US20170037915A1 Electromagnetic Braking System Oz Assignments

US20170037915A1 Electromagnetic Braking System Oz Assignments

US20170037915A1 Electromagnetic Braking System Oz Assignments

Introduction:

Electromagnetic breaking system is one of the most reliable breaking system in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. The failure rate of air and oil breaking system has been a critical issue and could lead to failure of breaks. Electromagnetic braking system can be very effective and reliable and has a low failure rate compare to the other breaking system. If one of the coil of the electromagnetic braking system is fails, the whole breaking system will not work properly instead of stop working. The system design contains two magnet body and two electric coils for constructing enough amount of flux which will flow from magnet body to the armatures situated around the coils. In the output plate, two teeth have been installed. Further, the preliminary design and detailed designed has been demonstrated with business development. After finalizing the design, a system analysis is also conducted to check the effectiveness and identify certain risks (Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). The proposed design of the braking system is compromised with both electric and mechanical components. Even though the typical braking system can offer same functionality as the electromagnetic braking system. Electromagnetic braking system allows to control the magnetic field through current.

Preliminary design

The working principle of the electromagnetism is totally depends on the magnetic field. When certain quantity of current is distributed through a round conductor then it produces magnetic field which is uniform all over the conductor. The current flowing through the conductor cause the magnetic field alteration. The base principle of the system follows the right hand rule. As demonstrate in the figures, electromagnetic brake is mainly consist of Hub, Armature and filed. If the armature field is involved near the magnetic field the breaking torque is into the machine frame decelerating the load and transported into the field housing (Zheng and Wangping 2013).The process take place in a friction of second. The disengagement is also easy as once the field has been started degrade, the flux falls and the armature detached. Air gap is necessary between the springs which is used to embrace the armature from its equivalent contact surface.

Figure1: Components used in Electromagnetic braking system

(Source:Matscheko, Jajtic and Siemens 2015)

Disc liner:This portion of the braking system converts the kinetic energy into heat. High temperature generated by the kinetic energy can affect the lining if the lining is not to capable of surviving it without our gassing as it decreases the power of breaking or excessive wear as often it leads to replacement of parts (Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). The lining must be soft but heat and tough resistant material. Lining are composed of high coefficient of dynamic friction which are mounted as a solid metal backing while utilizing high temperature rivets and adhesives.

Blacking coil:Generally, a conductor is wounded around a form or core to generate electromagnet. If electricity conceded over a coil, certain magnetic field will be generated.Winding or turn is referred to a loop of wire whichconsist of one or more wounds(Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). Taps are the electrical connection terminals which is frequently used as electronic circuit. This taps are wounded around a coil which could be coated with wrapped and varnish along with insulating tape in order to generate secure and additional insulation in the area. Windings are referred to coil which are assembly with more or one set of taps(Panosyan et al. 2016).

Tension Spring:Tension spring is used to store mechanical energy as an elastic component. Appropriateness of spring could be differ depending on the operation environment, build material and design. Generally, springs could be constructed with lot of various type of materials. If the spring is in compressed, the force is exerted is proportional to its change in length. It generates a strong magnetic field while wire passes through the canter of the coil (Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). There are a huge advantage of the electromagnet over the permanent magnet. In the electro magnet the magnetic field can be controlled through the electric current.

Battery:A battery is used to convert chemical energy to electrical energy. Generally this type of batteries are consist of few voltaic cells which consist of two half cells containing cations and anions. Two cells contains different electrodes which are separated with each other. The separation enables the ions flow and also prevents mixing the electrolytes. Theelectromotive force of half cells are determined by the ability (Bachmann 2014). To drive electric current from the peripheral to the outward of the cell. The net EMF of the cell is the alteration among the EMF of its half-cells which was initially predicted by Volta. Therefore, if the electrodes are consist of EMF and, then the net EMF is in other words, the net EMF is the variance concerning the decrease capacities of the half-reactions.

Final Design

The system has been designed accordingly which is capable of generating required force to stop heavy and medium vehicles without losing control over the automobile . The designed are constructed while assuring that the generated torque by breakers is high enough to cross the torque of the vehicles (Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). The proposed design is also appropriate to transform kinetic energy into heat energy. The breaks will be almost follow the same principle of typical brakes. However, it is more effective than the typical breaks as the operation could be controlled through electricas the power source for transmitting the torque mechanically (Lostadoet al.2016). The proposed system is encompassed of two separate bodies along with two electric coils to generate enough flux. The flux will flow through the magnet body to the armatures the coil. The springs are also comprised to enable high electromagnetic filed. One of the most important aspect of the system is it is capable of operate in both dry and oil medium. Specification of the proposed design is following:

  • Design modifications and assembly customization can be made in easy ways

  • The maximum attained speed varies from 1800 to 5500 RPM

  • Operatable in both oil and in dry

  • The bore sizes varies from 1.2 to 5.1”

  • The static torque developed varies from 20 to 2600 lb-ft

  • 1.4 to 6.5” length; 2.8 to 9.6” diameter

System test:

The system was checked properly in order to identify any certain problems while conducting breaking information. System test is necessary in order understand the project progression and successfulness. To evaluate the proposed design the system is analysed and the results are measured for validation (Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). There are mainly two cases which needs to be validate, in presence of current and presence of current. This two cases resembles the brake disengaged and brake engaged scenario.

Brake disengaged:In the state where the electromagnet is invigorated by the movement of electricity in the windings as a result it attracts the disc near itself. While in these process it correspondents the spring alongside the electromagnet. The free variation of cork is initiated which could be connected to shaft along with an integral hub, engaged with iron disc. (Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). It enable the power flow from the

The system has been designed accordingly which is capable of generating required force to stop heavy and medium vehicles without losing control over the automobile . The designed are constructed while assuring that the generated torque by breakers is high enough to cross the torque of the vehicles (Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). The proposed design is also appropriate to transform kinetic energy into heat energy. The breaks will be almost follow the same principle of typical brakes. However, it is more effective than the typical breaks as the operation could be controlled through electricas the power source for transmitting the torque mechanically (Lostado et al.2016). The proposed system is encompassed of two separate bodies along with two electric coils to generate enough flux. The flux will flow through the magnet body to the armatures the coil. The springs are also comprised to enable high electromagnetic filed. One of the most important aspect of the system is it is capable of operate in both dry and oil medium. Specification of the proposed design is following:

1. Design modifications and assembly customization can be made in easy ways
2. The maximum attained speed varies from 1800 to 5500 RPM
3. Operatable in both oil and in dry 
4. The bore sizes varies from 1.2 to 5.1”
5. The static torque developed varies from 20 to 2600 lb-ft
6. 1.4 to 6.5” length; 2.8 to 9.6” diameter

System test:

The system was checked properly in order to identify any certain problems while conducting breaking information. System test is necessary in order understand the project progression and successfulness. To evaluate the proposed design thinking the system is analysed and the results are measured for validation (Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). There are mainly two cases which needs to be validate, in presence of current and presence of current. This two cases resembles the brake disengaged and brake engaged scenario.

Brake disengaged:In the state where the electromagnet is invigorated by the movement of electricity in the windings as a result it attracts the disc near itself. While in these process it correspondents the spring alongside the electromagnet. The free variation of cork is initiated which could be connected to shaft along with an integral hub, engaged with iron disc. (Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). It enable the power flow from the propeller shaft to rear axle without facing type of disruption.

Brake engaged:When driver initiates the brakes of electromagnetic breaking system, it just cut off the electric supply to the electromagnet, as a result the iron disc which was beforehand betrothed with the electromagnets gets detached due to the high tension of spring. Then, the cork and iron disc comes to contact with each other and rotates along with shaft. The contact yields resistance which hinders the motion of the cork which slows dawns the shaft eventually.

propeller shaft to rear axle without facing type of disruption.

Brake engaged:When driver initiates the brakes of electromagnetic breaking system, it just cut off the electric supply to the electromagnet, as a result the iron disc which was beforehand betrothed with the electromagnets gets detached due to the high tension of spring. Then, the cork and iron disc comes to contact with each other and rotates along with shaft. The contact yields resistance which hinders the motion of the cork which slows dawns the shaft eventually.

Figure 3: Power off State: spring deflection

(Source:Bachmann 2014)

Figure 4: Power on state: spring deflection

(Source:Bachmann 2014)

Evaluation:

Function:Armature and group’s stator is comprised with electromagnetic brake after applying direct electricity.If stator was transferred with the direct electricity, as a result the air gap flu into contact under the friction face of the stator. Braking is initiated with this approach. In order to realise the brake, LF voltage supply interrupt the armature plate which is dragged back to its previous position through the preloaded spring. The break will now release from residual torque (Totala et al.2015). Assembly information: Maintenance and Mounting work must be conducted by skilled and adequately trained persons.

Attach the z-pole fixing wires to D.C. voltage while following the specification of the name plate of the stator.

Place the armature on the shaft and fix the operating air gap sly. Then, Checked air gap while utilizing feeler gauge. The armature with flange hub is attached utilizing the setscrew.

The stator is to be screwed to an even not conveyed surface, cantered externally or internally.

Maintenance:The air gap must be monitored at consistent basis.If the value excessed than the limit the air gap had to readjust to a certain limit.The air gap need to be readjusted in case, the value exceeds the limit.Minor scoring on the friction faces is often observed which is considered as a normal factor and can be ignored as well. (Sharma, Dhingra and Pathak 2015). While evaluating, very much focus is necessary on the friction faces as it should not reface. If it happens, the existed functionality of the braking system can be effected. The brakes can be readjusted several time till the readjusted limit exceeds. In that case, brake needs to be replaced.

Future Scope:

As the technology is evolving rapidly, the application of such technologies is adopted by various sector including the automobile industry. There are several research currently taking places to develop and enhance a better braking system. The innovation around braking system is considered as a one of the hot topic. The enhanced breaking system will not only assist to stop automobiles, it will also assist to prevent accidents in populated area. For instance, Electromagnetic braking system can be designed to hold robotic equipment which can help to prevent damage of such equipment during power loss. Further, the electromagnetic braking system prevent the danger that can occur from the extended use of brake beyond their competency to dissipate hot temperature.

Conclusion:

The conceptual design of the electromagnetic system has been proposed with proper figures to visualize the working principle. The system has been designed accordingly which is capable of generating required force to stop heavy and medium vehicles without losing control over the automobile. The designed are constructed while assuring that the generated torque by breakers is high enough to cross the torque of the vehicles. The system design contains two magnet body and two electric coils for constructing enough amount of flux which will flow from magnet body to the armatures situated around the coils. In the output plate, two teeth have been installed. Electromagnetic braking system allows to control the magnetic field through current. Further, the preliminary design and detailed designed has been demonstrated with development. After finalizing the design, a system analysis is also conducted to check the effectiveness and identify certain risks. The proposed design of the braking system is compromised with both electric and mechanical components. Even though the typical braking system can offer same functionality as the electromagnetic braking system. The electromagnetic braking system is capable of offering optimal control through the current.

References:

1. Bachmann, M., Avilov, V., Gumenyuk, A. and Rethmeier, M., 2014. Experimental and numerical investigation of an electromagnetic weld pool support system for high power laser beam welding of austenitic stainless steel. Journal of Materials Processing Technology214(3), pp.578-591.
2. He, R., Liu, X. and Liu, C., 2013. Brake performance analysis of ABS for eddy current and electrohydraulic hybrid brake system. Mathematical Problems in Engineering2013.
3. Lostado, R., Roldán, P.V., Martinez, R.F. and Mac Donald, B.J., 2016. Design and optimization of an electromagnetic servo braking system combining finite element analysis and weight-based multi-objective genetic algorithms. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology30(8), pp.3591-3605.
4. Matscheko, G. and Jajtic, Z., Siemens AG, 2015. Conveyor system comprising an electromagnetic brake. U.S. Patent 9,150,116.
5. Panosyan, A., Schramm, S.H., Hemmelmann, J.E., Sihler, C.M., Papini, F., Dong, X. and Huber, J., General Electric Co, 2016. Electromagnetic braking systems and methods. U.S. Patent 9,413,217.
6. Prajapati, K., Vibhandik, R., Baria, D. and Patel, Y., 2017. Electromagnetic Braking System. International Journal of Scientific Research in Engineering (IJSRE) Vol1(3).
7. Raj, D., Mahindrakar, M., Tiwari, A. and Pritesh, H., 2018. Intelligent Electromagnetic Braking System. Journal of Instrumentation Technology and Innovations8(2), pp.25-30.
8. Sharma, R.C., Dhingra, M. and Pathak, R.K., 2015. Braking systems in railway vehicles. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology4(1), pp.206-211.
9. Totala, N.B., Bhosle, P., Jarhad, S., Jadhav, S. and Kuchekar, K., 2015, April. Electromagnetic Braking System. In National Conference on Innovations in Mechanical Software Engineering (Vol. 6, p. 8).
10. Yadav, Y.K., Shah, A.K., Yadav, J.K. and Patel, J.P., 2018. Electromagnetic Braking System.
11. Zheng, Z. and Wangping, J., 2013. Electromagnetic Brake System. China Educational Technology & Equipment24, p.058.