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TBMI19 Medical Information Systems Proof Reading Services
Medical Information Systems
The given case is regarding the medical information systems which represent the data storage and retrieval of the medical field and history of the patient’s disease. It is the system which provides which is needed by the health care centers SNOMED CT approaches or hospitals on daily basis to make medical processes easy and successful. There are different approaches which are used in the data storage and usage through these medical information systems. Two of the approaches which are discussed in the essay are SNOMED CT approach and open EHR approaches which are helpful in the management of the data for the patient’s mother’s diabetes mellitus and the patient’s father’s stroke.
Electronic health records is the arrangement and preparation of records related to the medical field. It involves all the records like medical records about the treatments and the history of patients’ diseases, investigation report of patient medical history, prescriptions and notes by the doctors, etc. The records are important to keep as they are the source for information and a source of knowing the historical data about the health of the patient. It also helps in exchanging the health related information among the health service providers. It helps in foreseeing the health problems which might occur in future and also serve as a basis for research on the health related topics. It is also used as a legal proof for future reference.
SNOMED CT approach is the Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine- Clinical terms approach which is a standardized approach used by the physicians and the other health care providers for the exchange of health related information among each other by the electronic means. This approach contains more than 3 lakh medical concepts which are segmented into different locations, features and structure. Every concept has been given a separate number so that each of them can be used easily in the complex situations. The numerical reference system to the concepts helps in exchange of the information easily to provide better care to the health providers. This c0oncept was developed by the college of American Pathologists and England’s National Health Service (Campbell, et al., 2015).
openEHR approaches is a standard means of turning the data from the physical form to the electronic form to make it suitable for the universal application for all. This EHR refers to Electronic Health Records and the related systems. In modern healthcare systems, eHealth has become an important term which is been used for providing health services at every scale. It is basically a system or software at different levels. This approach helps in utilizing the health information which has been stored to make good decisions and for the research of the queries of the medical field (Taylor, 2008).
Today Health information Systems is a huge business and there are different approaches which are available in the market for the use of storing the data and then using it for the healthcare complex problems. These software’s or approaches are expensive and many of the countries not even capable of affording these tools. These two approaches are used in the health care sector for making the processes easier and for making the complex issues simplified. The two have different features and characteristics which can be compared to know the better and suitable approach for the implementation in electronic Health systems and for finding out that which one is better for storing and retrieving the information (Christensen & Ellingsen, 2016).
SNOMED CT is the complete healthcare approach which includes diagnosis, Symptoms. Processes, organisms and body structures whereas SNOMED CT ensures quality in the content of health related information and this resource have a validated clinical content.
There are various components of this approach, among which the first one is Concepts which represent clinical thoughts and every concept is numbered to identify them easily. These concepts are varied from general point of view to the details. The data which is detailed is recorded and then accessed whenever required. The second component is Descriptorswhich convert the normal terms into the concepts. The two most important descriptors are “Fully Specified Name” and “Synonym”. The “Fully Specified Name” is when the unclear and vague descriptions are used to convert the data into the meaningful terms and “Synonyms” usually refer to the same meaning of any term. For e.g. Infectious disease of lung is the Fully Specified Name whereas Lung infection can be a synonym for the same. The third component isRelationshipswhich link different concepts with the same or related meaning like a viral pneumonia is the child of the general pneumonia. So Relationships are represented as the hierarchy of SNOMED CT concepts (Taylor, 2008).
SNOMED CT is a tool which covers health related projects widely. The tool can be utilized to explain the medical history of the patient or the details of the medical procedures taken for the improvement of health of the patient and many other details. The health service providers can record the data of the patients. A restricted set of terminologies are used in the SNOMED CT approach but the approach is on global level and adjust according to the requirements of each country or area. The approach in short is, complete, flexible and measurable.
The approach supports different languages and is used in different countries. The approach has an inbuilt framework which manages different languages. The approach is currently available in US and UK English, Spanish, Swedish and Danish. The work is going on in progress for the languages of French, Portuguese, Dutch and many other languages. SNOMED CT is the language of HER i.e. Electronic Health Records
There is no universal approach for the implementation of SNOMED CT. Different ways are adopted for reaching the outcomes. There are many alternative configurations in which the SNOMED CT is implemented in the one of the component. The approach can be used in many ways like it can be used for the linkage of knowledge, for storing health information, for data retrieval or entire features of the SNOMED CT can be utilized (Taylor, 2008).
OpenEHR is a kind of platform approach where there are no set of standards. It is the comprehensive logical approach wh9ch helps in the fields of ehealth and services infrastructure. It deals the challenges of the ehealth and also handles the complex issues by being flexible in the clinical works. The openEHR has proved to be one of the biggest developments in the Information Technology for Healthcare. The health practitioners are the ultimate users of this approach and it helps the vendors and the end users to adopt the standardized computing approach which avoids their needs to develop their own back end systems. The approach helps in recording any clinical information which includes the complex data of labs, diagnosis, education material, etc. The approach integrates with the technological tools like SNOMED CT for better decision making by the integration. The tool can also be integrated with the existing information systems of the hospitals and with the other databases which helps in retrieving and using the information (Christensen & Ellingsen, 2016).
The approach of OpenEHR involves:
1. Archetypes which are the basic building blocks at the clinical concept level
2. Templates which combine the archetypes to crate the clinical data
3. Terminology Value sets which helps in making the coding for the data which can be based on the technologies like SNOMED CT and others.
OpenEHR process has an online collaboration with the clinicians and other experts to be sure that the archetypes and templates are valid and approved. The design of OpenEHR is mainly to measure the health related information from the small systems of desktop to the personalized lifelong care for the individuals (Álvarez, et al., 2015).
SNOMED CT coverts every clinical term and then relate it to a concept like for e.g. Fever, which is a temperature of the body beyond the normal range of body temperature. This system helps in delivering the benefits to the health care services. This technology is used to code, record and retrieve the data when it is required. Like diabetes mellitus can be used for a disorder of endocrine system. SNOMED CT analyzes records right from the history of the disease to the treatment of the disease (Allones, et al., 2013).
These approaches help in conducting the researches and evaluate the quality of the care given for the disease. It also evaluates the cost of care and also helps in designing the effective guidelines for the treatments of the disease. It is an automatic process which reduces the amount of efforts required and also reduces the time involved in the maintenance of records (Bahga & Madisetti, 2013).
Health care records are now a part of the clinical practice and these help in taking care of the individuals. These records are used in different ways for different objectives which varies from one organisation to another and from country to country. This helps in maintaining the highs standards of quality and build standards in the health care informatics. The health care information can be of different types like data of patients, medical knowledge, data of population and communication between the patients and the health care providers.
Allones, J.L., Taboada, M., Martinez, D., Lozano, R. & Sobrido, M.J. 2013, "SNOMED CT module-driven clinical archetype management", Journal of biomedical informatics, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 388.
Bahga, A. & Madisetti, V.K. 2013, "A Cloud-based Approach for Interoperable Electronic Health Records (EHRs)", IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 894-906.
Campbell, W.S., Campbell, J.R., Pedersen, J., McClay, J.C., Rao, P. & Bastola, D. 2015, "An alternative database approach for management of SNOMED CT and improved patient data queries", Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol. 57, pp. 350-357.
Christensen, B. & Ellingsen, G. 2016, "Evaluating Model-Driven Development for large-scale EHRs through the openEHR approach", International journal of medical informatics, vol. 89, pp. 43.
Taylor, P. 2008, From Patient Data to Medical Knowledge, BMJ Books.
Tilve Álvarez, C.M., Ayora Pais, A., Ruíz Romero, C., Llamas Gómez, D., Carrajo García, L., Blanco García, F.J. & Vázquez González, G. 2015, "Integrating medical and research information: a big data approach", Studies in health technology and informatics, vol. 210, pp. 707.