waste water used for irrigation in Yola and Kano. International refereed journal of engineering and science3(2), pp.01-09.
4. Estévez, E., del Carmen Cabrera, M., Molina-Díaz, A., Robles-Molina, J. and del Pino Palacios-Díaz, M., 2012. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain). Science of the Total environment433, pp.538-546.
5. Hanjra, M.A., Blackwell, J., Carr, G., Zhang, F. and Jackson, T.M., 2012. Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: Implications for water governance and public policy. International journal of hygiene and environmental health215(3), pp.255-269.
6. Hussain, A., Alamzeb, S. and Begum, S., 2013. Accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables irrigated with waste water and their daily intake to adults and children, District Mardan, Pakistan. Food chemistry136(3-4), pp.1515-1523.
7. Malchi, T., Maor, Y., Tadmor, G., Shenker, M. and Chefetz, B., 2014. Irrigation of root vegetables with treated wastewater: evaluating uptake of pharmaceuticals and the associated human health risks. Environmental analysis science & technology48(16), pp.9325-9333.
8. Mara, D., 2013. Domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries. Routledge.
9 Negreanu, Y., Pasternak, Z., Jurkevitch, E. and Cytryn, E., 2012. Impact of treated wastewater irrigation on antibiotic resistance in agricultural soils. Environmental science & technology46(9), pp.4800-4808.
10. Pettygrove, G.S., 2017. Irrigation With Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater-A Guidance Manual: 0. CRC Press.
11. Singh, P.K., Deshbhratar, P.B. and Ramteke, D.S., 2012. Effects of sewage wastewater irrigation on soil properties, crop yield and environment. Agricultural Water Management103, pp.100-104.
12. Yao, Y., Gao, B., Chen, H., Jiang, L., Inyang, M., Zimmerman, A.R., Cao, X., Yang, L., Xue, Y. and Li, H., 2012. Adsorption of sulfamethoxazole on biochar and its impact on reclaimed water irrigation. Journal of hazardous materials209, pp.408-413.