NUR250 Nursing and Healthcare Assignments Solution

NUR250 Nursing and Healthcare Assignments Solution

NUR250 Nursing and Healthcare Assignments Solution

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is defined as the blood cancer that caused in lymphoma and leukaemia [1]. This disease cannot be treated or cured, however it can be slows down and the person with this health issues can live longer. In this disorder the white blood cells multiply abnormally. The plasma cells become carcinogenic and keep dividing and growing abnormally. These plasma cells produce impaired protein or antibodies such as monoclonal protein. The risk factors associated with this disease includes age (being old), African – American people are more likely to develop, genetic factors (one of the facility member have this disorder), and someone with plasma cell disease like Solitary plasmacytoma. It does not show Symptoms at early stages, however after some time it shows symptoms like bone pain, weight loss, weakness and fatigue [2]. In this essay the epidemiology, pathogenesis, outcomes of untreated condition, treatments and current prognosis with therapy will be discussed

Multiple myeloma is the second most commonly found haematological malignancy after lymphoma. It accounts for one per cent of all type of cancer. Particularly in 2016 early 24, 2802 to 230,330 new patients has been diagnosed and 12, 650 deaths have been occurred. The estimated global five years prevalence is nearly 230,000 people with this health issue [3]. According to American society of cancer it is estimated in 2018 that nearly 30, 770 new patients will be diagnosed and around 12, 770 deaths are expected to occur. In the western world 37 per cent of the patient diagnoses with multiple myeloma belong to the age group of 66-70 years. This disease is rare in the people with 30 or below age. A study conducted by myeloma incident by Baker reported that nearly 86000 incidents occur annually and nearly 63000 people are died due to this disorder each year. Geographically the frequency of occurrence of this disease is higher in industrialised areas of New Zealand/Australia, North America and Europe [4]. In Australia nearly 1500 cases are identified with these issues each year. According to a report published by cancer Australia in 2013 to 12014 nearly 1637 new cases has been diagnosed, it was also estimated that close 1876 new case will be diagnosed in 2018 [5].

The pathogenesis of multiple myeloma is a complex progress that can be divided in different stages. Multiple myeloma has been characterised by the multiplication of plasma cells which involve in more than 10 per cent of the total bone marrow. The bone marrow microenvironment of the tumour cells plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the myelomas. Plasma cells and the plasmacytoid lymphocytes are considered as the most mature cells of B lymphocytes. The maturation of B cell is related to programmed rearrangement of a DNA sequence in order to encode the structure of the mature immunoglobulins. It can be characterised by the overproduction of IgG, IgA [6]. IL or interleukin 6 and IL-1b are also the important factor responsible for in vitro growth of myeloma cells [8]. The pathogenesis of this disease includes skeleton process, hematologic, renal and nervous system process. In the skeleton process the plasma cell proliferation leads to extensive skeleton destruction. The isolated plasmocytomas cause hyperkalaemia with production of osteoclast- activating factors. The hematologic process includes the M components interaction with clotting factor leads to defective aggregation. The renal injury in multiple myeloma involved plasmacytoma, the renal infiltration of the plasma cells causes myeloma and glomerulosclerosis.

The general process of multiple myeloma include hyperciscocity syndrome. This syndrome occurs with the abnormal production of IgG1, IgG3, or IgA. The B- lymphocytes in bone marrow move to the lymph. With progression they mature and show different protein on their cell surface. They start secreting antibodies after activation. These cells develop MM when they left germinal centre of lymph node. The immune system continuously produces B cells and antibodies under control. When the chromosome and associated genes are damaged, this control has been lost. A promoter gene transfers to a chromosome and triggers an antibody gene to abnormal production [7].

Although the symptoms of this disorder cannot be seen in early stages, it can cause severe health issues if remain untreated. The untreated multiple myeloma can cause various complications such as high blood-calcium levels, bone pain, bacterial infection, bone breaks or bone fractures, spinal cord compression, anaemia, thickening of the blood. The symptoms associated with the thickened blood include bleeding form the mouth and nose, blurred vision, heart failure. Anaemia related symptoms include paleness, weakness and extreme tiredness [9]. In untreated multiple myeloma the kidney dysfunction is commonly caused due the abnormal protein production form the malignant cells. The myeloma cells secrete monoclonal proteins such as immunoglobulin. When these proteins excreted form the kidneys, the organ gets damaged. The increased reabsorption results in hepercalcemia and may cause nephrocalcinosis, and further leads to kidney failure. This condition may also cause amyloidosis, and the patient with health condition develops high level of amyloid proteins that are secreted through the kidneys and damage one or both the kidneys and other organs of the body. This disorder has three different stages, and in the untreated multiple myeloma the initial stages may reach to end stages. It may also results in increased proliferation and a least prognosis and further it may leads to death [10].

There are various treatments are there that are beneficial to manage the health issues. The treatment of multiple myeloma includes chemotherapy, radiation, and bone marrow transplant. Chemotherapy is basically the use of drugs to kill the malignant cells, generally by preventing the cancerous cells’ ability to proliferate and grow. The chemotherapy schedules include various cycles provided a period of time. Combining chemotherapy with other treatments like radiation is recommended [11]. Radiation therapy is another approach in which high energy x rays has been used to kill the cancerous cells. External beam radiation therapy is commonly used in this type of treatment. Similar top chemotherapy this treatment also proved with a set period of time [12]. Bone marrow transplant is the medical procedures in which whole bone marrow contain malignant cells removed and replaced with specific cells known as hematopoietic stem cells. These cells further develop in RBCs, WBCs and platelets in bone marrow [13]. The pharmacological treatment of multiple myeloma includes medicine such as thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide, pomalidomide, panobinostat, carfilazomib, and daratumumab. Daratumumab is the new antibiotic treatment which is available in UK. It targets the protein on CD38 present on the myeloma cells and help to destroy the malignant myeloma cells. Panobinostat is the newer treatment fir MM. it is taken as tablet for few months with other medicines like bortezumab. Carfilzomib is the medication which similar to bortezomib. It is used on the regular basis as a tablet or injection intravenously. This medicine is more intensive than bortezomib. The Bortezomib medicine can be helpful to destroy the myeloma cells by building up proteins inside them. This can be given through subcutaneously [14].

Multiple myeloma is the heterogeneous disorders in which the patient may survive within the range if 1 to 10 years. The 5 years relative survival chances are 46 %. The survival rate is higher in young people. The burden of tumour and the rate of multiplication are two different key indicator of prognosis in the person with this health issues. One the different schema for predicting the survival is use of C- reactive protein and the beta2 macroglobulin. This can be done by methods like: if the levels of both the proteins are found to be less than 6 mg/l, than the median survival is fifty four months. If the analysed level only single component is less than the above range, then the survival will be 27 months. If both the protein values are higher than 6 mg/ L, this helps to predict that the median survival is six months. The prognosis by the treatment therapies are; in conventional therapy: the overall survival is nearly three years , and the event free survival is not more than two years; in high dose chemotherapy which the stem cell transplantation: the complete survival rate is higher than 50 per cent at five years.

Multiple myeloma is the blood cancer that is caused by in leukaemia and lymphoma. The risk factors of this disease are age, African American people, and genetic factors. The symptoms associated with advanced stages of this disorder include bone pain, lack of energy, weakness, and weight loss. According to Cancer Australia between 2013 to 2014 around 1637 new case has been identified. The pathogenesis of this health issues include abnormal proliferation of plasma cells during a programmed rearrangement and overproduction of IgG, and IgG. The outcomes of uncontrolled disorder are kidney failure, high blood calcium level, bine pain, anaemia, thickening of blood and death. Treatment includes chemotherapy with radiation or stem cells transplantation. Medicine like daratumumab and carfilazomib can be used to treat ma age the disease. The prognosis of this health with conventional therapy is nearly 3 years and fifty per cent at 5 years in chemotherapy with stem cell therapy.

References:-

1.What is myeloma? [Document on the Internet]: Myeloma Australia; 2017 [cited 2018 September 25]. Available from: http://myeloma.org.au/
2.Myeloma cancer fact sheet [document on the Internet]: Cancer Australia; 2013 [cited 2018 September 25]. Available from: https://canceraustralia.gov.au/system/tdf/publications/mylm_myeloma_cancer_fact_sheet_51ecc367536f5.pdf?file=1&type=node&id=3620
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5.Myeloma statistics [document on the Internet]: Cancer Australia; 2018 [cited 2018 September 25]. Available from: https://myeloma-cancer.canceraustralia.gov.au/statistics
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