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Planning Approach to Health and Development Assignment Help
Project Piaxtla is health care program in western Mexico, which was run completely by local villagers where David Werner was involved in the program as an advisor. In the particular assignment, needs for assessing the changes and changes over time is assessed. Participants in the particular project and the persons who might not participate in the program are also addressed in the program. The way of addressing, the inequity issues are also discussed in the assignment. In addition, the processes and actions that are congruent with the principles and the processes of participatory planning are explained in the assignment.
Needs for assessing the changes in the assessment
Field (2014, p.44) stated that in the first phase of the program, the strategies of Project Piaxtla was to involve in curative care. They have no political agenda. The reason behind it was immediate need of care. Etter and Kristen (2013, p.545) stated that the promoters of health in the village were given training using participatory, The learning by doing process help them to be competent in giving treatment for the common diseases such as injuries, fever and some others. But as day progresses, the villagers as well as health team who served become conscious that same illness as well as injuries retained recurring. As a result, they shifted the focus of the project gradually from preventive to the measures of primitive care like immunization, water system etc. Therefore, the second phase of the project the particular illness became less compared compared to before and overall health of the villagers were improved.
Haugen (2011, p.234) commented that there are fewer children who died in tetanus and whooping cough and few number of people who left disabled by complications from measles and polio. But it was also seen that several number of children as well as women were malnourished, especially in the areas where harvests were not very good. The mortality rate less than five ages was also high in those areas. Children in the poorest families who had no land, underpaid, and underserved are the most victimized people of it. It was also seen that they took benefits of by a small scale of minority with land, power as well as health. Therefore, the focus of the program had been changed. In this time, the actions were organized in order to defend to defend the primary need and the right for the people. In this way, the health program for the village was get evolve from curative care practice to preventive care. In addition, the measures of promotive care were also changed to the sociopolitical action.
Merino (2011, p.55) commented that the shift in the focus of the program was changed from conventional measures of health to an organized action, which was the result of learner centered as well as discovery based approach partly. This approach also helped for problem solving in the health care program and education as well. The workshops led by the promoters of healthcare with the framers, mothers as well as schoolchildren started an analysis for the situations that were occurred in the program. It also helped to build up a community of diagnosis, where the participants detect as well as discussed the problems related to health in the community and the way of iterating the issues were also discussed in community. Stewart (2012, p.332) commented that the people of the community learned in order to explore the chain of the reasons that give them to lead to death of children rather than looking on death of a child as a single reason like diarrhea. The links of the diseases were detected as biological, cultural etc to be done with the worms and gems, money as well as power. In the first phase of the program, the focus was given mainly on curative care and preventive care. The people for linking were detected in the chain of the community of the reasons that have tendency to be biological, cultural as well as physical mostly.
Participants and non-participants in the program
Aguilar-Aguilar et al. (2010, p.57) stated that the promoters for health and community looked into the underlying reasons of poor health in depth. They started to look for the ways and methods by which the actions can be taken collectively. They also broke some links in the event chain that led to sickness as well as death of the poor people of the village. They also started with some links that they thought easier for doing something at local level. It also carried fewer amounts of risks of violent response from the structure of power. The health promoters discovered that any kind of attempt by poor people in order to correct the inequities of status of quo that can get participation of the response that is heavy handed from those in the position of getting privileged.
Courakis (2011, p.574) stated that the actions of the Piaxtla health care program was related mostly to the particular ways in which the compensations to the poor people of the village was cheated or mistreated in very systematic way. The health promoters of the village were given training to involve in the program. They built up a community to serve the people who were suffered from several diseases like tetanus, whooping cough, diarrhea etc. The action plans were also changed according to the demand for Australian health care for the poor villagers of the village. The participants in the health care program started to generate problem-solving methodology.
In addition, the most entrenched exploitation form where the small farmers had decided to tackle usurious system of the owners of land for loaning maize. In order to combat the exploitative system of loan, the team of Piaxtla helped the poor farmers for setting up a cooperative maize bank. Fox (2011, 57) commented that the bank charged very low interest compared to the rich farmers. The interest was collected and used to increase the capacity of lending from the bank. The community was controlled by the team of project and used to develop the loan program eventually to five villages. It also helped to develop the economic system of the poor families in those villages. In addition this program fostered good cooperation as well as accountability among the poor farmers in order to help them to improve organizational, management as well as accounting skill. The people who had begun to get confidence in their ability for improving own situations.
Etter and Kristen (2013, p.57) said that one of the most important problem for the poor farmers is to improve the economic base in a cost effective way in order to keep the cattle of the rich farmers for entering maize field in mountainside and from eating crops. This problem was seriously discussed and analyzes the implications of the particular situation in order to solve the issues. The health team of Piaxtla formed a community with the help of famers in those villages in order to explore the possible solution for the situation. They took initiative to organize the poor farmers in order to join to the fence cooperatively in the entire hillside. The first group formed from the poor farmers succeeded to pay off their own loan and the same money was given as loan to a new group. The revolving fund helped the poor farmers to be self sufficient. The women of Ajoya and its surroundings also took an important part to discover as well as exercise the power. They took collective action in order to address the issues of abusing male alcohol.
Process of addressing the inequity issue
Fox (2011, p.274) stated that the inequitable distribution of land, power as well as wealth in rural areas make a great problem for large number of poor families in those area. The actions that were done in early days through Piaxtla health project are related to the methods in which the poor compositions were cheated and exploited systematically. Some of the activities were done in order to address the issues that are given as followed. The demand of the owner of the local route of bus in low fare as much possible to legal rates was one of them. A frame workers-run maize bank and initiating a fencing program cooperatively were also other activities. The community was also built with the help of village women to shut down the issue formed by public bar to reduce the violence and drunkenness of the people was included in the given activity. Protest was also organised to take control of supply of village waters, which was away from a wealthy man in the village in order to introduce the public water system that was controlled by the community.
Kariaga 2011, p.214) commented that the rich family in those villages created inequity situation with discrimination of several situations. These are the rich families controlled the community council of Ajoya completely. They blocked all the attempts done by poor families repeatedly in order to organise or demand the land rights constitutionally. In addition they resorted to do violence while they feeling essential to maintain and to dominant the position. In order to solve this particular issue the community formed by the members of Ajoya, construct a group. There was several certain agendas by which they were able to solve the problem. They took initiative like social analysis of ejido system that contains the best way to use the political rights, encourage incentive personally, and make high production of the private ownership. It also guaranteed the equity for using the land that intended by the method of socialism. The ejido system worked in better way in the theory than real ones. The Mexican revolution was the biggest issue that was the institutional corruption. The calls for constitution for democratic system of multi party in a single political system for sixty years. In addition the institutional revolutionary party was backed by the military brutally as well as poice force which had remained the power. Although there is growing inequities as well as hardship for poor people. It has given power by restoring for voting fraud, intimidation and strategic assassination of the human rights of the leaders.
Haugen (2011, p.544) commented that the corrupt regime in ejido system and the laws that make limitation of the size of holding the land did not get success for protecting the land rights of small farmers. The rich as well as powerful pay off officials of the government in order to break the rules and regulations and to make silent for the protestors. The statues of land reform of the Constitution of Mexico provided legal and moral foundation where the poor farmers can make an organization for defending the rights of revolution for land and liberty. The team of Piaxtla took strategies to develop issues of inequity and implement by forming the community.
The processes and actions that are congruent with principles and planning
Stewart (2012, p.144) commented that there are several process were taken by the team of Piaxtla that are congruent with the principles and planning as well. The organisational skills and unity combated the problems. The poor farmers in those villages tackled the basic problems such as hunger, poor health. Keppie et al. (2012, p.57) commented that the inequitable distribution of the fertile and river valley farmlands were the issues, against those the farmers tackled with great competency. They started to invade and make cultivation systematically for many large holdings of the families who are rich from financial background in the village. In addition, they started to get the constitutional laws with the help of the community and land where they knew constitutional right.
They made a division for the land fairly and demanded the title named as ejidal land from the government of Mexico. The authorities at the level of state got ignore for the demands and the farmers who were poor in financial issues sent a committee to the American Reform Ministry in the Mexico city. The poor villagers in Mexico persisted until the officials of the community relented and ordered finally to grant the title to the people of state to claims of poor farmer in the villages.
The impact of several actions of fairness between rich and poor people and men-women made a significant impact on the health of poor people, especially the children of the villages. The health program started in the year of 1965.
Land distribution was a critical issue. The Mexican revolution was triggered largely by the land policies of feudal of the Porfirio Diaz, who gave huge tracts of the land to the healthy cronies. The best farmland was concentrated in the plantations that are giant sized. There is little number of options for landless peasants. They actually worked for the landholders who are powerful as serfs and sharecroppers as well. They retreated into some hills to develop the scanty crops on the slopes that are steep in nature by utilizing the farming of slash and burn. It was difficult in the revolution in Mexico for landless campesinos in the united countryside behind the famous leaders like Pancho Villa.
Kariaga (2011,l p.44) stated that the heart of the constitution of Mexico was its reform legislation for agrarian that included the famous ejido system. The system states that a group of the villages can join to construct an ejido or the land holding of the community. The local farmland was separated equitably among the families who are present in the villages. Each family received the provisional title to the parcel. They can farm it and gave advantage from generating as they have selected the things. In addition this created a protection for small farmers from the land they have lost. In order prevent the return of massive plantations in further; the legal limitations were being placed in the property holding size. The health promoters as well as community take actions to improve the financial base of the villagers. The frame workers maize bank took an important role to be self-sufficient and this helped them to avoid the unwanted situations like inequity issues that were created mainly by the rich farmers and some others in Ajoya.
It is important to focus on some important factors in the project and their relationship as well to the principles and the practices for the planning of participants. There is a scenario in the entire program where change is needed essentially for enhancement the project and run the program successfully as well. In addition, the major participants such as local health care promoters took initiative for the particular health care program and the rich farmer in Ajoya was not involved in the program. The community developed by the people helped them to solve the inequity issues. In this way, inequities were identified in the program. Furthermore, the procedures and actions were also congruent with the multiple principles and the procedure of the planning of participants in the program.
Field, M. (2014). Telemedicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Haugen, D. (2011). Health care. Detroit: Greenhaven Press/Gale.
Merino, N. (2011). Health care. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Stewart, D. (2012). Defense health care. [Washington, D.C.]: [U.S. Government Accountability Office].
Aguilar-Aguilar, R., Rosas-Valdez, R., Martínez-Aquino, A., Pérez-rodríguez, R., Domínguez-Domínguez, O. and Pérez-ponce de León, G. (2010). Helminth fauna of two cyprinid fish (Campostoma ornatum and Codoma ornata) from the upper Piaxtla River, Northwestern Mexico.Helminthologia, 47(4).
Fox, E. (2011). Predominance of the Curative Model of Medical Care. JAMA, 278(9), p.761.
Kariaga, B. (2011). The Effect of Intercropping Maize with Beans or Cowpeas on Run Off and Soil Loss. Disc Innov, 11(1).
Keppie, J., Nance, R., Dostal, J., Lee, J. and Ortega-Rivera, A. (2012). Constraints on the subduction erosion/extrusion cycle in the Paleozoic Acatlán Complex of southern Mexico: Geochemistry and geochronology of the type Piaxtla Suite. Gondwana Research, 21(4), pp.1050-1065.