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Nowadays, people have been travelling around the breath and length of earth with different objectives. The reason behind this could be anything leisure, business or educations which come under a wide classification of tourism. The development information technology and transformation of world into global society has resulted in significant growth of tourism all over the world in current years. Tourism is the major reason for the improved levels of intercultural contact. It plays a major role in the local economy of that state or city. It not only assists city’ economy but it is also responsible for socio-cultural effect on population. In this field, urban tourism is becoming one of the fastest emerging tourism sectors all over the world. The unknown opportunities and increasing negative effects on local people however are highlighting the significance of dealing with this area in context of urban economy, society, cultural specifics and environment (Yildiz and Akbulut, 2013). Urban tourism is among the growing business sectors in travel and tourism industry which has been emphasizing on safeguarding of natural environment and refreshment and entertainment of visitors within the tourist places.
This report discusses and explains about the different aspects of urban tourism in London. It includes a general introduction about urban tourism and reviews the literature on the topic by considering the opinions and thoughts of different scholars. To understand the concept of urban tourism, Borough Market in London is selected and a field research is conducted on the chosen market. Borough Market is one of the oldest and largest food markets in London that is very popular as retail and wholesale food market in Southwark, London. Moreover, there is the discussion about the research methodology which helps in collecting the data about the chosen topic. The major purpose of the report is to understand the importance and role of urban tourism at Borough Market in London. It shows how it can help in the development of local community and its people.
Urban tourism is significant terms that describes multiple tourist activities under which a city is the major destination and a place of interest. Before understanding urban tourism, it is very important to know about the urbanization that refers to the proportion of population in cities rather than rural and distinct locations. This proportion of people is the major reason behind urbanization in various cities. As per a statistics, 14% of the population was urban in 1900 that has increased to 47% in 2000 and now predictions for 2031 are 61% (McKercher, 2008). It is the chief reason behind the growth and development of urban tourism across the world. This type of tourism is comparatively complex and old. Cities were always objective of many trips and journeys although it becomes more famous occurrence since 50s. Urban tourism is a wide concept that includes different types of entertainment activities which are held in cities. The development of urban environment and the aptness of all facilities and services are great attractions of tourists. It includes both suitable and good transport connections, effective trade and better atmosphere for shopping, developed and modern technology and information, modern urban land, urban culture and well-blooming market (Mason, 2015). Thus, various people decide many types of cities as destination to spend their holidays and urban tourism is these cities are very popular.
In generally, urban tourism is not only relevant to the leisure tourism in the urban locations. It is one of the major components but there are many other elements for urban tourism like employment, business, and infrastructures, visiting relatives and friends and fashion purpose. Urban tourism plays a vital role in achieving sustainable development of urban areas. This type of tourism is multi-cultural in nature, but still this has gained very small attention. Due to tourists, many cities get recognized for huge potential of captivating the people from different parts of the world (Maciocco and Serreli, 2009). Moreover, it can be stated that urban tourism plays an important role in the social and economic development of the areas.
Literature Review on Urban Tourism
Tourism gains its significance as an industrial activity as the largest economic sector of the world. There are various authors who have argued that tourism is the largest industry in the world. During past 50 years, tourism has been noticed by unexpected expansion. Nowadays, there is a continuous improvement in the urban tourism activities. According to Behdost and Pouahmmad (2015) urban tourism is one of the economic and social forces in urban environment. It includes a sector which manages and promotes different experiences and products to the population who have a broad range of preferences, motivations and cultural perspectives (Behdost and Pouahmmad, 2015). In this context, Eide, Fuglsang and Sundbo (2017) stated that the word urban tourism as a standard of modern type of lifestyle associated in densely-populated cities. This type of tourism was started in 1950s and it is evolving very fast and it has become very important thing in the second half of 20th century. Urban tourism is to explain different tourist activities in which a city is major destination and it is also the place of interest (Eide, Fuglsang and Sundbo, 2017).
Ashworth and Page (2011) stated that urban tourism provides many products and services which work as the major attractions for tourists. These products are such as event, specific place (cultural entertainment, museum), particular location, city services and urban infrastructure development (building, architecture, transport). Relatively, urban tourism is very much involved and old and it looks at the visitors to evolve tourism functions in tourism destinations. According to the data of UNWTO, Urban Tourism is a kind of tourism activity that takes place in urban location with its natural attributes featured by non-agricultural economy like manufacturing, administration and trade and services (Ashworth and Page, 2011). Urban destinations provide a wide and varied range of architectural, cultural, social, technological and natural experiences for the business and leisure travellers. As per United Nations, in the year 2015, 54 percent of total population stayed in urban locations and by the year 2030, this figure is estimated to approach 60%. With the other components, tourism makes a core component in the social life, geography and economy of many cities all over the world (UNWTO, 2018). Thus, it can be stated that it is key component in the policies of urban development. This type of tourism can show a driving force in the sustainable development of various countries and cities. Moreover, it contributes to the growth of New Urban Agenda and development goals (Estelaji, Sadeghian and Beyhaghi, 2012).
In relation to urban tourism, Cave and Jollife (2012) entailed that it is made up of two elements i.e. primary elements and secondary elements. Primary elements are such as travellers attractions with the potential to entice tourists. Secondary elements are like transportation modes used by the travellers to reach the urban destination. According to Edwards, Griffin and Hayllar (2008) today, urban tourism is growing very fast in every country across the world. It is offering various benefits to domestic people in different ways. The growth of tourism in urban locations has caused socio-cultural, economic and environmental impacts on the area and its people (Edwards, Griffin and Hayllar, 2008). It has both positive and negative impacts. Behsost and Pourahmmad (2015) explained that it has positive economic impact on the city’s community and its people as there is an increase in the spending of tourists on different services like hotel, accommodation, shopping and food. The positive effects of urban tourism assist to enhance city’s economy and enhance the living standard of community’s people. The number of jobs generated in domestic area in different industries like travel agencies, hotels, restaurants etc. It supports to enhance transportation and infrastructure and creates business opportunities in perspective area. Apart from this, there are some adverse effects of economy in the urban tourism areas. In such type of areas, it is not easy to stay as living cost is very high due to increase in the rate of houses and land. They may face unemployment issues in the off season of tourist arrival in the city (Liszewski, 2014).
As per the viewpoint of Vanhove (2007), urban tourism has some environmental impacts in the city. The natural environments entice the tourists to visit the cities again and again (Vanhove, 2007). Due to urban tourism activities, the local government makes efforts to enhance its natural resources and enhances city’s look also. In contrast to this, Edwards, Griffin and Hayllar (2010) stated that urban tourism has some adverse impact on environment of urban cities. One of the major negative effects is that it can cause different types of pollution in the cities such as noise, air pollution, water pollution etc. Moreover, natural lands are transformed into commercial buildings so it is very difficult to find natural beauty and landscapes (Edwards, Griffin and Hayllar, 2010).
Moreover, Popp (2010) stated that this type of tourism affects the city and its population socially. When more visitors come to any specific area, they have social and cultural effects on that location. It assists the area to enhance the living standard of city’s population. The urban area provides various attractions and well-developed tourism infrastructure (Popp, 2011). When visitors come to urban location from different ethnicity and cultural backgrounds then urban tourism offers various resident opportunities like to know about different languages and become friendly with different people. Because of urban tourism, the domestic community learns various things about different languages and backgrounds (Miller, Merrilees and Coghlan, 2015).
In their article, Pavlic, Portolan and Butorac (2018) stated that urban tourist destinations are confronting pressure on their cultural, socio-economic and natural environments as an outcome of fast expansion of the tourism industry. It can contribute to the degradation of environment, but it also has the ability to help in enhancing the environmental conditions. In the urban locations, the government is actively engaged in developing policies and regulations related to travel and tourism in any specific area (Pavlic, Portolan and Butorac, 2018). Currently, these policies have incorporated a gradually active stance towards tourism that is more visible as a strategic industry for the urban revitalization in the post-industrial cities. Thus, urban tourism has a crucial role in the development of city and its population.
Borough Market in London as Urban Tourism Area
There are various popular destinations where urban tourism is developed. Borough Market of London is one of those urban destinations. Borough Market is one of the oldest and largest markets in London that is involved in offering retail and wholesale food products in Southwark, London. It is providing its services with a market on site courting back to at least 12th century. The buildings were constructed in 1850s and now this market primarily offers specialty food to local people and tourists (Borough Market, 2018). According to Whittle (2018), this market has been at the heart of London city for more than 1000 years. It is one of the most popular places to visit in London, specifically if one loves to eat (Whittle, 2018). Wiens (2018) stated that market was established in the year 1885 and it is the most famous markets in London for fresh organic produces and artisan prepared food products. In this relation, this market is known as one of the most active and thriving markets in London and it is attracting millions of local and foreign travellers every year (Wiens, 2018). With over 100 shops, restaurants and stalls providing a wide range of British foods and dishes from all over the world, the extensive market is the doorway to South London. Considering the increasing number of tourists in the market, Borough market is open from Monday to Saturday with full running from Wednesday to Saturday. All of the shops are not open on Tuesdays and Mondays, but still tourists can find many vegetables and fruit sellers and hot food traders (Raj and Griffin, 2015). As per a report, there are various fantastic and famous food shops in Borough market such as Padella, Arabica and Roast etc.
About this urban destination, Carver and Barkham (2017) stated that Borough Market is among the urban destinations that attracts more visitors and tourists from local and foreign markets. However, the prices of food products at Borough Market are not cheap, but they are of higher quality and there is a wide variety of delicious dishes to try. This is the major reason that it attracts more tourists in London. Locating next to London Bridge, the location of this market is easily approachable for local tourists from the city to shop on different stalls. With international food from every part of the world and street suppliers offering everything from Thai pancakes, duck wraps, paella, various tourists head to this market for the single reason of sampling street food products (Barkham and Carver, 2017). Additionally, Borough market in London is famous destination amongst locals doing weekly grocery shopping as this market offers fruits, fresh meat and fish, spices, cooking elements and organic produces.
Wiens (2018) mentioned that now, it has developed into a sprawling street market that attracts more than 4.5 million local and international tourists every year. The number of tourists is increasing every year. In this area, the urban tourism is developed that has both positive and negative impacts on the surroundings of this market. Firstly, this tourist attraction has economic impact on the community and its people. Borough is functioning as a market that has more than 100 stalls which sells everything from fish, vegetables, meat, and olive oil, ciders to breads, cakes and coffees (Wiens, 2018). It provides a big source of capital and income to the local people of this city. It helps the community to generate more employment opportunities and improve their living standards. Looking at the culture and backgrounds of past tourists, people in London are opening their stalls in market (Borough Market, 2018). It is the major reason behind the increase in the income of lower class people and shopkeepers’ revenues because they can offer food on higher prices to international tourists.
According to a report on the market (2017), Borough Market is engaging the community by conducting public activities. For example, a Young Marketers Program is created to assist the primary and secondary school children so that they can develop a good knowledge of and interest in cookery and food. There is a Borough Market Cookbook Club that is operating as free-to-join club whose candidates come together to introduce and discuss a cookbook and dishes which they have prepared. Currently, it involved Christmas and summer parties, for that over 100 chefs gathered in the hall of market to discuss about the food masses (Eide, Fuglsang and Sundbo, 2017).
Furthermore, this report stated that when it is about the issues of environmental concerns like wastage and sustainability, Borough Market has always led by being a great example. In the month of August, in order to respond global ban of plastic pollution, it has revealed 3 water fountains and declared phasing out of single use plastic bottles’ sales around the estate (Yuan, et al, 2018). However, the market is engaged in improving and safeguarding the natural resources but still increased number of tourist arrival can have negative impact on environmental resources. Large number of visitors can have adverse impact on biodiversity and environment (Boes, Buhalis and Inversini, 2016). In order to overcome the adverse impacts, the local authority in London is making investment in improvement of tourism activities and enhancing the functioning of Borough Market.
Purpose and objectives of Research
This field research is focused on the possibilities of urban tourism where visitors are more enticed with the attraction and appeal in urban locations. During recent years, there is an increase in the urban tourism so there is an opportunity to study and determine different factors and concepts applying on this context to make this tourism more successful. The major purpose of this research is concerned to develop the understanding about urban tourism and its related aspects (Estelaji, Sadeghian and Beyhaghi, 2012). For this purpose, Borough Market of London is selected to develop as an urban tourism place.
Research Objectives of this research are:
1. To understand the concepts and significance of urban tourism
2. To understand the opinions and thoughts of different authors about urban tourism
3. To recognize the possibilities of urban tourism at Borough Market in London.
4. To prepare a process making Borough Market adequate to welcome more visitors and foreigners’ crowd.
5. To discuss about different aspects of urban tourism and urban destinations.
6. To evaluate the roles of specific elements of tourist products offered by urban places.
To present the significance of implementing the principles of sustainable tourism growth in urban locations and find out the positive and negative impacts of intensive development in urban cities which are not based on sustainable growth principles, a field research is conducted. To meet the above-mentioned research objectives, secondary data was collected by using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies of research. Moreover, this data is compiled with the primary data which was collected by conducting a survey among 150 local residents who live in the surrounding area of Borough Market in London. Under secondary research, the qualitative data is collected from different books, e-portals and journal articles. The above literature is reviewed by using the opinions and thoughts of different authors regarding the concept of urban tourism. Moreover, different websites are used to collect the data regarding the chosen market. In this research methods, the survey was conducted for the goal of focusing on the significance and roles of sustainable tourism development principles in urban tourism cities.
The major objective is to develop the understanding about the urban tourism in context of Borough Market, London. In this, quantitative data assists in decision making as the real data is gathered and evaluated according to the conditions. The secondary research will be used where the data is available on the sites of urban tourism. Primary sources are picked from the people in the area where the ethical form and other formalities were completed in advance to this research more sound and stable. By using different primary and secondary methods, the data was collected and applied in the research. It assisted in finding out the most appropriate results of this process (Henderson, 2016). Thus, the researchers have used both primary and secondary research methods to collect the data for meeting research objectives.
By using the above literature review and research methodology, the below-given results are found out:
What will be the advantage of making Borough Market/London an Urban Tourism place?
Number of visitors’ arrival in London (2008 to 2017):
According to the data given on statista website, the number of local and foreign visitors is increasing per year. The graph indicates the annual number of tourists to London from the year 2008 to 2017. Number of inbound visitors in the city has shown a growth over this period. In the year 2017, around 19.8 million trips were made to this city by the people from foreign countries. It has increased the tourist visits at Borough Market also (Statista, 2018)
In this market, there is increase in the sales of food items with the inflow of urban tourists in London. The market receives more than 4.5 million tourists every year. These visitors are from the young generation and well-educated who love to eat food outside. The major advantage of developing Borough Market as an urban tourism place is relevant to the sales of food that is generating huge revenues from tourism activities in London (Papadimitriou, Apostolopoulou and Kaplanidou, 2015).
What is the employment growth in London Economic region?
As mentioned above in the literature review section, it can be stated that the chosen urban tourism place i.e. Borough Market in London has both positive and negative impact on the economic aspects of community (Siman, 2017). There is a continuous growth in the employment rate in the city as people are getting jobs by opening their stores in this market. The below-given graph shows that with the urbanization, the city has experienced significant growth in its economy and employment rate (Carlisle, Johansen and Kunc, 2016).
The above data indicates that there is an increase in the job opportunities in the city. In Borough Market, there are more than 100 shops which offer a wide range of dishes and food to both local and foreign visitors. These shops have hired various people in the city that has generated job opportunities for local community people in London. If there will development of urban tourism in this site, it will attract more tourists and assist in the revenues and economic growth of country. This research question assisted in understanding the economic and social impacts of urban tourism in London (Marin, 2015).
What are the main reasons for visit to this urban tourism place (Borough Market)?
By conducting the survey and collecting the secondary data about the market, it is identified that there are different reasons for visiting to Borough Market in London. The major reasons are such as having food, only for visit, visiting friends and relatives, business meetings, shopping purpose etc. It is found that most of the visitors are coming to have the food of different cuisines. They are coming to try the food of different varieties. Some of the people told that they reach to this market to shop the raw materials like vegetables, fruits, fish, coffee etc. The people responded that they will get attracted through the urbanization of the chosen tourism place i.e. Borough Market (Ngwira and Kankhuni, 2018).
Discussions and Conclusion
After analyzing the data from survey and secondary research, it can be discussed that people in this city have given the mixed answers to the research questions. The overall discussion for this field research is related to the positive attitudes of local community people of London city towards urban tourism development. The audiences provide the details about Borough Market from web-based sources, journals, magazines, articles and other related sources. In the city, the urban tourism is a major reason behind the growth of society and economy. This is the reason that people are very positive towards the urbanization of this market area. Due to this, there is a significant increase in the employment and job opportunities in the city. Employment rate is increasing every year as people are getting jobs at shops in this market. This is the major reason that people are showing their interests in urbanization in Borough Market. Most of the surveyed people answered that they are visiting this market for eating purpose. Some of them come for visiting purpose to this market.
From the above research, it can be concluded that urban tourism areas are confronting pressure on their cultural, economic and social environments as an outcome of expansion of tourism. The above points conclude that this research is able to meet its objectives. It is recognized that there are many possibilities of urban tourism and sustainable tourism development of Borough Market. Most of the tourists who travel to London city visit this market for having food. The research includes the discussion about different types of visitors to urban tourist places. Literature review revealed that urban tourism plays a significant role in development of surroundings and community people. Development of urban tourism in this city will be beneficial for the overall growth of community and its people. For effective development of urban tourism sites, there is a need of implementation of sustainable development principles. It has attained the right balance between economic, environmental and social objectives. The need to develop new economic processes, insight of tourism as growth sector had persuaded urban areas towards the development of tourism. After conducting the research, it is hereby recommended that government in London should make efforts to develop urban tourism in the city. It will enable the urban areas to generate more revenues from tourism activities. There will be growth in the overall profits of travel and tourism market in London.
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