NSG3102 Patient and Family Centered Care Assignment Help

NSG3102 Patient and Family Centered Care Assignment Help

NSG3102 Patient and Family Centered Care Assignment Help

Introduction

Patient and family centred care is the method used for delivery and evaluation of services in healthcare settings and with the involvement of patient, family and healthcare. The involvement of the patient in own care decision and planning is said to be the patient-oriented care but a new perspective of involving family into the care planning and decision making for the patient's well-being is considered. This approach is viable for the positive results in relation to the improvement in the quality of care and life as the family plays an important and equal role in the recovery of any individual. It not only improves the quality of care provided with patient and family satisfaction but it also enhances the best utilization of resources and employees to achieve better outcomes (Banerjee et al, 2018).

NSG3102 Patient and Family Centered Care Assignment Help

1. The patient and family centred approach is the practice which is used with patients of all ages and in any level and type of healthcare settings but it has great evidence of positive results in care of children when hospitalized or taken care of. Childcare not only ensures the care of children and support to a child in need but it also focuses on the support and understanding of parents or guardians or family of the child (Shields, 2015).The healthcare related to children has to involve the better understanding and should involve their preferences for their child into his care plan. The two core elements of family centred care in child scenario are enabling and empowerment. This care is beneficial to the child as well as his family as it allows the traumatic effects of illness to fade and builds the sense of control and confidence in the uncertain situation. The enabling tool helps parents to think what is best for their child and empowerment is by assuring them a place in care planning to feel they have a control over their child’s condition (Freytag  & Street Jr, 2018). According to recent research by American Academy of Paediatric, it is evident that a patient and parents suffer less during an illness when the family is involved in care planning by practising family centred approach (Neff, 2003). Children recovered faster in presence of family throughout the care. Even parents had less difficulty in coping with the situation when the family centred care was implicated. This ensures that practising family centred care is an essential tool and is beneficial for faster and better recovery of the patient as well as families.

2. Hospital care and community care differ on various aspects so the practice of patient and family centred care at both settings will differ in its provisions and ways. At a hospital, a care provider focuses on an individual patient and family to assure health when the illness has progressed and reached a stage of hospitalization, whereas the community care provider usually tries and focuses on reducing the prevalence of disease and risk to the patients to be hospitalized (Mol et al, 2017).Hospital care provider has to refer to physician and another specialist for the condition of the patient but community care provider is solely independent of making referrals and decisions and in this practice, the caregiver follows family centred care with involving the family in decision making. The following of patient and family centred care can be easily done at hospitals settings as the focus of care plan outreaches particular patient and family but at a community setting the focus usually is generalized (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2014).At the hospital level, the care is granted by one to one communication and a therapeutic relationship is formed this will create a more family and patient centred approach. In the community setting the care provider deals with the patient and family for short duration but has a direct interaction which can be utilized effectively to practice patient and family centred approach. At the hospital, the rapport can be formed to actualize the patient and family centred care for a short duration but in a community setting the rapport formed can be of long duration. Hospital setting care provided is usually to critically ill and sick people undergoing treatment here the need of family and patient centred care is much more as the parents and family are supposed to deal with the trauma and situation of illness and patient himself and this approach provides them with hope and empowerment for getting better. Community care is usually done for elder and critically ill patients with no treatment possible such patients do not require careful planning as the family centred approach but family requires the courage and ability to withstand the upcoming consequences of disease and care provider can provide strength to family and patient for that (Coyne, 2015).

3. Maintaining the dignity and respect of patient and family is essential and a core element of patient and family centred care. According to the Human Rights Act, 1998every person is liable to receive utmost dignity and respect that he deserves as his right even in health care. The dignity right sets a guide to deliver healthcare with equality and respecting the beliefs of all diverse groups and people. The aspect of maintaining the dignity and respect of patient and family concerns with the environment of care that treats the patient, colleagues and people with respecting their privacy and culture (Dennis et al, 2017).All the healthcare professionals are authorized to practice this element while following family centred approach as it is important to make a rapport with patient and family and maintaining the integrity of patient and family will help in forming a rapport with them. People expect medical practitioners and staff to treat them as part of their family and with individuality. The treatment and care plan of individual varies with difference in age. The dignity and respect of individual and family is to be maintained irrespective of age, religion, race and any other discriminating factors (Coyne et al, 2016).A 16 years old patient is stable enough to think what is best for him irrespective of the fact that his parents are the one to take decisions for him. If the patient is old enough to make own decisions he should be involved in making his decisions for care and thou the last decision is left on parents' consent but the opinion, belief and decision of a minor patient with capability to take own decision should be addressed and respected. Whereas in case of a 2-year-old child the patient is not capable to make any decisions for himself or give an opinion on the care planning for his condition. In this case the dignity of patient is maintained by respecting the opinions and believes of the parents and family. If a patient is unable to speak for own self yet it is not that the dignity and respect of child is not to be taken care of (Davidson et al, 2017).It should be maintained that the patient receives his righteous dignity and respect and also receives the best care plan for him. Maintaining dignity is not only in form of maintaining the respect of an individual but it also includes granting privacy to the patient and family, providing individual approach and a family centred care to patient and the family (Uniacke, Browne & Shields, 2018).

4. The stay of a child in hospital usually had negative effects on child and family, but with changing era and advancement in healthcare the effects of trauma to mental health of child and family from hospitalization is reduced by special efforts by healthcare team and new approaches of care. The negative effects include, isolation from parents, other people strange to child and parents taking care of them, feeling of fear and inadequacy (Jang et al, 2018).The effects on parent’s psychology include anxiety, anger, and feeling of low self-esteem, uncontrolled behaviour over situation, disappointment and guilt. The hospitalization of a child pays severe impact on parent’s emotional state as seeing the child in ill and hospitalized state in builds the feeling of fault, guilt and the illness is due to parent’s mistake. Parents have different fears related to fear of prognosis, suffering of child, cultural beliefs, fear of strange environment etc. the hospitalization usually enables child to separate and be away from maternal care and family support which will create a negative impact on their mental status (Franck et al, 2015).To avoid the negative effects to empower the condition of child and family due to hospitalization following steps should be implemented under family and patient centred approach. These steps includes provide rooming in, unlimited visiting hours, try to continue home routine, provide familiar choices and environment, provide parents involvement in care planning and decision making, carefully prepare child for all procedure and explain and try to achieve child’s cooperation. Discourage negative reinforcement on child, explain parents not to feel guilty or blame child or themselves for the illness. Respect child’s needs and privacy and also allow child to put his opinions and explain him whether the belief he has is right for his condition or not. Parents should be given counselling and one to one interaction to form a rapport with care provider to achieve family centred care (Franck et al, 2015).

5. a) Need of IV administration to a preschool child requires proper preparation, explanation and planning to achieve cooperation from the child. The child is usually very afraid of any strange interventions in hospitalization as they fear pain and isolation from parents. Most of the time insertion of IV to a preschool child is not an easy task and it requires a good communication and building a rapport with the child and explaining the procedure and reducing the fear of the child. By doing all these things some amount of cooperation can be attained from child during the procedure. Due to fear a child screams and cries a lot which makes veins more constricted and unable to be found easily (Davidson et al, 2017).To achieve cooperation from a child first educate the child by talking and in acting the procedure in a friendly and play environment. When we have child listen to us than applying numbing cream will help reducing the pain caused and explaining the effects of the numbing cream to the patient is also helpful. Make child have his parents near to him when the procedure is carried. Any sort of distraction while the procedure can help achieve cooperation (Idowu et al, 2018).Parents should be explained the procedure and its need and requested to explain the child that it is for their benefit. Make child stay calm and in relaxed position and encourage the child that they are doing well. Till the insertion is complete the performer should not say it is finished or ended as it will make child anxious to suffer more.

5.b If the procedure is not carried in a proper manner and leaves a child with great fear and crying it can have very negative impact on child’s mental behaviour. The physical pain and suffering can link to emotional suffering in a child. Children with severe illness are more prone to negative effects of cannulisation as it will lead to psychological effects. Repeated venous puncture can cause physical pain and also can make the experience so frightening to the child that it can induce needle phobia and fear from any medical intervention (Cohen et al, 2016).Shouting at child during the procedure showing anger and punishing the child may cause unwanted consequences on a child’s mind. Parents on other hand cannot see their child suffering and getting harm they can have a feeling of guilt and anxiety due to this procedure.

5.c Involving parents in during the preparation of the procedure and during the procedure is only valid when the parent’s themselves having overcome their fears and is ready to help the clinician practice the procedure. If the parents are not well informed and educated about the procedure they will not help the procedure but will be a barrier in the cooperation from the child. During preparation of the procedure it is essential to involve the parents as to educate them even for the need of procedure for their child. During the procedure parents are involved when the child is not stable in position or is not cooperating well; the distraction provided by parents can be helpful in gaining child’s cooperation (Smith, Swallow & Coyne, 2015).

Conclusion

Family centred care not only involves the patient as the chief element of care but also the family of the patient. It is most beneficial in case of child patients. As the hospitalization enforces immense fear of separation and isolation in a child this approach can reduce the negative effects and enable the child and family to recover faster from the illness and be able to share the love and affection by family centred care approach.

References

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