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Relationship Between Personality and Job Experience
The relationship between Personality and Job Performance is interlinked with each other. As per Gordon “Personality is an organised psychological system of an individual to adjust the environment with his unique approach and behaviour” (Robbins and Judge, 2014). Personality determines the individual’s identity based on certain qualities or characteristics. Personality traits can be influenced by inherited characteristics and learned characteristics. Inherited characteristics are the variables like religion, physical features etc. which the individual adopt during his/her birth. Learned characteristics involves the process that includes schools, colleges, society, family which influence the individuals to create a certain personality. Personality is the key area of an organisation which determines the culture, attitude, behaviour of an individual towards the success of the company (Ones, Dilchert, Viswesvaran & Judge, 2010). The individuals are the members of the team who give their valuable contributions towards the organisation in order to accomplish a task which is align with the business objectives. Based on that, the right fit of the individuals towards the organisation is needed and that is the personality which comes in to the scenario. On the other hand it is the Job performance which determines the productivity of the organisation. The organisation recruits and manages the workforce to maximise the competency level in order to achieve the targets and the personality is the characteristics which determines the individual’s role in the organisation.
The objective of this essay is to determine and analyse a relationship between the Personality and Job performances. The five factors of personality influence the behaviour of the individual and it reflect in the job performances. The five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. McCrae and Costa claims that these five factors differentiate the individuals based on the tendencies and adoptions. Adoptions are mainly based on the context which is adopted in a specific time period or any situations. Tendencies are abstract in nature which involves the culture in many of the situations. On the other hand the job performance is the action which requires contribution of the individuals and it is under the control of the individual. The components of the job performances like adaptability, stress, achievement of the targets, level of efficiency etc. is related with the individual’s way of acting. Based on certain personality, the individuals modify his/her behaviour to match the requirement of the environment which is the adaptive performance. The change that is evidenced while giving the contribution of an individual towards the job measures the efficiency level as well as the productivity which are all included in the personality of an individual. The Big five factors of the personality create an influence in the job performance of an individual claimed by maximum of the researchers. The personality traits like Openness to experience determine the level of curiosity, emotion, and adventure etc. The individuals having high Openness to experience will show their curiosity, exploring new things, in order to maximise the experience level. On the other hand individuals with low Openness to experience will be close minded, try to keep a distance in learning new things and a disagreement will be there in the process of interpretation. Based on this context the professionals with high openness can learn new ways to achieve the objective and as a result the job performance will improve (Skyrme, Wilkinson, Abraham & Morrison, 2011). Knowing everything is not possible for the individuals and for that employees with high Openness to experience can learn the new things or approaches which he/she was unaware and accordingly he/she may apply to the work process for getting the desired result. Conscientiousnessis the tendency which reflects the individual’s self-discipline, aim to achieve the target and moving in a planned way. In this context the job performance of the individual having high conscientiousness will give the performances in a planned way by maintaining all the requirements. The organisations are operating in the dynamic situation and for that flexibility is needed. Sometimes the individuals with high conscientiousness will resist the changes or modifications needed by the organisations and for that the job performance will affect negatively. Thus the individual with low conscientiousness will be more spontaneous and flexible by their approach which can support the business in a critical situation. Extraversiondetermines the sociability, level of energy of the individual. The individual with high extraversion will be more attention seeking and contain high level of energy. In case of job performance the individual with high extraversion will showcase their contribution by seeking the attentions with enthusiasm but the individual with low extraversion will be more reserved and that will create a negative relationship in a team. The communication process will be slow down due to the low level of extraversion in the individual and that will reflect negatively in the job performances (Srivastava, 2012). Agreeablenessis the trait which showcases the individual’s cooperative attitude, harmony, trust worthy and compromising nature. The individual with high agreeableness will be more optimistic and can coordinate efficiently in the organisation. On the other hand the individual with low agreeableness will show their uncooperative, unfriendly and reserved attitude which will create a barrier in the job performances especially in teamwork. Uncooperative attitude will create conflict and bring misunderstanding resulting in the hampering of the work process. It is argued by some of the researcher that always having high level of agreeableness can be the sign of a weak leadership quality. A leader should evaluate all the facts before coming to a decision and high level of agreeableness can influence the evaluation process of a leader. Last trait in Big Five factors of personality is Neuroticism which highlights the negative emotions of a human being. The individual with high neuroticism will show their anger, depression and anxiety in high volume which affects the work process as well as job performance (Srivastava, 2012). Emotional stability is needed to counter the critical situation in the workplace and for that the individual need to control their emotions for managing the adverse situation effectively. The individual with low neuroticism can manage any adverse situation like excessive pressure or targets, unpleasant working environment, job stress effectively by finding a ways to reduce without any emotional outburst. As per the researcher emotions are the inseparable part of the organisation as it is linked with the members representing the organisation. In this perspective emotional intelligence of the individual is the only way to overcome the adverse situation influencing the negative emotion in the organisation. Thus it is the personality which has an influence in the job performance in the terms of behaviour, attitude, nature etc. It is the heredity that refers to the enchased behaviour of the organisation where two outcomes are needed to be attached. The organisation is the visionary documents which enable the organisation to achieve the document.
Personality attributes is another variable that have a clear link with the job performance. There are mainly five types of attributes which address the individual’s approach in a given situation. First is the Locus of control which involves the individual’s code of conduct. There are mainly two parts which are internals and externals. Internals are the individuals who believe in cause and effect mechanism whereas externals believe outside factors that creates the concerned situation (Rusbadrol and Mahmud, 2015). In respect with job performance, internals can perform positively by taking initiatives or gathering information whereas externals will like to follow the guidelines before initiating any task or job. Second is the Machiavellianism,which reflects the practical nature of the individual’s approach. The person with high Machiavellianism act practically and move as per the requirements are given. In this perspective, individuals can achieve the target easily due to the high practical sense (Brooks, 2010). Third is the Self-esteem, which determines the individual’s likeness. The employees with high self-esteem can take up challenging task in order to fulfil their desires. The possibility of the reward or recognition is high in the individuals with high self-esteem in an organisation (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010). Fourth is the Self-monitoring, which determines the level of flexibility present in the individual based on the social situations. The employees with high self-monitoring can adjust their behaviour as per the requirements. The professionals working in the front line of the organisation must have this personality attribute in order to satisfy the customers or clients by adjusting as per their requirements. The last one is the Risk taking,which determines the individual’s capacity to undertake the risk. This attribute is suitable for the employees seating in a higher position in the organisation having accessibility of utilising the resources. The risk can be taken in order to reach the target but it requires thorough examination of the situation in order to restrict the loss. Thus it is the personality attribute which is related with the people in top management or the business owners. There is a clear connection of the individual’s personality with the job performance. The behaviour, attitude and approach of an individual determine the efficiency level in the organisation which is one of the parts in the job performance measurements (Le, Oh, Robbins, Ilies, Holland and Westrick, 2011).
The researcher after identifying the traits of the personality gives an important way out for the organisations in the area of selection process. The right fit of the people in the right place can only reflect the high level of productivity in the organisation. For the sales position, conscientiousness and extraversion can be the determinant for measuring the performance level. In case of customer service area, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness are the best determinants. The customers are the major revenue drivers for the organisation and sharing all the information, giving enhanced value in the terms of satisfaction are much needed. Thus the employee having high conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness can give the quality service needed by the customers. In the context of Leadership the two basic areas like the employees emerging as a leader and the performances they are giving in the managerial roles. The two personality traits like extraversion and conscientiousness are closely related with the leadership emergence. These are the traits which help the employee to reach the high position but they are less important when they will reach ultimately to the high position due to the complexities and critical roles needed to be play in the organisation (Hurtz & Donovan, 2011). On the other hand some groups of psychologist argued that high conscientiousness will not work in some of the professions related to the creativity. It will hinder the success in the areas like investigation, artistic or jobs related to social works due to the lack in creativity, innovation and spontaneity. A leader in the organisation must influence the employees towards high productivity and for that Job engagement is much needed. It is the process of utilising the members of the organisation towards profitability of the organisation by engaging them in the work process. The research studies claimed that two individuals working in a same position may have different level of engagement which is due to the different personality traits (Ozgur, 2014). Openness to experience and conscientiousness are the traits in the personality which determines the engagement in the workplace. An employee with high openness to experience will have high probability to maximise the productivity level due to the eagerness in learning attitude and significantly it will improve the job performance level. However few studies claimed that openness has a positive relationship with the irresponsible behaviour of an employee due to their curiosity and originality that influence their irresponsible actions (Vardi and Weitz, 2016). The researcher argued that the individuals with high conscientiousness and agreeableness are more efficient than others. On the other hand some the research study is saying that extroverts are the successful professionals who posses strong communication skills and have positive emotions to control the adverse situation (Judge, Bono, Ilies & Gerhardt, 2012). To work in sales, marketing, customer service domain, employees with high extraversion can manage the clients effectively by addressing their requirements in a way of talking and hearing their issues. However the business environment has changed due to the integration of the economies of the countries for the globalisation. The expectations of the employees and the management of the organisation have changed due to the knowledge sharing, internet accessibility and technological advancements. From that point of view the flexibility in the personality is needed to accomplish the task effectively as per the business requirements.
Job performance will only be positive when the personality of the individual will match the required criteria. It is the Organisational commitment that comes in between the personality and performance. An employee with extravert personality types will give positive commitment which will result to the high job performances (Gabriel, 2016). From the studies it has been observed that measuring the work related personality is given importance during the employee selection process. The studies have claimed that knowledge regarding the job associated with the skills and competencies are expanded by the addition of the personality traits in order to deliver quality work performances to the organisation (Zhao, Seibert and Lumpkin, 2010). The organisations are operating in a competitive environment and for that product or service differentiation is the critical area to establish in the mind of the customers or clients. From this perspective, the sudden changes in the approaches of the organisations are common. Thus the personality of the employees matters in order to sustain in the changing environment. Suitability and consistency are other parameters of the job performances which can only be achieved with positive personality that are high conscientiousness, openness, extroversion etc. From the several research it is also found that different job profiles requires different personality traits and the individuals who meets those requirements by their personality traits can only able to sustain for a longer period of time. Thus the job performance has a clear link with the personality traits of an individual.
The recommendations in the perspective of personality can be the utilisation of the Emotional Intelligence. Emotional intelligence is the process to determine the emotions, personality and behaviour of an individual in order to understand the influence level of the emotion which affects the job, team members, society etc. Self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, social skills can be the measures to improve the personality of the individual as a result which will increase the productivity that determines the job performance (Joseph and Newman, 2010). It is very common that human beings are different by personality but the personality should be align with the requirements of the workplace in order to achieve the desired targets.
In order to conclude it can be claimed that there lies a relationship of personality with job performances. Personality determines the individual’s key characteristics and approaches whereas the job performances are the action undertaken by the individual to achieve the desires objective. The personality traits are discussed by showing the levels associated with the job performance. The result of each trait is also related with the job performance. Moreover the attributes governing the personality is also highlighted by showing a link with the job performances. After that in the recommendation part, emotional intelligence which is the process of identifying the emotions influencing the individual’s behaviour is being discussed which can regulate the individual’s personality needed by the organisation in order to achieve the desired objective.
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