PPMP20012 Program and Portfolio Management Information Systems

PPMP20012 Program and Portfolio Management Information Systems

PPMP20012 Program and Portfolio Management Information Systems

Introduction

A project management is an exceptional short-lived endeavour that is carried out for the purposes of reaching up to a set of objectives which are in terms of outcomes or general employee benefits. The success of a project depends on whether it was able to meet the set timelines and also the expenditure of carrying out the project was in the considerable and acceptable brackets.

One most important difference between the project management and just management is that project management has got a deadline to meet and due to this factor the one who is carrying out the task must be of high skills in order to meet these targets. Therefore, these portfolios which are consolidated together provides an overview of the learning outcomes of the weekly course work and some experiences learnt outside course work.

Summary of learning outcomes

1. System thinking tools and techniques that aid project manager solve project problems

2. Explain the relevance of systems thinking to project management

Learning outcome one: identify how system thinking tools and techniques that aid project manager solve project problems.

Project management overlap with system thinking it came by surprise that though these system thinking bring many benefits to project management that I have been able to learn, many project managers don’t employ the usage of system thinking. I have been able to learn more things about systems thinking to begin with the brief description of what this means, which is the interrelation of some groups interacting all together for a common goal. And in this case project management benefits a lot from systems thinking because of the team taking part in the project mostly interacts with another system outside the boundary and more so with the environment which helps the team to come up with high thought of findings and views in order to solve problems that the team is working on.

I have learnt the need of the involvement of the stakeholders whereby the team gets out of the boundary and involves the people taken to be outside the boundary but are in real sense the stakeholders in the project. By doing this the team is able to interact with these stakeholders and all together give their suggestions which are later changed into desired outputs. Therefore the systems are simply free to interact with the environment in order to increase the chances of survival and purposeful. In real life situation I have encountered some situations where this lesson was very applicable to the success of the project. Just to share a single experience of the project we once organized with my fellow colleagues from my home village to start a self-help group which was to gather funds and later invest so that we can achieve a common goal helpful to ourselves and the society. By applying systems thinking in the team we were able to minimize the cost overruns by far because ours was a very small project which needed small amounts of money to run.

Evidence

By the use of system thinking the project was able to kick off and run smoothly to the completion since there was no constrains that could have made it to stop such as money and time. This was helpful to the project and if it were not that I learnt this maybe our project could have failed. Also as a second learning outcome from the system thinking, the input from the external outputs such as shareholders in order to have the project be successful.

Learning outcome two: explain the relevance of the systems thinking to project management.

Also I learnt the benefits of the systems thinking to project management which is seen to be so helpful in the success of the projects. This ranges from the period of identifying the goal to be achieved by the project to the time of project execution which are all aimed at achieving the projects vision. The strategies from systems thinking are more important especially when it comes to the managers who have the administrative authority to run and control their projects to ensure that they are both successful and quality.

A very important LO from this section to put in practice is that of working with the systems outside the boundary of the team working on the project if only they are of the same interest as that of the project. This is because involving the stakeholders helps in coming up with different views and opinions that help in coming up with a more thought of conclusion from different levels of people. Therefore, by their input the manager is able to come up with a clear output which will affect the project positively. An example in real life situation that I have come across is the setting up of a video shop which I was the chairperson of this project comprising of five youth individuals.

Evidence

If it were not for the lessons that I learnt from class most probably the video shop project could have not worked out since the greatest achievement of the project came from the input of the stakeholders and therefore we were able to know which interests to give the first priorities so that we can succeed. As the project manager I was aware that the project needed to cut the costs of running in order to ensure that it is sustains itself without injecting more capital.

Discussion and Conclusion

The portfolios have helped me to have an insight of the real project management together with its complexities. Therefore systems thinking is one way in which the problems that are faced in managing the project can be minimized in order to have a very successful project management(Gharajedaghi, 2011).

Week 1 Topic: Explain the relevance of systems thinking to PM.

Reading samples

Learning outcomes of the unit

Learnings from your weekly study, experience, this and prior unit readings and assignments

Supporting documentation including any prior learning

Mandatory Readings

SEBoK: 'Introduction to SEBoK'

SEBoK: 'Introduction to Systems Engineering';

SEBoK:Part 7: Systems Engineering Implementation Examples

Kerzner (2013) Chapters 2.1; 2.6 - 2.8; 2.21;

AS/NZS 15288:2015 Introduction;

 

Optional Readings

AS ISO 21504:2016 Project, programme and portfolio management—Guidance on portfolio management;

Explain the relevance of systems thinking to the project, program and portfolio manager.

I have learnt by reading the mandatory and supporting materials that Systems Thinking and Project Management both are similar to each other. To avoid the pitfalls and develop the complex projects with the improved quality, the Systems Thinking is used in the contrast of project management.

Systems Thinking is an outline which is used to analyse the interrelations between the things rather than things. It is used to find the patterns rather than static shots. This outline is used in the diverse fields to manage the complex projects. To follow this outline in the project management, the technical leaders and managers understand each other’s requirements and needs so that they can work constituently in a collaborative and integrated way.

This outline integrates the system science and systems approach to manage and practice the complex systems. It is considered as the part of systems knowledge which ensure the intellectual foundation. It is used to find the concepts, patterns, principles and tools so that they could be accessible to systems engineering. Overall it is focused to understand the problem situations.

Systems Engineering is an approach associated with Systems Thinking in which technical and managerial efforts are required to transform the system according to customer expectations, needs, and constraints. Systems Thinking help to learn the situations of the complex problem based on which the technical team and management build the innovate project.

The Agile approach is based on the Systems Engineering as well as Project Management which is used to build the project based on the innovative needs, expectations and constraints of the customers.

The project manager, program manager or portfolio manager of an organization follow the SEPM (Systems Engineering and Project Management) to ensure the success of a project, program or a portfolio with the changing needs, constraints and expectations of the customer. This joint approach has been used in the diverse sectors to put technical and managerial efforts for ensuring the success of project, program or a portfolio.

If I consider some big project failure, then I can find that some of the project failure are claimed due to technical

glitches and some of them are due to managerial issues. Thus, it has concluded by me that to have a successful project it must need the technical efforts and managerial efforts. Here, the Systems Thinking based SEPM plays a vital role.

It could not be said that Deepwater Horizon and Texas City like disasters were due to technical issues only. The management is also responsible there. The management of the organization should be strong enough to have the strong crisis management plan. The technical team and management should follow the Systems Thinking to understand the changing environmental conditions and their relation to the oil refinery. There both the teams of the organization need to understand the Systems with the environmental changes and must have the good crisis management plan.

The project management is the management of temporary endeavour, program management is the management of unified projects to achieve the aim and portfolio management is the management of unified projects and programs. In these three management, the Systems Thinking can be used by the management to understand the interrelations between the systems components so that their scope can be achieved successfully. Even though many of the managers have been considering the synergies of SE and PM to ensure the success of any systems for the long life.

Apm, A. (2013). Systems thinking in portfolio, programme and project management | APM. [online] Apm.org.uk. Available at: https://www.apm.org.uk/resources/find-a-resource/systems-thinking-in-portfolio-programme-and-project-management/ [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018].

Week 2: Identify different systems thinking tools and techniques to aid project managers solve project problems.

Reading samples

Learning outcomes of the unit

Supporting documentation including any prior learning

Identify different systems thinking tools and techniques to aid project managers solve project problems.

Different kinds of tools of system thinking that helps the project manager in solving project problems are affinity diagram, graphical analyzation, decision matrix, effective analysis, functional analysis, influence diagram and intangible model.

Affinity diagram (AD): The affinity diagram is referred as the simple systems thinking tool which can enable the project team in performing different tasks such as developing innovative ideas for solving the problem and organizing these ideas into the meaningful assemblies.

Graphical analyzation: The graphical analyzation is all about identifying and understanding the data of the system through the graphical representation. Generally, the graphical representation is done in two ways, frequency plot and time series plot.

Decision matrix: TheDecision Matrix is used in the cases where we can reduce the number of options to two or three if there are larger number of candidate options.

Effective analysis: The effective analysis is referred as a tool which is involved in enabling the project team to prioritize the effects and causes of the project failure. The effective analysis is considered as the family of failure methods.

Functional analysis: The functional analysis is referred as the highly structured approach for selecting and developing the design concepts of the project. The major objective of the functional analysis is to achieve the functions of the project.

Influence diagram (ID): The influence diagram is the systems thinking tool which is involved in identifying and developing the significant relationships among the different components of the system.

 

Intangible model: The Intangible model is the system thinking tool which is involved in enabling the project team members to develop a behavioural model or operational model for the system.

The system thinking tools will be helpful in the development of the critical data and information of the organization. The system thinking tools will also be helpful in exploring the queries related to the unified systems methodologies.

A. Hodgson, E. M. Hubbard, and C. E. Siemieniuch, 2013

Week 3: Identify different systems thinking tools and techniques to aid project managers solve project problems.

Reading samples

Learning outcomes of the unit

Supporting documentation including any prior learning

Assess the relevance of systems engineering to project cases.

Many researches have been carried out in the past 10 to 20 years which are associated with the development of relationship between the system engineering and the project cases. The research which was conducted by the famous research analyst, Elm et al, has suggested that the practices of system engineering are responsible for improving the performance of the project or the program along with finding the ways to develop the system architecture with the application of the scheduled performance. The results of the research that was conducted by the Bruff have suggested that the budget performance of the project is improved by different components pf the project such as project planning, requirement management and craft studies along with the systems architecture.

In addition to these research results, it is also identified that the system engineering has the ability of minimizing the risks and improving the technical performance of the project. This improvement in the technical performance will be helpful in prioritizing the system engineering processes. At the same time, it is also identified that the significant relationship has developed between the practices of the systems engineering and the performance of the project.

The project management plan (PMP) and the systems engineering plan (SEP) are the two important significant components in the process of effectively defining the different types of the processes and the methodologies which are helpful for the projects in successfully delivering the products and services. The major difference between the PMP and SMP is that PMP is the master planning strategy for the development of the project which is involved in exploring different kinds of the project activities such as technical activities where-as the SMP is also the master planning strategy which is involved in developing the systems engineering technical essentials.

A. Hodgson, E. M. Hubbard, and C. E. Siemieniuch, 2013

Week 4: Identify different systems thinking tools and techniques to aid project managers solve project problems.

Reading samples

Learning outcomes of the unit

Supporting documentation including any prior learning

Describe how systems engineering concepts and methodologies can help a project, program and portfolio managers organise a project.

The systems engineering concept model (SECM) is involved in apprehending the different types of concepts which are related with the systems engineering body of knowledge (SEBOK). The SEBOK team has developed a concept model regarding the systems engineering which is referred as the concept map will be very much helpful for the project manager and program manager in prioritizing and organizing the different project activities of the project.

The systems engineering is simply referred as a tool which is very much helpful in the realization of the successful systems. The major objective of the systems engineering is to ensure that all the customer requirements are fulfilled. Some of the core disciplines of the system engineering are operations, scheduling, performance, training and manufacturing. Systems engineering in accountable for considering both the business as well as the technical requirements of all the customers in order to provide the quality product and services from the outputs of the project. The researchers who performed the research on different aspects relating to the systems engineering have provided some solutions to project managers, program managers and portfolio managers for effectively prioritizing and organizing the project activities. Some of solutions described by the researchers in the process of successfully organizing the project activities are defining the scope of the project and review the progress of the project plan with the application of the systems engineering management plan (SEMP).

A. Hodgson, E. M. Hubbard, and C. E. Siemieniuch, 2013

Week 6: Identify and apply project contract conditions to project teams and project processes.

Reading samples

Learning outcomes of the unit

Learnings from your weekly study, experience, this and prior unit readings and assignments

Supporting documentation including any prior learning

Mandatory Readings

Smith Chapters 11 & 12;

Australian Contractors Association (ACA) Relationship Contracting;

Optional Readings

BMA's Caval Ridge Mine;

Adani Mining Pty Ltd Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project;

Case Study

Enhanced instructions and grading criteria.

Review using clear terminology the key areas and processes of project, program and portfolio management practices as applies to asset rich organisations.

Thera are many important processes in the project management or the portfolio management right from the initiation of the project to the closure of the project. All theprocesses in project management are monitored by the manager or management. Development of work breakdown schedule (WBS), controlling the project activities, defining the scope of the project and ensuring the availability of required resources are few of the significant aspects of the project management.

Ketokivi, M., & Choi, T. Y. (2014).

Mandatory Readings

Smith Chapters 11 & 12;

Australian Contractors Association (ACA) Relationship Contracting;

Optional Readings

BMA's Caval Ridge Mine;

Adani Mining Pty Ltd Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project;

Case Study

Enhanced instructions and grading criteria.

Discuss the relevance of tools and techniques for investigating and describing project process related to developing new workings, facilities, equipment, plant and processes for justifying, designing, developing, or maintaining existing facilities and equipment within the context of their technological and asset lifecycle status.

One of the best strategies applied in the project management for developing, improving or maintaining the current facilities in the organization is the implementation of continuous improvementplan in the project. The continuous improvement plan is not only involved in ensuring the appropriate work facilities in the organization but also used as the technology in the process of justifying the project.

 

Mandatory Readings

Smith Chapters 11 & 12;

Australian Contractors Association (ACA) Relationship Contracting;

Optional Readings

BMA's Caval Ridge Mine;

Adani Mining Pty Ltd Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project;

Case Study

Enhanced instructions and grading criteria.

Present and interpret major processes that are based on sound policy, information, and research that enable project justification, tenders, contracts, and selection criteria to occur in an asset rich organisation.

The cost-benefit ratio is a significant process or method applied in the justification of the project. Through the cost-benefit ratio, the project is justified if the value of the benefits of the project is more than the value of costs in the project and vice versa. i.e., the project is not justified when the value of benefits is less than the value of costs in the project.

 

Mandatory Readings

Smith Chapters 11 & 12;

Australian Contractors Association (ACA) Relationship Contracting;

Optional Readings

BMA's Caval Ridge Mine;

Adani Mining Pty Ltd Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project;

Case Study

Enhanced instructions and grading criteria.

Critically analyse management strategies and operational activities from a broad perspective to ensure safety and quality, to avoid overruns or rework, to manage variations and claims, and to make decisions to discontinue or close projects.

The quality management of as organization describes the quality process and procedure in the organization. Few of the popular quality management strategies are the elemental approach, the mentoring approach and the organizational model approach. Alone with quality management, safety management in also important in the field of project management. Some of the strategies in safety management are acting as per situation, aligning work with safety measures and monitoring the compliance issues in the project.

Ingason, H. T., &Jónasson, H. I. (2015).

Mandatory Readings

Smith Chapters 11 & 12;

Australian Contractors Association (ACA) Relationship Contracting;

Optional Readings

BMA's Caval Ridge Mine;

Adani Mining Pty Ltd Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project;

Case Study

Enhanced instructions and grading criteria.

Demonstrate an effective, professional level of teamwork and communication and support collaborative peer group learning.

The business of the organization will always be enhanced the good team work in the organization. The tam members in the professional team will work giving the priority to fulfil the organization goals more than fulfilling their personal goals. The important feature required to be possessed by the team members in order to make the team effective and professional is the effective communication.

 

Week 7: Identify different systems thinking tools and techniques to aid project managers solve project problems.

Reading samples

Learning outcomes of the unit

Learnings from your weekly study, experience, this and prior unit readings and assignments

Supporting documentation including any prior learning

Mandatory Readings

Part 1: SEBoK Introduction - 'Introduction to SE Transformation';

Part 1: SEBoK Introduction - 'SEBoK Users and Uses';

Part 6: Related Disciplines - 'Knowledge Area: Systems Engineering and Project Management'

Kerzner (2013) Chapters 2.1; 2.6 - 2.8; 2.21;

AS/NZS 15288:2015 Introduction;

Optional Readings

AS ISO 21504:2016 Project, programme and portfolio management—Guidance on portfolio management;

Case Study

Chief Counsel's Report - Chapter 5 (PDF 700KB);

(7th question)

Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of different manual and electronic project, program and portfolio (PPPM) application systems within each PPPM knowledge area over the life cycle of a project, program or portfolio.

It is important for any business organization to implement either manual or electronic application systems for project, program or portfolio management in order to store and manage the organizational information whether it is a small, medium or large scaled organization. It is a widely known fact that many of the small-scale business organizations implement the manual systems while many of the large organization are involved in using the electronic or the computerized system for accessing the organizational information in the olden days. But, in the current generation, even few of the small-scale organizations are affording to use the electronic systems as the cost of the electronic systems have reduced to a significant extent with the enhancement of the technological and computerized aspects all over the world. Both the manual and the electronic systems will perform the same kind of operations while the mechanics of both the manual and the electronic system applications differ in their mechanics and those are discussed in the below sections.

Speediness

Speediness is considered as one of the major differentiating factors for the manual and electronic systems. The information in the electronic systems can be accessed much faster than the information in manual systems. Even the calculations are done at the faster rate in the electronic systems than that of the manual systems.

Cost

Cost is another significant differentiating factor in the electronic systems and the manual systems. Apart from reducing the cost of the electronic systems because of the increase in the technological standards, still the manual systems are much cheaper compared to the electronic systems.

Backup

The electronic systems have the greater ease of backup when compared with the manual system applications. Taking a backup will help the organization in case of the data losses and taking backup is only possible in the electronic systems and is not possible in the manual systems.

Sheila Shanker (2015)

References

Week 8: Identify different systems thinking tools and techniques to aid project managers solve project problems.

Reading samples

Learning outcomes of the

Unit

Learnings from your weekly study, experience, this and prior unit readings and assignments

Supporting documentation including any prior learning

Mandatory Readings

Part 1: SEBoK Introduction - 'Introduction to SE Transformation';

Part 1: SEBoK Introduction - 'SEBoK Users and Uses';

Part 6: Related Disciplines - 'Knowledge Area: Systems Engineering and Project Management'

Kerzner (2013) Chapters 2.1; 2.6 - 2.8; 2.21;

AS/NZS 15288:2015 Introduction;

Optional Readings

AS ISO 21504:2016 Project, programme and portfolio management—Guidance on portfolio management;

Case Study

Chief Counsel's Report - Chapter 5 (PDF 700KB);

Identify how project, program and portfolio (PPPM) application systems can assist project managers to monitor performance and manage changes within a project.

The project managers in the organization are responsible for overseeing the systems development and are also responsible for assembling the project tams along with managing the project schedules and controlling the resources for ensuring the successful completion of the projects in the organization. Many of the times, the project managers are involved in acting as supervisors for the entire staff members of the project. The position of the project manager in any business organizations requires the knowledge regarding the appropriate programming languages along with the development of the specific tools and techniques.

The different kinds of the tasks performed by the project managers with the assistance of the project, program and portfolio management systems are listed below

In the development of the project schedule along with the project plan in order to ensure the successful completion of the project within the dead-lines. The PPPM application systems are also involved in suggesting the requirement of the resources which may become crucial in the timely completion of the project.

In the engagement of all the project team members and in assigning appropriate resources in order to develop the related tasks for measuring the abilities of every project team member.

In the process of communicating the project objectives and in overseeing the progress of the project along with regulating the resourcesas per the priority of the project i.e., guiding the project in the right direction.

Appropriate application of the project management tools and techniques in order to effectively manage all the aspects of the project development.

Successful and efficient utilization of the project resources and to develop the programming code with the application of the appropriate programming languages.

In the process of determining the potential solutions for all the issues which can arise during the development of the project and is also helpful in meeting the requirements of the stakeholders of the project.

Leanne Bateman, 2012

Week 9: Identify different systems thinking tools and techniques to aid project managers solve project problems.

Reading samples

Learning outcomes of the unit

Learnings from your weekly study, experience, this and prior unit readings and assignments

Supporting documentation including any prior learning

Mandatory Readings

Part 1: SEBoK Introduction - 'Introduction to SE Transformation';

Part 1: SEBoK Introduction - 'SEBoK Users and Uses';

Part 6: Related Disciplines - 'Knowledge Area: Systems Engineering and Project Management'

Kerzner (2013) Chapters 2.1; 2.6 - 2.8; 2.21;

AS/NZS 15288:2015 Introduction;

Optional Readings

AS ISO 21504:2016 Project, programme and portfolio management—Guidance on portfolio management;

Case Study

Chief Counsel's Report - Chapter 5 (PDF 700KB);

Propose appropriate project, program and portfolio (PPPM) application systems to support successful project, program and portfolio execution in different industry domains.

The enterprises usually apply different techniques in managing the project, the program and the portfolio. It helps them in managing the costs involved in the project. It is also possible to collaborate in order to determine the different risks that are involved in the system. From the PPPM application, the organization can work on completing the project within the allocated budget and well before the scheduled time. PPPM is used in a range of applications across the world. ASANA, Smartsheet, Clarizen and Monday.com are some examples of PPPM applications which can help in the completion of the projects.

In order to collaborate and communicate with the system effectively, Asana is used. It can help in assigning different tasks to different members of the team. From this, the manager can easily keep track of the work that every member. The online collaboration tool helps in effectively helping the manager to make sure that all the project activities take place systematically. It is commonly seen as an innovative activity that includes file division and also automated competences for workflow.

Monday.com is a communication application that helps in PPPM where the system synchronizes the information to the members of the team and it helps them in making decisions together while also factoring in the other important parameters. Clarizen is another famous application used in the project in real-time, in program and portfolio management. It is involved in ensuring that project management is related to social engagement. It helps in adopting the system to the project so that it can be deployed. There are several activities that are associated with the application system and help in bringing the project to the system and ensure that all the processes in the system take place systematically and make sure that the project management process is smooth and efficient.

Roger S. Pressman (2016)

Week 10: Identify different systems thinking tools and techniques to aid project managers solve project problems.

Reading samples

Learning outcomes of the unit

Learnings from your weekly study, experience, this and prior unit readings and assignments

Supporting documentation including any prior learning

Mandatory Readings

Part 1: SEBoK Introduction - 'Introduction to SE Transformation';

Part 1: SEBoK Introduction - 'SEBoK Users and Uses';

Part 6: Related Disciplines - 'Knowledge Area: Systems Engineering and Project Management'

Kerzner (2013) Chapters 2.1; 2.6 - 2.8; 2.21;

AS/NZS 15288:2015 Introduction;

Optional Readings

AS ISO 21504:2016 Project, programme and portfolio management—Guidance on portfolio management;

Case Study

Chief Counsel's Report - Chapter 5 (PDF 700KB);

Discuss contemporary developments in the use of project, program and portfolio (PPPM) application systems.

In the field of project, program and portfolio application systems, technology is regarded as the appropriate mixture of the revolution and ideation which acts as a tool for different kinds of developments in the software industry. Almost all the contemporary developments in the PPMP application systems are involved in improving the planning and controlling activities of any project in the specific organization. We can find lot of developments in the PPMP application systems in the recent times. Out of all those, few od the developments are discussed in the below sections.

The first development we are going discuss is the Scrum development methodology which is widely regarded as the effective Agile development approach. In general, this Scrum development is best applicable to the projects that are involved in regularly changing the project requirements. The benefits that are obtained by the organization with the Scrum development methodology are enhancing the decision-making system, in consistency in the business requirement document and regular updating of the controlled methodologies. The major limitation of this Scrum development is that it ins not best suited for the large-scale projects.

The second development in PPPM applications systems that we are going to discuss is the Lean development methodology. The major objective od the Lean development model is to enhance the systems the systems of the organization with minimal budget and resources. With the Lean development model, the organization can enjoy the benefits such as minimizing the cost of the project and providing the quick delivery of the products.

The third and the final development in our discussion is the Future driven development. The major objective of this development is to aid the support to the project teams working in particular organization. The future driven development is referred as the methodology which is very effective in the process of dealing with complex situations in the project.

Benbya, H., and McKelvey, B. 2016.

References

1. Apm, A. (2013). Systems thinking in portfolio, programme and project management | APM. [online] Apm.org.uk. Available at: https://www.apm.org.uk/resources/find-a-resource/systems-thinking-in-portfolio-programme-and-project-management/ [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018].
2. A. Hodgson, E. M. Hubbard, and C. E. Siemieniuch, "Toward an Understanding of Culture and the Performance of Teams in Complex Systems," IEEE Systems Journal, vol. PP (99), 2013.
3. INCOSE. 2015. Systems Engineering Handbook: A Guide for System Life Cycle Processes and Activities, version 4.0. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc, ISBN: 978-1-118-99940-0 A. Hodgson, E. M. Hubbard, and C. E. Siemieniuch, "Toward an Understanding of Culture and the Performance of Teams in Complex Systems," IEEE Systems Journal, vol. PP (99), 2013.
4. Ketokivi, M., & Choi, T. Y. (2014). Renaissance of case research as a scientific method. Journal of Operations Management, 32 (5), 232 – 240.
5. Ingason, H. T., &Jónasson, H. I. (2015). Contemporary knowledge and skill requirements in project management. Project Management Journal, 40 (2), 59 – 69.
6. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (2012). ISO 21500: 2012. Guidance on project management. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.
7. Sheila Shanker (2015) "Journal of Accountancy," "Architecture Business and Economics" and "Veterinary Economics."
8. Roger S.Pressman (2016) UK, software engineering applications c2000, 5th ed.Benbya, H., and McKelvey, B. 2016. “Toward a complexity theory of information technology systems development,” Information Technology & People
9. Leanne Bateman, 2012 Rabb School of Continuing Studies, Division of Graduate Professional Studies, Brandeis University