Delivery in day(s): 3
NUR250 Nursing and Health care Oz Assignment
The Australian government has determined Reproduction and Sexual health as one of the major healthcare priorities with maternal healthcare in Australia (Singh, Darroch & Ashford 2014, p.122). As per the World Health Organization (2013) reproductive and sexual health is determined by appropriate physical, mental and social wellbeing and it also helps the people around the world to live a healthy sexual life, their stable and healthy reproductive ability and then they decide as per their freedom. Chandra-Mouli et al. (2015, p. 123) mentions that sexual and reproductive health is not related to the absence of disease however it also affected by the socio-economic political and cultural aspect. Therefore, it is the role of these holistic approaches to determine people and their reproductive and sexual health (Tornello, Riskind & Patterson 2014, p. 169). Besides these, there are several factors such as educational, health promotional marketing, violence and prevention as well as mental health issues and hence to make people aware of the reproductive and sexual health, the Australian government has included in the gender equality-related promotions so that the policies and regulations related to the reproductive and sexual health could be provided to all the citizens (Denno, Hoopes. & Chandra-Mouli 2015, p. 45).
In this assignment, the Australian organization namely ‘Culturally diverse sexual health services’ will be identified as a facility or organization and then their policy related to plans and policies of the international, national and state-based strategies will be aligned and provided. Besides these the population of the service provided and their priorities for the population will be provided in this assignment. Finally, an evaluation of the service provision for the chosen population and the evidence-based interventions will be provided and a set of recommendations for the proper service delivery will be provided in the assignment.
Culturally diverse sexual health services
The organization Culturally diverse sexual health serviceis the sisterly facility of the Reachout which is an online mental health organization. This organization provides care in every aspect such as lifeline for all ages, kids helpline, suicidal service, reproduction and sexual health and respect for all ages (Culturally diverse sexual health services 2018). Further, these services were provided in places such as Victoria, western Australia, south Australia, new south wales, Tasmania, northern territory, Queensland and Australian capital territory. These services are important for the Australian population as the reach of these services is up to 132,000 people in Australia every month and more than 1.58 million people in Australian population (Culturally diverse sexual health services 2018). Further, besides providing care to these wide arrays of people, the organization also raises funds for different public healthcare programs around the country and also seeks help from the national facility so that with the governmental aid such promotional and educational sessions could be conducted (Culturally diverse sexual health services 2018).
Besides being a sisterly organization to the parent Reachout organization, the Culturally diverse sexual health service aims to comply with several national and territorial healthcare policies and regulation so that lawful and strategically compliance care could be provided to the people requiring reproductive or sexual healthcare interventions (Culturally diverse sexual health services 2018). As per the details of its policy and regulation compliance provided in the website, this service complies with two national policies such as Family Planning Alliance Australia and Multicultural Women’s Health Australia. Both of these national policies are run by the central government of Australia. On one hand, Family Planning and Alliance Australia is the national primal body for the sexual health and family planning organization, whereas, on the other hand, MWHA is the national arm of the multicultural center for cultural health in Australia, which is a policy for the immigrant women coming to Australia and to improve their health and wellbeing (Culturally diverse sexual health services 2018). As the primary population of this service is refugee and multilingual young females who are unable to understand the maximum healthcare facilities provided by the Australian government, the service also complies with the state and territorial health policies and regulations (Culturally diverse sexual health services 2018). For example, in Victoria it complies with the Victorian refugee Health Network, the center for culture and ethnicity and health or (CEH) as well as the Family Planning Victoria, on the other hand, in New South Wales the policies are Family Planning NSW, Multicultural HIV and Hepatitis Service website. Similarly, in Tasmania and northern territory the family planning Tasmania Inc. and the family planning NT acts are followed by the organization to make it compliance to national and state policies (Culturally diverse sexual health services 2018). These policies are primarily for the upliftment and security of women irrespective of their culture, nationality and lingual preference and helps to provide them with their fundamental rights related too quality care. Hence, after evaluation of the organization that provide reproductive and sexual healthcare aids to people and its compliance with the national and state policies, it was determined that the facility complied with each of the territorial and national policies properly and then helped the people so that they can lead a normal and healthy sexual life (Culturally diverse sexual health services 2018).
The services and the priority population
As per the details available in the website of the parental and the organization in discussion, there is a wide range of services that the facility provides to the population of Australia and nearby territories such as Tasmania. The facility provides online as well as offline service to people in Australia and targets the young people as it has been seen that more than 505 of Australian younger generation is associated with internet everyday and hence, they act to remove the emergence of these issues in such population is Australia (Culturally diverse sexual health services 2018). The primary help the organization provides to the people affected with lingual and cultural barriers and hence, the linguistically diverse young people of Australia is provided with the help and care provided by the healthcare professionals and psychological experts in this facility (World Health Organization 2016). The organization provides facilities such as multilingual counselling and educational session related facility, to the young women coming from other countries or are roaming on the roads due to homelessness. Besides this, the organization also provides care to people who are older and having different suicidal ideations, provides help to kids from 5 to 25-year-old young people, suicidal call back service that helps to provide immediate telephonic service to the people who are suffer from suicidal ideations and provide them with counseling and support crisis (Culturally diverse sexual health services 2018). Finally, it also provides the care and support to people who have gone through sexual violence and domestic assaults and family violence so that the they can utilize this support for their personal development and growth in every aspect of life (World Health Organization 2014).
In this public healthcare organization, many communities such as LGBTQ, people with disabilities, indigenous people are included, and their involvement makes the policies and regulations helpful for their upliftment and development (Frost 2013, p. 2001). It is important as these populations are not always provided with help in health and social aspect so that they can overcome their reproductive and sexual health related issues and become healthy. Hindin, Christiansen and Ferguson (2015, p. 15) mentions that healthcare facilities and public healthorganizations are targets to help such population however, they end up providing similar educational and support that do not help in the upliftment of the population. However, the care and promotional program conducted by Culturally diverse sexual health service helps in the identification and observation of aspects that is responsible for the patient condition and impacts the healthcare pf the patient physically, mentally and socially (Schalet et al. 2014, p. 123). Therefore, this is the primary point of the care process, which the care process of Culturally diverse sexual health servicetargets and helps the population with its strategies and interventions. Further, the kind of sexual and reproductive diseases suffered by this community is higher than any other community and hence, it helps to provide a holistic approach of the care process in the sexual and reproductive health related issue of populations in question such as indigenous people, LGBTI and people with disabilities (Svanemyr et al. 2015, p. 234).
Services for LGBTI community
Sexual health is one of the major concerns for the LGBTI community around the world. It is their fundamental right to be able to live with fulfilling sexual health, being free from sexually transmitted diseases and decide their own fertility, however, there are very few organizations that support this statement and provide them with their ability to live freely without any intervene of social discriminations (Cahill & Makadon 2014, p. 40). This facility helps the community by providing them with the opportunity to be able to share their thoughts regarding any physical mental and social issue and for this they provide a 8 hour customer support system 7 days a week. This helps the LGBTI people of Australia with a continuous support and they can use this portal as a educational portal and receive knowledge regarding sexual and reproductive diseases form the facility (Friedman et al. 2014, p. 310).
Services for indigenous population
The indigenous population is one of the most deprived and discriminated population of Australia and due to this they are unable to receive any healthcare or social interventions which could increase their ability to fight back and improve their condition from other communities in the country (Wilson et al. 2013, p. 23). As per the data of Australian bureau of statistics, the rate of HIV in indigenous population in Australia is 33% whereas the rate of hepatitis C in the same population is 25%. This indicates the deep reach of such reproductive and sexual diseases in the indigenous society and hence, the organization provide them with educational and strategy related interventions to provide them with knowledge about the diseases and their preventive measures so that they could be protected from these health aspects (Råssjö et al. 2013, p. 100).
People with disability and service for their sexual and reproductive health
For the people with disabilities, the organization provides guidelines and regulations so that they can understand the provision government is using to prevent such diseases in their community (Ahumuza et al. 2014, p. 59). Further it also provides them with educational and healthcare interventions so that such disease can prevented in their society (Swain et al. 2013, p. 98).
Evaluation of the specific provision for the priority population
The primary and priority population chosen for this healthcare promotional and intervention related organization is the lingual and culturally diverse refugee young women who are unaware of the services and system of the Australian government. Cahill and Makadon (2014, p. 39) mentions in his research article that majority of the refugee community are unaware of the sexual health and related information due to their social work and mental state and fear of resettlement. The researchers included the study done in Australia Melbourne and associated refugee provide and tried to find out the level of information acquired by the refugees in the situation of resettlement and in the process collected data from 23 focus groups with 14 interviews with 142 refugee people (Cahill & Makadon 2014, p. 38). It was found that the young people especially female refuges have to face disadvantage related to sexual and reproductive health and due to which majority of the population suffer from sexually transmitted diseases or mental health issues (Råssjö et al. 2013, p. 56).
It was also seen in the research article by Nguyen et al. (2016, p. 100), that healthcare professionals in such refugee camps are not able to understand foreign language and hence, they are unable to provide proper medication to such population, as well as the population also unable o understand the language in which people are provided with details in a language they do not understand (Ahumuza et al. 2014, p. 59). Hence, it is another reason due to which the refugee population is unable to take effective measures to understand their responses to the emerging health condition. Besides, the social and lingual difference creates a mental different between the refugee population and the government and hence, they suffer from such health concerns and effect their health as well. Therefore, healthcare promotional campaigns should focus on providing a lingual compliance healthcare intervention so that they can be provided with facilities provided by the government and their health could also become a major concern for the government and healthcare facilities in the country (Swain et al. 2013, p. 123).
The third evidence of evaluation is collected about the LGBTI community and people with disability. These are communities as per Gubrium et al. (2016, p. 128) the society thinks least about and discriminated due to their physical appearance or due to their sexual choices. This is because there are very few healthcare and wellbeing enhancement organizations that target these groups for their benefit and holistic wellbeing approach (World Health Organization 2016). Therefore, it is the duty of the healthcare facilities to understand their needs and address them to make these communities safer and provide answer to their questions. Besides these, providing detailed health analysis helps the communities to understand their physical and sexual limits and they can fulfill their demands as per their limitation in life (Cahill & Makadon 2014, p. 59).
Despite the fact that the Culturally diverse sexual health service provides detailed and complete health, social and mental help to the population affecting from or at the verge of reproductive or sexual health concerns, there are few recommendations, using which the acceptability and efficacy of the program could be increased (Oster et al. 2016, p. 129). The recommendations are as follows:
The first recommendations will be keeping the value of the complete program as per the health of the entire Australian community. Health is a fundamental right of human being and hence, it should not be compromised in any aspect (Gomez, Fuentes & Allina 2014, p. 26). It is the primary duty of the healthcare professionals working in that organization to comply the united nations health related principles in the proves of the organization so that while taking part in the processes, people can related to its values and ideologies (Chandra-Mouli et al. 2015, p. 129).
Secondly, the organization should maintain equity, access and development related policies to provide care equally to every people in need. The organization should understand the health gap present in the Australian healthcare system and should work in the way to close such gaps by providing equal and concise opportunities to each individual in need (Igras et al. 2014, p. 56). It should be mentioned that inequalities in health care could be primary reason for the decrease in the growth and development of the services for sexual healthcare in Australia. Therefore, the society should change its mentality to provide equal opportunity to people of Australia without any specifications (Green & Murphy 2014, p. 760).
Sexual and reproductive health is one of the major concerns in healthcare facilities around the world due to its speedy infective nature and inability of the people to prevent. Australia also suffering from such disorders as majority of the LGBTI, indigenous, refugee population having lingual and cultural incompetence and hence it is not possible for the country to neglect the healthcare issues. However, the organization culturally diverse sexual health service helps such people in providing healthcare intervention and therefore, it is the organization that helps to provide culturally, lingual and policy related interventions to prevent such disease in the communities. In this assignment, the details of the organization, the service provided by the organization and then provided with the services provided to the priority populations. After that with the help of latest research evidences, the interventions used by healthcare organization was justified and then few recommendations were suggested so that using the organization can increase its competency with the policy and regulation related aspects of Australian healthcare.
1. Ahumuza, S.E., Matovu, J.K., Ddamulira, J.B. and Muhanguzi, F.K., 2014. Challenges in accessing sexual and reproductive health services by people with physical disabilities in Kampala, Uganda. Reproductive health, 11(1), p.59.
2. Cahill, S. & Makadon, H., 2014. Sexual orientation and gender identity data collection in clinical settings and in electronic health records: A key to ending LGBT health disparities. LGBT health, 1(1), pp.34-41.
3. Chandra-Mouli, V., Svanemyr, J., Amin, A., Fogstad, H., Say, L., Girard, F. & Temmerman, M., 2015. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(1), pp.S1-S6.
4. Chandra-Mouli, V., Svanemyr, J., Amin, A., Fogstad, H., Say, L., Girard, F. & Temmerman, M., 2015. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(1), pp.S1-S6.
5. Culturally diverse sexual health services (2018). Culturally diverse sexual health services. [online] Au.reachout.com. Available at: https://au.reachout.com/articles/cald-sexual-health-services [Accessed 29 Sep. 2018].
6. Denno, D.M., Hoopes, A.J. & Chandra-Mouli, V., 2015. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(1), pp.S22-S41.
7. Friedman, M.R., Dodge, B., Schick, V., Herbenick, D., Hubach, R.D., Bowling, J., Goncalves, G., Krier, S. & Reece, M., 2014. From bias to bisexual health disparities: Attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. LGBT health, 1(4), pp.309-318.
8. Frost, J.J., 2013. US women’s use of sexual and reproductive health services: trends, sources of care and factors associated with use, 1995–2010.
9. Gomez, A.M., Fuentes, L. & Allina, A., 2014. Women or LARC first? Reproductive autonomy and the promotion of long?acting reversible contraceptive methods. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health, 46(3), pp.171-175.
10. Green, E.C. & Murphy, E., 2014. Health belief model. The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of health, illness, behavior, and society, pp.766-769.
11. Gubrium, A.C., Mann, E.S., Borrero, S., Dehlendorf, C., Fields, J., Geronimus, A.T., Gomez, A.M., Harris, L.H., Higgins, J.A., Kimport, K. & Luker, K., 2016. Realizing reproductive health equity needs more than long-acting reversible contraception (LARC).
12. Hindin, M.J., Christiansen, C.S. & Ferguson, B.J., 2013. Setting research priorities for adolescent sexual and reproductive health in low-and middle-income countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91, pp.10-18.
13. Igras, S.M., Macieira, M., Murphy, E. & Lundgren, R., 2014. Investing in very young adolescents' sexual and reproductive health. Global public health, 9(5), pp.555-569.
14. Nguyen, P., Gold, J., Pedrana, A., Chang, S., Howard, S., Ilic, O., Hellard, M. & Stoove, M., 2013. Sexual health promotion on social networking sites: a process evaluation of The FaceSpace Project. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1), pp.98-104.
15. Oster, A.M., Brooks, J.T., Stryker, J.E., Kachur, R.E., Mead, P., Pesik, N.T. & Petersen, L.R., 2016. Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus—United States, 2016.
16. Råssjö, E.B., Byrskog, U., Samir, R. and Klingberg-Allvin, M., 2013. Somali women’s use of maternity health services and the outcome of their pregnancies: a descriptive study comparing Somali immigrants with native-born Swedish women. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare, 4(3), pp.99-106.
17. Schalet, A.T., Santelli, J.S., Russell, S.T., Halpern, C.T., Miller, S.A., Pickering, S.S., Goldberg, S.K. & Hoenig, J.M., 2014. Invited commentary: broadening the evidence for adolescent sexual and reproductive health and education in the United States.
18. Singh, S., Darroch, J.E. & Ashford, L.S., 2014. Adding it up: The costs and benefits of investing in sexual and reproductive health 2014.
19. Svanemyr, J., Amin, A., Robles, O.J. & Greene, M.E., 2015. Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a framework and promising approaches. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(1), pp.S7-S14.
20. Swain, J., French, S., Barnes, C. & Thomas, C. eds., 2013. Disabling barriers-enabling environments. Sage.
21. Tornello, S.L., Riskind, R.G. & Patterson, C.J., 2014. Sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health among adolescent young women in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54(2), pp.160-168.
22. Wilson, D., de la Ronde, S., Brascoupé, S., Apale, A.N., Barney, L., Guthrie, B., Harrold, E., Horn, O., Johnson, R., Rattray, D. and Robinson, N., 2013. Health professionals working with First Nations, Inuit, and Metis consensus guideline. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 35(6), pp.S1-S4.
23. World Health Organization, 2013. Global and regional estimates of violence against womenPrevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. In Global and regional estimates of violence against womenPrevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence.
24. World Health Organization, 2014. Health for the world's adolescents: a second chance in the second decade: summary.
25. World Health Organizational behaviour, 2016. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: recommendations for a public health approach. World Health Organization.