Delivery in day(s): 4
Operations management in Business Proof Reading Services
This program has been discussed over the topic organizations management in business. In this program a case study of an airlines has been discussed which will help in the generation of the knowledge or understanding of the different aspects related to the management of the business. The major focus of the organizations in this dynamic world is over the quality of the operations and services so as to satisfy the customers. This report discusses the link between the operations management and the strategic planning. It covers the strategies adopted by the business for the purpose of operations of the business. It also covers the role of three E’s in enhancing the operations of the business. It is essential for every organisation to maintain a balance between the cost and the quality of the services offered by the business.
1.1 Explain the importance of operational management in an airport with reference to the case study.
Operational management can be understood as management and administration of the activities of the business for the purpose of creating the level of efficiency in an organisation. Operational management is one of the most important aspects for every business as it helps the business by managing and controlling the system of the operations. Its helps the organisation in the execution of the different activities related to the operations of the airlines. The main motive of every organisation is to deliver the products and services of high quality so as to match up with the expectations of the customers. Operational management performs the functions related to the design, operation and improvement or enhancement of the system of the airlines. There are various services which need to be provided in an effective manner so as to provide safe and secure journey to the passengers of the Airlines. Aviation industry ensures the effectiveness and efficiency in its operation with the use of operational management. Efficiency in the operations of the Airlines can be understood as the level till which the resources are used so as to obtain the desired results or to attain the objectives. Airlines companies use operational management so as to maximise the profits of the company by ensuring the quality of the services. Operational management controls and coordinate the various activities of the airlines so as to ensure that all the activities are carried out in an effective manner and to ensure that no operation is missed out as it will harm the interest of the passengers at large. Operational management helps the airlines to enhance its services by identifying the development needs and developing the services as per the requirement of the changing environment, helps in advertising and promoting, evaluation of the services and distribution of the services (Jorge, et. al., 2014).
1.2 Explain the need to produce safely; on time; to cost; to quality and regulations of the law in the operations in an airport.
The need for the purpose of producing safely, on time, within the cost, producing the quality and regulations of the law in the operations in an airport are discussed as follows:
Need for producing safely: the main focus should be over the safety, security, health and wellbeing of the passengers. It is the responsibility of the human resource of the airport to ensure that the standards are maintained for maintaining the safety of the passengers. The responsibility is towards the passengers as well as towards the human resource of the airport for the purpose of ensuring the safety of the passengers and of the employees or staff of the airport.
Need for producing on time: the services offered need to be provided well on time so as to effectively utilise or gain advantage of the services rendered. The delay in the flights affects the schedules or routines of the passengers so there is a need to offer the services on time. Airlines or airports need to implement the measures for ensuring the effectiveness in providing services to the passengers (Sterling, 2015).
Need for producing within the decided cost:every business need to maintain a balance between its cost and the quality of the services so as to maximise the profitability and satisfaction level of the customers. Airlines industry need to ensure that effectiveness is maintained in the cost of the services for better results or returns.
Need for producing the quality:quality of the services offered plays a crucial role as it affects the satisfaction level of the customers. Airports need to ensure that high quality services are offered to the passengers so as to make their journey comfortable and memorable. This will enhance the performance of the airport and will create a good image or reputation of the airlines in the market.
Need for producing within the legal framework or laws: every business need to operate within the legal framework so as to avoid any legal consequence against it. Airports need to comply with the rules and regulations framed by the government for the safety of the passengers. This will help the Airlines by operating in the lawful manner (Apak, et. al., 2012).
1.3 Explain the link between operations management and strategic planning with reference to the given case study.
The main focus of operations management is over the management of the process of providing services to the customers of the business in an effective manner. Strategic planning can be understood as a process or an activity of the organisational management which is used by the business for the purpose of provides strengths to the operations, prioritising the activities, ensuring the efforts of the employees and staff towards the attainment of the objectives of the organisation. The activities include providing services, developing the services, distributing the services and ensuring the quality of the services rendered. Strategic planning is a part of organisational management. For the purpose of dealing with the changing environment every organisation need to include strategic planning in the operational management of the business. Aim of operational management and strategic planning is over the attainment of the objectives or goals of the organisation (Sundtoft Hald & Mouritsen, 2013). Airlines need to include strategic planning in its operational management so as to ensure effectiveness and efficiency in its operation. Both the aspects help the airports in deciding and setting the goals for the airports which need to be achieved by the execution of the operations or activities. Operational management of the airports covers the measurement and analysis of the internal process of the organisation. It follows a procedure or a format so as to cover all the aspects in proper manner. Operational management and strategic planning both are interrelated activities which provide an advantage to the airlines or airports in dealing with the changing environment and increasing competition. Strategic planning helps the airports in preparing plans for coping with the adverse or uncertain conditions. Both these aspects and elements ensures that the objectives of the airports are achieved which is to offer quality services to the passengers and to ensure the effectiveness in the cost of the airport (Aghajari & Amat Senin, 2014).
1.4 Draw a process flow diagram (systems diagram) of the following situation: - A passenger stepping into the airport and progressing through the check-in, security checks and finally takes off to his/her destination in an aircraft.
2.1 Explain the Three E’s - Economy, Efficiency and Effectiveness and also explore the relationship between these ‘Three Es’ in the background of functioning of an airport referred in the case study.
The three E’s stands for economy, efficiency and effectiveness which enhance the performance of the business and provides better future aspects to the business. These three E’s are discussed as follows:
Economy: economy can be understood as doing the things in an economical manner or maintaining the cost effective and minimal so as to enhance the chances of profits of the business. Airports or airlines need to adopt measures for the purpose of offering the services to the passengers. These measures need to be economical which helps the airport in maintaining the cost of the services and operations low by maintaining the quality of the services and operations. These measures enhance the chances of growth and profitability of the airport by ensuring the cost of the services and operations as per the economy.
Efficiency:the term efficiency can be understood as performing the activities or things smoothly and avoiding the process or stages which affects the execution of the activities for the purpose of rendering the services. It provides a smoothness to the decision making process of the airports which enables it to grab the opportunities available to it. Airports have gained much growth by maintaining the level of efficiency in its operations. Airports consider efficiency as the sign of improved performance of the entity (Opp & Saunders, 2013).
Effectiveness: the term effectiveness can be understood as performing the activities in a well manner so as to ensure that all the activities are executed as well as they are possible. Airports maintain the level of effectiveness in its functioning so as to ensure that the expectations of the passengers are met. Airports are offering flight facilities as well as other facilities at the airports to the passengers so as to ensure that they are satisfied and their needs are fulfilled.
2.2 Explain the tension between ‘cost minimization’ and ‘quality maximization, from the perspective of an operation manager of an airport.
Cost minimisation and quality maximisation both aspects are very important for every business. These aspects ensure the survival and growth of the business in the market. With the change in the environment business exists, there has been a rise in the level of competition and change in the technology. For maximising the chances of growth and survival of the business there is a need to cope with these aspects or elements of the business environment. It is the responsibility of the operation manager of the airports to keep a check over the cost of rendering the services to the passengers and to maintain the level of the quality of the services. The main focus of the operation manager should be over the quality of the services offered to the passengers as for gaining a competitive advantage over the others in the industry it is required to keep a balance between the quality of the services and cost of the services. Operation manager of the airport need to make constant efforts for evaluating the manner through which the unjustified cost incurring while offering the services to the passengers can be eliminated. The profitability and the chances of survival and growth of the airlines depend upon the quality of the services it is offering as well as over the cost of the services as higher the cost of the services will leads to reduction in the profits of the airport. A fair balance between both the aspects is important as it affects the whole organisation at large (Hussain, G., et. al., 2016).
2.3 Evaluate the significance and role of the five performance objectives that underpin operations management in an airport.
The term objectives can be understood as the goals or the set of goals which the business intents to achieve from the execution of the operations. The five performance objectives that underpin operations management in an airport includes reduction in the cost, attracting more customers for enlarging the customer base, promotion or advertisement campaigns, maintaining the level of effectiveness and efficiency and digitalisation. These are discussed below:
Reduction in the cost:Airports need to adopt cost reduction techniques or strategies so as to maximise the chances of profit and growth of the organisation. It will help in saving the additional cost which can be utilized for the other operations or functions of the airports.
Attracting more customers:The survival of chances is directly proportional to the customer base of the business that can be understood as larger the customer base of the business, higher will be the chances for the survival and growth of the business. Airports need attract and retain the customers by fulfilling their expectations.
Promotion or advertisement campaigns:promotion or advertisement campaigns determine the capability of the airport to attract the customers or passengers towards it. Airports can use television advertisement, banners and radio advertisements for promoting it (Oyedele, et. al., 2013).
Maintaining the level of effectiveness and efficiency:effectiveness and efficiency are the key determinants which determine the success of the business. Airports need to maintain a balance between the effectiveness and efficiency so as to enhance the services offered to the passengers.
Digitalisation:airports use high technology for the execution of the activities of it so as to ensure the safety and security of the passengers. Use of digitalisation or technological advancements helps the Airports to effectively manage its operations without any error.
LO 3: Understand how to organize a typical production process
3.1 Explain the concept of linear programming and discuss any two applications.
Linear programming is a mathematical process or tool and it is widely used for the purpose of management science and industrial engineering. The motive behind development of this tool or process is to help the management in the decision making process of the business. It facilitates easy decision making process to the managerial level. It helps the business in reducing or minimising the cost involved in the different functions of the business. Linear programming facilitates calculation of the price of the services and the quantity of the services which should be offered by the business for gaining profit. The managers in the airport can apply this tool of mathematics for the purpose of analysing the pricing policies of the services offered to the passengers so as to enhance the chances of profits which will leads to effectiveness in the decision making process of the airports. The another application of the linear programming can be in deciding the expansion decision of the business by including additional capital in the business and expanding its base of the customers. In this manner linear programming can help the management of the airports in taking decisions regarding the operations (Kydd, 2012).
3.2 From the given video case study, explain the need for operations planning and control at Emirates Airlines Flight Catering. Also students can make valid assumptions, as and when required.
The catering services offered at the flights of Emirates Airlines needs effective management so as to execute the activities or operations in a proper manner. For this purpose Emirates Airlines need operation planning for proper functioning of the catering services at the flights. There is large number of passengers which travels through Emirates Airlines and for serving them the food the main focus should be on maintaining the quality of the food so as to ensure the health and wellbeing of the passengers. There is a need to take decisions within short span of time as the time is available in a limited quantity. This need to be done so as to maintain the level of effectiveness in the operations related to the catering services at the flights of Emirates Airlines. Operational planning and control helps the Airlines for making estimates for the future for the purpose of undertaking the operations without any delay. Operational planning and control lays down a plan related to the catering services which need to be carried out or implemented so as to achieve the objectives of the organisation. It manages the efforts of the catering services department towards the right path (Karuppusamy, 2013).
LO 4: Be able to apply relevant techniques to the production of an operational plan for typical business
4.1 From the video case study provided, examine the operational procedures of Emirates Airlines Flight Catering and produce a set of clearly defined operational outcomes.
The catering services of Emirates Airlines are operated in a systematic manner so as to eliminate the chances of errors and mistakes. There are different stages involved in the kitchen of the Emirates Airlines so as to operate in an effective manner. The food is packed in proper manner so as to ensure that hygiene level is maintained. The operational outcomes which will be examined from the operational procedures of Emirates Airlines flight catering are discussed below:
Ensuring the health and well-being of the passengers: the main motive of the operations of the catering services of the Emirates Airlines is to ensure the health of the passengers while travelling.
Ensuring delivery of the services of catering on time: The staffs of the catering department of Emirates Airlines focuses over providing the services well on time. Time is an important aspect as the time limited for the loading of the food over the flight is limited so the staffs of the catering department keeps a check over this aspect.
Ensuring the quality of the services or the food offered to the passengers: the quality is the main focus as the quality ensures the health of the passengers. Emirates keeps check over the different stages of the catering department which ensures that nothing has been left out which can affect the quality of the food or service.
Making the product or service easily available to the passengers:the catering services of the Emirates Airlines offers the products to the passengers in an adequate quantity and the flights carries the adequate amount or quantity of the products with it for dealing with the situations (Adler & Gellman, 2012).
Ensuring the growth of the Airlines:maintaining the quality and achieving the set standards helps the Emirates Airlines to ensure the growth. Emirates Airlines is one of the top Airlines of the world. The outcome of the operations in an effective manner which result in improving the performance of the organisation which leads to growth of the business.
3.2 And 4.2 The various stages in baking a loaf of bread are given below. Create a network plan and indicate the resultant critical path for the below mentioned problem. Also evaluate the critical path in the network diagram in context of the situation given in the problem and elucidate the significance of the critical path.
Activity Proceeded by Elapsed time (minutes)
A - Weigh ingredients - 1
B - Mix ingredients A 3
C - Dough rising time B 60
D - Prepare tins - 1
E - Pre-heat oven - 10
F - Knock back dough and place in tins C & D 2
G - 2nd dough rising time F 15
H - Cooking time E & G 45
Evaluation of the critical path in the network diagram in context to the situation given in the problem is as follows:
Critical path can be understood as the sequence of the stages which helps in determining the minimum time required for the execution of an operation. In the given network diagram three paths are available which helps in the execution of the activities of the business (Yukawa & Amari, 2016). These paths are as follows:
Time involved (in minutes)
A – B – C – F – G – H
1 + 3 + 60 + 2 + 15 + 45 = 126 minutes or 2 hours 6 minutes
D – F – G – H
1 + 2 + 15 + 45 = 63 minutes or 1 hour 3 minutes
E – H
10 + 15 = 25 minutes
The critical path for the purpose of the given situation is A – B – C – F – G – H.
4.3 Explain how quality could be defined and maintained during the operations at Emirates Airlines Flight Catering
For the purpose of defining the quality of the services offered by the catering department of Emirates Airlines, standards have been set which focuses over the achievement of the standards while offering the services to the passengers. It defines the quality as its top most priority which has enabled it to achieve or hold the position of the one of the top most Airlines services provider in the world. The products or services offered by the catering department are compared with the set standards so as to check the quality of the services and products. The operations of the catering department of Emirates Airlines are executed into different stages by the different teams so as to ensure that all the operations are performed as per the set standards and the quality of the products and services is maintained. Quality need to be checked over the regular intervals and on the various stages involved in the process of the execution of the operations of the catering department of the Emirates Airlines. The hygiene factor is the important element which needs to be kept in mind while offering services to the passengers (Nataraja & Al-Aali, 2011).
This program has provided an understanding of the operational management and its significance in providing services to the customers so as to meet their expectations. Operational management is an important aspect for every business as it helps the organisation to manage and control its functions in a better manner and coordinating the functions and activities for the attainment of the objectives of the organisation. It discusses the relationship between operational management and strategic planning which is a part of operational management. It also provides knowledge of the manner in which the quality of the services and products can be maintained.
Adler, N. & Gellman, A. 2012, "Strategies for managing risk in a changing aviation environment", Journal of Air Transport Management, vol. 21, pp. 24-35.
Aghajari, N. & Amat Senin, A. 2014, "Strategic orientation and dual innovative operation strategies: Implications for performance of manufacturing SMEs", Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 127-147.
Apak, S., Atay, E. & Tuncer, G. 2012, "Renewable hydrogen energy regulations, codes and standards: Challenges faced by an EU candidate country", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 5481-5497.
Hussain, G., Al-Ghamdi, K.A., Bijanrostami, K. & Alehashemi, A.J. 2016, "Determination of Optimum Process Parameters for Cutting Hole in a Randomly-oriented Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite by Milling Process: Maximization of Surface Quality and Cut-hole Strength", Polymers & Polymer Composites, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 81.
Jorge Luiz Knupp Rodrigues, Ferreira, G.C., Manfredini, C. & José Luis Gomes da Silva 2014, "MANAGEMENT AND CHALLENGES OF BRAZILIAN AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURE: OPERATIONAL DIFFICULTIES FOR LARGE EVENTS", Revista Científica Hermes, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 47-66.
Karuppusamy, J. 2013, "LeanERP® Mobile Platform Solution for Planning, Visualization and Execution of Business Operations in MSME Units", International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Engineering, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 88.
Kydd, C.T. 2012, "The Effectiveness of Using a Web-Based Applet to Teach Concepts of Linear Programming: An Experiment in Active Learning", INFORMS Transactions on Education, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 78-88.
Mast, d., J, Mandjes, M. & Kemper, B. 2010;2009;, "Modeling process flow using diagrams",Quality and Reliability Engineering International, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 341-349.
Nataraja, S. & Al-Aali, A. 2011, "The exceptional performance strategies of Emirate Airlines", Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 471-486.
Opp, S.M. & Saunders, K.L. 2013, "Pillar Talk: Local Sustainability Initiatives and Policies in the United States—Finding Evidence of the “Three E’s”: Economic Development, Environmental Protection, and Social Equity", Urban Affairs Review, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 678-717.
Oyedele, J.B., McGreal, S., Adair, A. & Ogedengbe, P. 2013, "Performance and role of European listed infrastructure in a mixed-asset portfolio", Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 160-183.
Sterling, S. 2015, "Identifying money laundering: Analyzing suspect financial conduct against the speed, cost, and security of legitimate transactions", Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 266.
Sundtoft Hald, K. & Mouritsen, J. 2013, "Enterprise resource planning, operations and management", International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1075-1104.
Yukawa, M. & Amari, S. 2016, "and critical path", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 488.