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Total Quality Management Assignments Solution
The purpose of the report is to provide an analysis on the concept of quality management in business. The whole course of the discussion is based on a luxury hotel in The United Kingdom that is Stoke Park in Buckinghamshire. In order to carry on the discussion in an integrated manner, the study opens by giving an introduction of what is meant by quality in terms of business and the notion of quality from the perspective of customers (Reijers, Mendling and Recker 2015). The main focus of the study in this discussion will be on the measures taken by the hotel in order to maintain quality. The study further discusses the two main aspects of quality maintenance that are inspection and assurance with the illustrations of accreditation standards. The study will also be highlighting the expert’s theories of quality management. Further analysis will be done identifying the similarities and differences between the philosophical approaches of the scholars. On the other hand, the discussion will also elaborate on the role played by self assessment and the employee benefits generated by self assignment process. Along with that, the paper will also be discussing the importance of communication and record keeping in the entire management process of quality. Another essential part of quality management, is staff consultancy will be discussed in the report along. The final part of the report gives suggestive measures through the service quality of the above mentioned resort can be improved. The report gives a summarization of the whole discussion at the end.
1. Discussion on definitions of quality in terms of business and services provision.
Quality has different meanings to different people. Point out the different definitions and quality especially from the point of the customer (minimum of four definitions)
According to Reijers, Mendling and Recker (2015), a quality service or product helps a company to generate huge profit for which most of the companies focuses more on the maintaining quality so that customer hold will be retained. It is largely considered that the best quality is the key factor through which a company can boost its sales margin. Oakland, (2014) suggests the maintenance of quality includes every step whether it is offering products or offering of service. For example, businesses like luxury hotels and resorts obtain their reputation by maintaining quality in providing service. They strictly eye on the maintenance of quality so that they will be able to retain the customers.
There have been many definition of quality that has developed over time. Some of them will be discussed below:
As suggested by American Society of Quality, quality is a subjective term which can differ from person to person (Oakland 2014). The institute states that according to the technical perspective, the meaning of the term quality can be in two ways that are: the characteristics of the product or service that are capable of satisfy the implied requirement of the product or service and a deficiency free service or product.
On the other hand, Peter Drucker is of the opinion that quality does not refer to the element that a manufacturer or provider put into in; rather quality is a result that a customer gets from the product or service and becomes enthusiastic to pay for it (Reijers, Mendling and Recker 2015).
As defined by Joseph M Juran, quality is ‘Fitness for use’ and that fitness can be interpreted by customers in different ways (Goetsch and Davis 2014). Meanwhile the Six Sigma defines quality as “Number of defects per million opportunities” (Oakland 2014).
The quality of service or product generally alludes to degree that is largely perceived to be similar with customer satisfaction. On a larger picture quality is considered as perceptual and conditional (Oakland 2014). To be more specific, it is a subjective attribute to a greater extent. However, most of the definitions suggest that there is no such meaning of quality in a specific until it is connected to a particular object or activities. For example, if a company provides service, it is required to meet the expectations of the customers as well as the satisfaction of the customers. Beside of customer satisfaction and requirement, the service needs to fulfill the purpose of the service for which it is made of or designed of (Goetsch and Davis 2014). For example, a hotel or resort must give special attention to assurance of a good and healthy environment within the premise of hotel, a reasonable tariff of the products in terms of rooms and other products and services offered, hospitality, good behaviors of the employees of the hotel and so on in order to maintain quality in the hotel and resort.
According to the modern phenomena, quality is also included in the after sales service like warranty, response to complaints and so on (Reijers, Mendling and Recker 2015). In case of service provider, companies need to give special attention that the complaints lodged by customers are addressed properly. In order to retain the loyalty of the customers, such aspects must be on the agenda of the quality management so that sales margin will also be increased.
Show how the hotels in question use any of the definitions
The luxury resort Stoke Park located in Buckinghamshire is privately owned leisure estate which offers its customers the benefit of spotting. Over the years, through its premium customer centric service, the resort has been achieved the position of the luxuiriest and best resort in the hotel industry of the United Kingdom. A royal treatment is given to the customers so that they will visit the resort again. The quality also remains on the highest priority of the hotel so that reputation of the hotel is maintained in the industry. The well trained employees are appointed who assures best service to the customers. The best talents from the hotel management universities of the country and outside the country are hired in order to assure quality service. Even though the price range of the service provided by the hotel is considerably high, a major attention is given on the premium quality service. Premium quality service is assured by the hotel while ensuring the expectations of the customers are fulfilled. The housekeeping employees are trained to maintain the ethical aspects while providing service to the customers during their absence like cleaning service. It is ensured that the complaints lodged by customers are given urgent attention so that customers remained satisfied.
2. Illustrate the processes of inspection and assurance
Explain what inspection and assurance are means in quality control.
Inspection and assurance are essential part of quality service. Several processes are undertaken in the course of inspection and assurance.
Planning is considered as the most crucial and initial part of inspection and assurance (Reijers, Mendling and Recker 2015). In this part, service provider make plans of the ways through which customers can be satisfied. While planning, several aspects like policies, standards, customers’ feedbacks and so on are considered in the process of planning of further improvement using benchmarking, flow charts, and cost benefit analysis and so on.
This is the most important part of quality planning for the successful management quality (Oakland 2014). In this process, an overall regular evaluation and analysis is done in order to identify in order to understand whether the service or products met the standard level or not. Ire
Total quality management
In order to maintain quality, several quality management programmes are conducted which set some standards (Goetsch and Davis 2014). The programs include auditing, training, follow up sessions and so on.
Explain how accreditation standards such as :
International Standard Organisation (ISO): The international organization aims to screen whether standard quality are fulfilled by the hotel or not (Moratis and Cochius 2017). The company upon the fulfilment of standard of qualities provides certificates to the hotel. However, in case of breach of quality standards, the organization might withdraw its certification which adds value to the reputation of the hotel.
The British Standard Institution (BSI): The role of BSI is similar to the role of ISO. However, BSI is limited within the country while ISO is a regulatory board all over the globe (Dale and Plunkett 2017). The main purpose of BSI is to conduct regulation over the activities of the resort in terms of fulfilling the standards of quality. Like ISO it also certifies the hotel as a premium hotel and can cancel its certification if the hotel fails to meet the quality standard of it.
European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM): The role of EFQM is crucial since it determines the standards of quality of the resort by initiating the total quality development programs (Dale and Plunkett 2017). The whole idea of European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM) is to provide a certification upon the sustaination of quality standards.
3. Discuss a range of approaches to quality management
Identify clearly what some of the Quality Management gurus or philosophers have stated in their philosophical approaches to quality. (Take at least 4 of them and then relate their approach)
Dr. W. Edwards Deming is of the opinion that quality is a subjective term which can differ from person to person (O’Neill, Sohal and Teng 2016). Agreeing this Philip B. Crosby states that according to the technical perspective, the meaning of the term quality can be in two ways that are: the characteristics of the product or service that are capable of satisfy the implied requirements of the product or service and a deficiency free service or product.
On the other hand, Anderson, Rungtusanatham and Schroeder (2014) suggested that quality does not refer to the element that a manufacturer or provider put into in; rather quality is a result that a customer gets from the product or service and becomes enthusiastic to pay for it (O’Neill, Sohal and Teng 2016). As defined by Joseph M Juran, quality is something more than a product or service and that can be interpreted by customers in different ways (Juran 2013).
4. a. Explain the similarities and differences between the different methods
While quality planning is considered as the most crucial and initial part of inspection and assurance, quality assurance is the most important part of quality planning for the successful management quality. In this part, service provider make plans of the ways through which customers can be satisfied. At the time planning, several aspects like policies, standards, customers’ feedbacks and so on are considered in the process of planning of further improvement using benchmarking, flow charts, and cost benefit analysis and so on. However, in this process, an overall regular evaluation and analysis is done in order to identify in order to understand whether the service or products met the standard level or not. On the other hand, Total Quality Management is a method in order to maintain quality, several quality management programmes are conducted which set some standards. The programs include auditing, training, follow up sessions and so on.
Explain similarities and differences between philosophical approaches
Similarities: Both Joseph M. Juran and Deming were of same opinion that in order to maintain quality; customer needs to be on the central focus (Anderson, Rungtusanatham and Schroeder 2014). Both the philosophers emphasised on the importance of quality planning keeping customer requirements in mind. Juran further agreed with Deming on development management in order to offer quality service as well as product. Hence both Deming and Juran stated that leadership plays an integral role in assuring quality. Instead both have opined that leadership is the key factor of quality product and service since they direct the management process of quality. Meanwhile Philip B. Crosby agreed with both the philosophers on the importance of customer satisfaction in terms of quality.
Differences: Like similarities there are certain differences between the philosophical approaches of Deming and Juran. While Deming defied quality as customer expectation, Juran defined quality as ‘fitness for use’ which opposes the notion of meeting mere expectations as fitness implies the parameter that can vary from one customer to other (Juran 2013). On one hand, Deming’s viewpoint states leadership and management as a support in managing quality. On the other hand, Juran’s theory of leadership centres on leadership and he stated that more than just mere managing, leaders must direct the whole process of management of quality, from planning to deliver. However, Philip B. Crosby’s notion was completely different from the two as he interpreted quality in two ways: characteristics able to satisfy customer need and its deficiency free quality.
5. Report on the role of self-assessment in order to determine an organization’s current ‘state of health’
Define self-assessment, explain methods of self-assessment such:
In the process of self assessment, the current practices of quality management are evaluated in order to determine whether the customer satisfactions are aligned with quality standards (Massa, Tucci and Afuah 2017).
Judging on Current Practices
In this stage, the current practices of quality management are evaluated as to whether the practices met the standards of quality or not.
Benchmarks with the future
The future benchmarks are set as future goals to achieve in terms of improvements.
Show the benefits
The benefits of the self assessment stage are considerable since it gives the opportunity to improve the quality of the hotel keeping the customer requirements in mind.
6. Evaluate the importance of communication and record keeping
Explain what is communication in an organisation is.
Communication is a holds major importance in an organization. Through communication, a company can understand the issues and challenges creating obstacles in the pathway of the growth of the company (Saruhan 2014). With the assistance of proper communication in an organization the possible issues and challenges can be mitigated (Castells 2013). It can be understood that the whole idea of the communication is to initiate a smooth business process within an organization.
Explain some ways of communication such as formal and informal. Horizontal and vertical and so on. Give reasons why communication is important
There are certain ways of communication such as formal and horizontal.
While formal communication refers to the verbal communication through which information are interchanged by the mode of pre defined channels (Castells 2013). On the other hand, the informal communication eludes to the information interchange through multiple rather any mode of channels.
On the other hand, vertical communication refers to the interchange of information between several departments within the hierarchy of an organization whereas; the horizontal communication alludes to the notion of interchange of information among divisions, departments and most importantly among individuals (Saruhan 2014).
What is record keeping - the types of records can a company can keep?
Record keeping alludes to the documentation of activities through which the procedures, activities and other important aspects are tracked (McKemmish and Gilliland 2013). Record keeping helps a company to give the direction of progress of the business.
There are several types of record keeping which includes documentation of account related details, documentation of legal aspects, documentation banking and insurance, documentation of sales, profit, revenue and so on.
What are the benefits or the importance of communicating and keeping records
Record keeping and communication gives an idea of business progress as to whether a business is moving ahead or lagging behind. Communication makes it easy to resolve an issue while the issue and even addresses an before an issue is emerged.
7. Follow guidelines on the stages of staff consultation necessary for effective implementation of a quality scheme
This task is asking about the guidelines to be followed in a staff consultation process:
Before implementation of a quality management plan, a meeting with the employees, accountable for maintaining quality will be organized (Anderson and Burney 2018).
The employees during the meeting will be briefed about the purpose of the quality management plan and its necessity to maintain the reputation of the resort.
During session, the employees will urged by the managed regarding cooperation and commitment towards the successful implementation of the plan and maintaining quality standard (Anderson and Burney 2018).
During the time of implementation, it needs to assured that the employees have a better communication with each other.
The quality management team will be informed about the progress of the quality management plan (Anderson and Burney 2018).
8. Propose new systems or modifications to existing systems that could improve service quality
a. Talk about a system of continuous improvement that can be adopted or use in quality improvement or quality management process:
More focus should be given on documentation so that every aspects related to quality will be tracked. For example, the customer feedbacks and customer complaints need to be documented and then audited.
The Plan-Do-Study-Act model can be used in order to accelerate quality improvement (Moule, Evans and Pollard 2013). Four steps will be followed:
Plan- Planning of the observation and collection of data.
Do – Experimentation of the plan on small sample size.
Study – Analyse the collected data and its results.
Act- Modifies the plan by implementing necessary changes.
Standards of quality will be revised based on analysis and then will be put into action.
Throughout the whole process and even after the implementation of necessary changes, services improvement process will be monitored.
The follow up session as consultation with staffs will be arranged in order to assure successful implementation of the quality management plan.
Thus, in order to conclude, it is apt to assert that the entire discussion gave a clear understanding on the maintenance of quality while delivering a product or service. The discussion started with defining the term quality. Several interpretations of the term were highlighted in this regard. The report also included the adoption of quality by one of the luxury resorts in the United Kingdom, Stoke Park. The study further threw the light on assurance and inspection, the two main aspects of quality maintenance. The study also highlighted different philosopher’s notions of quality while elaborating on the similarities and differences between their approaches and the methods of quality management. Meanwhile the role of self assessment and the benefits and its advantages has have been discussed in the study. The report also shed light on the importance of communication and record keeping in the entire management process of quality. Most importantly, the study concludes with recommendations in order improve quality management process.
1. Anderson, H. and Burney, J.P., 2018. Collaborative inquiry: A postmodern approach to organizational consultation. In Changing Organizations (pp. 117-140). Routledge.
2. Anderson, J.C., Rungtusanatham, M. and Schroeder, R.G., 2014. A theory of quality management underlying the Deming management method. Academy of management Review, 19(3), pp.472-509.
3. Castells, M., 2013. Communication power. Oxford University Press.
4. Dale, B.G. and Plunkett, J.J., 2017. Quality costing. Routledge.
5. Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014. Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson.
6. Juran, J.M., 2013. Juran on leadership for quality. Simon and Schuster.
7. Massa, L., Tucci, C.L. and Afuah, A., 2017. A critical assessment of business model research. Academy of Management Annals, 11(1), pp.73-104.
8. McKemmish, S. and Gilliland, A., 2013. Archival and recordkeeping research: Past, present and future. Research methods: information systems, and contexts, pp.79-112.
9. Moratis, L. and Cochius, T., 2017. ISO 26000: The business guide to the new standard on social responsibility. Routledge.
10. Moule, P., Evans, D. and Pollard, K., 2013. Using the plan-do-study-act model: pacesetters experiences. International journal of health care quality assurance, 26(7), pp.593-600.
11. O’Neill, P., Sohal, A. and Teng, C.W., 2016. Quality management approaches and their impact on firms? financial performance–An Australian study. International Journal of Production Economics, 171, pp.381-393.
12. Oakland, J.S., 2014. Total quality management and operational excellence: text with cases. Routledge.
13. Reijers, H.A., Mendling, J. and Recker, J., 2015. Business process quality management. In Handbook on Business Process Management 1 (pp. 167-185). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
14. Saruhan, N., 2014. The Role of Corporate Communication Skills and Perception of Justice during Organizational Change Process. Business & Economics Research Journal, 5(4)