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Skin is the largest organ in human body and plays an active part in regulating a temperature of body. Some of the key regulatory features performed by this system involve following points,
1. Blood supply system helps in temperature regulation as heat loss is allowed from the dilated vessels while the constricted ones act to retain heat.
2. Sweat glands situated in the skin helps in the process of cooling the temperature of a body by means of evaporation of water affecting the loss of heat(Regan et al. 2015).
3. Skins also play a key role in maintaining homeostasis which is the medium of being in equilibrium with the external environment and adjust body temperature in accordance.
4. Arrector pili that are attached to hair follicles and any small muscles make contraction and causes standing of hair. This activity helps in cooling of body temperature.
5. An activity such as radiation of body heat and convection process also regulated by skin and that is essential in regulating body healthcare.
Basal cell carcinoma is characterized by means of rising of skin which is normally painless and presence of running blood vessels over it while squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor as means of stratified epithelium. One of the key causes that are related to the basal cell carcinoma involves overexposure to sunlight as this cause thymine dimer formation and damages DNA and this crosslinked change in DNA cannot be excised(Faniku, Wright & Martin, 2015). Cumulation of continuous such damage leads to formation of mutation of and causes carcinoma. In case of squamous cell carcinoma, alteration in the p53 protein, effect of UV radiation on DNA change and species which are oxygen related, RAS gene and its abnormal functionality are some of the causes of causing this carcinoma. It can also result from alteration of growth factor in epidermis while basal cell carcinoma can arise due to contact with other lesions of body such as squamous cell carcinoma.
B. Clinical manifestations related to thermal burn can be critical and must be brought to notice of a doctor in case of following
1. Formation of large blisters
2. Oozing of wounds referring to involvement of infection in concerned area
A. Melanoma is also referred as malignant neoplasm of skin resulting from proliferation and trasformation of melanocytes in an uncontrolled manner. In the aspect of pathophysiology, external exposure such as UV rays and internal susceptibility of genes such as CDKN2A, CDK4, MC1R causes higher amount of mutation accumulation related to genetic substances. This activates oncogenes and genes for suppressing tumors. Such activation process helps in proliferation of melanocytes resulting in evasion of immunological system and results metastasis(Faniku, Wright & Martin, 2015).
B. There are some basic difference between mole of melanoma and ordinary mole and expert is needed to make proper recognition of this. Two common clinical manifestation of melanoma involves following,
C. Spot in skin that is changing size as well as color based on rate of proliferation of melanocytes.
There are four basic types of blood and these are called as blood groups. These groups involves following,
1. Blood group A
2. Blood group B
3. Blood group AB
4. Blood group O
In the aspect of compatibility of these blood groups, each group has its specific measures. Compatibility measures for each group are given below,
1. For blood group A, it can donate blood to such recipients who have blood group of A and AB and can receive blood from donors who have blood group of A and O.
2. For blood group B, it can donate blood to such recipients who have blood group of B and AB and can receive blood from donors who have blood group of B and O.
3. For blood group AB, it can donate blood to such recipients who have blood group of AB only and can receive blood from all possible donors such as blood group A, B, AB and O. Thus AB blood type is known as universal recipient(Epstein et al. 2013).
4. For blood group O, it can donate blood to all recipients such as blood group of A, B, AB and O and can receive blood from donors who have blood group of O only. Thus O blood type is known as universal donor.
A. Clinical manifestation of mild transfusion reaction involves the process of itching and chances of lung problem. Both of these issues are not involved in the process of acute cases and can be controlled in case of implication of simple factors.
B. For itching of skin, one of the main pathophysiological mean involved is the case of transfused blood being contaminated with some bacteria. Presence of bacteria often induces the immunological system of body and causes different infectional diseases based on type of infection got transfused(Johnson et al. 2013).
For lung injury, it is the antibodies that are present in the plasma of donor cells that cause damage to immune cells present in lungs. Such damage of lung involves in the process of fluid building in lungs and reduces ability of respiration as supply of oxygen to body gets reduced.
C. In case of pregnant women, mixture of Rh negative antigen that is already present in placenta of pregnant women and Rh positive antibody of second child can cause severe problem to child. In such cases, hemolysis of blood cells occurs in the child as red blood cells get broken down and causes death of that child.
In case of tissue hypoxia, the aspect of the erythrocyte cell cycle is very important. Erythroid precursor development is directly related to Hb to oxygenate in regarding tissues. Thus differentiation of erythroid from stem cells to progenitor cells to finally in normoblasts via erythroblasts requires specific growth factors as well as cytokines. Newly formed reticulocytes formulate mature erythrocytes by means of RNA digestion and this overall process gets hampered in case of anemia and these results in hypoxia of tissue.
In the aspect of administration of blood, it can certainly help in the process of improving oxygen level of a patient. Administration of blood typically involves blood transfusion and involves increased amount of blood in body that helps in increasing Hb count in blood(Epstein et al. 2013). In such case, number of Hb molecules present in red blood cells to carry oxygenated blood gets increased and for that supply of oxygen to lungs gets increased only. Better flow of blood in veins also helps in maintaining this higher level of oxygen flow through veins causing improvement in the level of oxygen in a particular person.
A comminuted fracture is related to such incidents where breaking of bone occurs into numbers greater than two. As high amount of energy is required for fragmenting bones into such parts, impactful trauma and serious accidents are involved in this process. On the other hand, compound fracture refers to such cases in which pieces of bone that are broken protrudes out of the wound and gets exposed. Thus this process is associated with higher chances of infection compared to comminuted fracture(Del Grande et al. 2014). Falling from higher place or playing sports can effect in the process of compound nature of fracture. Compound fracture requires 4-6 weeks to be healed in proper manner while comminuted fracture takes at least 6 weeks in order to get cured in proper manner.
Neurovascular system is the combination of nervous and vascular system and combination of both these systems are very important in order to assess neurovascular detorian in proper manner. In this regard, it is very important to consider early assessment as taking late measures can impact in deficit of permanent nature such as loss of a limb. In the process of making proper assessments related to neurovascular system, consideration of 5P is important and these are aspect of pain, issue of pallor, aspect of pulse, paralysis and paresthesia(Neumann, 2013). Neurovascular observations thus involves monitoring of blood supply to brain and upper portion of spinal cord as often it is seen that neurovascular injury results in less amount of blood supply.
Cirrhosis is related to the complication of liver in which loss of cells of liver is encountered. This can be characterized by many functions which are abnormal in nature. Cirrhosis is related to dying of liver cells and formation of scar tissues. Pain in the right upper quadrant due to cirrhosis involves some pathophysiological actions. This involves some of the cells that do not die attempts to replace dead cells by means of rapid multiplication and for that a cluster of new cells occurs in scar tissue. Some of chemicals such as alcohol, certain type of medicine and fat help in this process(Qin et al. 2014). Some of the toxic metals such as iron and copper also causes problem in the aspect of cirrhosis of liver. These aspects provide a deep impact in overall amount of accumulation of toxin. Due to non degradable nature of these substances, it even causes genetic diseases. Lymphoma and chronic myeloid leukaemia is also regarded as important in the aspect of discussing primary cirrhosis that ultimately causes pain in the right upper quadrant.
Alcoholic cirrhosis involves increased rate of vomiting with presence of blood and enlargement of liver due to occurrence of high rate of cell proliferation.
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