NURS3105 Evidence for Health Care Practice Proof Reading Services

NURS3105 Evidence for Health Care Practice Assignment

NURS3105 Evidence for Health Care Practice Proof Reading Services


Hand hygiene is very important attribute in patient care and nursing practice because it is one of the primary methods of maintaining sterility in clinical care and ensuring that infective agents do not cross from one patient to another. Nosocomial infections and community level health problems have poor hygiene as a very common pathology behind it and hand hygiene is a part of this development. Many bacterial infections and parasitical infections can be transmitted from one person to another through hands, specially areas below the nail bed are very prone for making such cross contamination. In nursing and clinical care many approaches and methods are used to ensure that health care professionals as well as general people take care of their hand hygiene and contribute in improvement of health status of entire population. In year 2009 government of Australia initiated a national level program for hand hygiene by name national hand hygiene initiative. This initiative was taken by government to ensure that people of Australia should be well aware of the importance of hand hygiene and impact it can make on their overall health and quality of life. Hand hygiene is also marked as a priority area by Australian commission for safety and quality in health care. This NURS3105 evidence for health care practice assignment aimed to improve hand hygiene status in Australian hospitals and health care centres. Through these evidences it is attempted to show that how important it is for health care system of Australia that oral hygiene is maintained.

Get more information Nursing Practices Assignment

Literature Review

Literature Review Summary Table – 10 Primary Sources

Author(s) date title



Sample/ setting


Design/ methods


Main findings


Primary argument


Strengths and limitations of the paper

  1. Redway, k. &Fawdar, S. (2008)

Title of the paper is “A comparative study of different hand drying methods: paper

towel, warm air dryer, jet air dryer”.


Published by :- University of Westminster, UK in European Tissue Symposium

Aim:- · Measure the drying efficiency of paper towel, warm air dryer and jet air


To Calculate any changes in the numbers of different types of bacteria on the

finger pads and palms of 20 subjects (10 male, 10 female) before and after

washing and drying their hands using three different hand drying

methods: paper towel, warm air dryer, jet air dryer

Sample:- sample size of this research study is 20 and to keep a gender balance 10 males and 10 females are selected in sample.

This research study was quantitative in nature and it is using data analysis methods which can numerically express the data collected. Data collected was mostly from observation of dry paper and measuring the amount of water which is present in hand after drying etc.

Measurement of mean dryness percentage and calculation of mean time which is needed to achieve 90 percent hand dryness were calculated and measured.

There is no significant difference in the way hands are dried and also it is found in data analysis that it takes approximately 10 seconds to reach a 90 percent dryness and bacteria free and it is independent on the way hands are washed.

A quantitative research approach is the strength of this paper because it enables this paper to qualify as a evidence for EBP approach of nursing. Similarly an unbiased selection of research sample helped in further improving the credibility and strength of claims. On the other hand having a sample size as low as 20 makes the research paper weak.

There is a need to improve the language of paper to make it much easier for readers to understand.

  1. Larson EL, Cohen B, Baxter KA. (2012) Title:- Analysis of alcohol-based hand sanitizer delivery systems: efficacy of foam, gel, and wipes against influenza A (H1N1) virus on hands.

Published in:- Am J Infect Control. 2012 Nov;40(9):806-9.

This project is aiming to assess the effectiveness of hand hygiene delivery systems in context of removing virus from hands.

Another aim of this research was to compare the efficiency of gels, foam and lotion based hand hygiene products.

Sample of this project are 30 volunteers who were inoculated with H1N1 virus on their hand and then different type of sanitizers were used in different patterns to check their effectiveness.

Entire sample population was divided into 3 groups of 10 volunteers.

This research study is also quantitative in nature and they have a SMART aim and objective.

Developing log counts of each group of 10 members is done and a comparative analysis between results of all three groups is done.

Conclusion and findings stated that there is a very minor difference in effectiveness of hand hygiene delivery system against viral infection control. Treatments with all products resulted in a significant reduction in viral titters (>3 logs) at their respective exposure times that were statistically comparable

This research study is very strong in its objectivity and it is also providing a comparative result between different systems which has a lot of practical and clinical implication.

Its primary weakness is that it is analysing impact on only one type of bacteria while there are hundreds of strains in each category of microorganism which can be potentially harmful to a human being.

  1. Benjamin J. Et al (2009) title of the research study is “Facemasks and Hand Hygiene to Prevent Influenza Transmission in Households: A Cluster Randomized Trial”.

It was published in Annals of internal medicine journal established by American college of physicians.

Aim and objective of this research project is to investigate whether hand hygiene and use of facemasks prevents household transmission of influenza.

This was a very extensive research study and two samples were collected for this project. 407 samples were patient suffering from influenza in clinics and 794 members were house hold people.

This study was organized in house hold members of Hong Kong.

This research study was designed as a randomized control trial study. This randomization was cluster in nature and they were generated by computer only.

Results included that hand hygiene definitely reduces the impact of influenza in households and it is independent of face masks. Intervention also included patient education and hygiene control. It was observed that in households were intervention was implemented in 36 hours of symptoms rising infection control was better.

One Limitation with this research study is that there has been some delay from index patient symptom onset to intervention and variable adherence which might have mitigated intervention and effectiveness.

  1. Jabber, U. Et al (2010)

Research study is titled as “Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rubs for removal of Clostridium difficult spores from hands”. This project was published in journal of infection control hospital epidemiology in june 2010 in their 31st volume.


This research project is aiming to examine the retention of C. difficult spores on the hands of volunteers after ABHR use and the subsequent transfer of these spores through physical contact.

Sample size of this research is also 10 and they were all volunteers.  Use of three different alcohol based rubs were used in this project and each respondent was using both alcohol based rubs and checking the percentage of clostridium spores in hand after usage.

Nontoxigenic C. difficult spores were spread on the bare palms of 10 volunteers. Use of 3 ABHRs and chlorhexidinesoap-and-water washing were compared with plain water rubbing alone for removal of C. difficult spores. Palmar cultures were performed before and after hand decontamination by means of a plate stamping method. Transferability of C. difficult after application of ABHR was tested by having each volunteer shake hands with an uninoculated volunteer.


This result proved that there were no statistically different results between the water controlled wash and alcohol based rubs in reducing the count and colonies of residual spores.

One of the primary limitation of this research project is number of volunteers used are very less and there was no control group used to test the different between people who are using ABR and those who are not. They can be used easily as zero point in research project instead of water washing as zero point.







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