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Network Routing and Switching Assignment Solution
This network routing and switching assignment solution has introduced the fundamental concepts of routing and switching concepts. It is comprises of several network related questions which leads to enhance the networking skills of the learner and provide a vast knowledge in the data communication and networking field.
Question 1 Given the following network, construct the routing table of router R1
A routing table contains the data important to forward a packet along the best path toward its destination. Every packet contains data about its root and destination. At the point when a packet is gotten, a system gadget inspects the parcel and matches it to the directing table section giving the best match to its destination. The table then gives the gadget with guidelines to sending the packet to the following bounce on its course over the system.
Question 2 Create subnets and identify the address left
An organisation has been granted a block of addresses starting with the address 18.104.22.168/24.
a) Create 4 subnets for this organisation with the first sub block of 120 addresses, the second sub block of 60 addresses, the third sub block of 30 addresses and the fourth sub block of 12 addresses.
Sub netting is the methodology used to segment a solitary physical system into more than one littler logical sub-network (subnets). An IP address incorporates a system fragment and a host section. Subnets are outlined by tolerating bits from the IP location's host part and utilizing these bits to relegate various littler sub-systems inside the first system. Sub netting permits an association to include sub-systems without the need to secure another system number by means of the Internet administration supplier (ISP). Sub netting lessens the system movement and hides system intricacy. Sub netting is a key when a solitary system number must be apportioned over various sections of a neighbourhood (LAN).
Subnets were at first intended for illuminating the deficiency of IP locations over the Internet.
Required Host 120
Required Host 60
Required Host 30
b) How many addresses are left?
In this 4 subnet are remaining and they are as given below:
Usable Subnet is only two that is 29 and 30.
Question 3 Consider the following UDP header dump: BB400045003AFF10
User Datagram Protocol is a protocol at Transport Layer, which is not reliable when compared with Transmission Control Protocol. UDP is also called as a connection less protocol. UDP is much simpler than TCP, and it doesn't perform any of the complex functions of TCP we discuss before. UDP provides no reliability, flow-control, or error recovery to IP. UDP only serves as a multiplexer/DE multiplexer using port numbers. Following are the important characteristics of UDP.
Identify the source port number: The Source Port number is the first four hexadecimal number (BB40)16.
Identify the destination port number: TheDestination port number is the second four hexadecimal number (0045)16.
What is the length of the data?
The length of the data is the length of the whole packet minus the length of the header, or 28 – 8 = 20 bytes.
Is it a packet from the client to the server or vice versa: Since the destination port number is 13 (well-known port), the packet is from the client to the server.
What is the client process?
The client process is the Daytime.
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Question 4 Investigate the cloud-managed wireless networks
3. Advantages and disadvantages
4. Key service providers
5. Any other relevant information
The Cloud Managed Networking brings the benefits of the cloud to enterprise networking, delivering easy to use, cost effective wireless networks that are centrally managed and control over the web.
Cloud Networking gives unified administration, deceivability, and control without the expense and many-sided quality of controller apparatuses or overlay administration programming.
With the development of the versatile correspondence system, from second-era to third-era or fourth-era systems, technologists in the portable business keep on considering propelled remote system structures that can possibly lessen organizing costs and furnish expanded adaptability concerning system highlights. In this paper, we propose the remote system cloud (WNC), remote framework engineering for a remote access system. This framework makes utilization of rising distributed computing innovation and different advancements included with remote base, for example, programming radio innovation and remote radio head innovation. In light of open data innovation engineering, the WNC gives all the fundamental transmission and preparing assets for a remote access system working in a cloud mode.
Note that it is helpful to partition the equipment and programming for various remote principles and different administrations and plans of action, and in addition to meet the new framework necessities for rising remote advancements, for example, community oriented preparing at various sizes of system use. We investigate a few essential framework challenges including computational necessities of virtual base stations, I/O throughput, and timing systems for synchronization. In light of current data advancements, we make a few proposals regarding future framework plan.
Two types of cloud
Today, two primary cloud models are being espoused:
1. customer-owned [private]
2. supplier-hosted [public]
Private clouds are appealing in light of the fact that organizations possess the risk of client and representative information. They need to possess, secure and ensure it themselves, and they wouldn't fret tolerating the obligation regarding actualizing and supporting it, so they convey a brought together server farm model where administrations and administration are gotten to from remote locales through VPNs.
Numerous driving Wi-Fi suppliers today are empowering this model by offering a high-limit incorporated WLAN controller that backings "remote" or "flex" AP models. Private mists are appealing for some expansive undertakings that as of now have noteworthy server farm speculations, yet they can do not have a portion of the scale, strength and cost favorable circumstances of open cloud alternatives.
However the expression "cloud" by and large alludes to open mists, which give all the advantages of discharging control, an appealing increase for littler organizations. Another person plans and runs the server farm, acknowledges the intricacy, secures the data (ideally), gives high limit/excess and pays the force bill. The business purchases APs, agrees to an administration, designs them through a Web obstruction and can remotely screen and deal with the WLAN from any place and this progression the conventional WLAN model. The remote LAN turns into an administration and can be adequately accounted in such a way.
Conveyed associations are attracted to open cloud alternatives, however in spite of illuminating the brought together administration and observing needs, open mists don't settle the requirement for a concentrated server farm inside the association. Remote locales regularly require access to bring together assets by means of VPN, yet an open cloud leaves this need unmet, minimizing the upsides of the general population cloud.
Cisco Meraki items are developed from the beginning cloud administration, and leave the crate with unified administration, layer 7 gadget and application deceivability, ongoing online diagnostics, observing, reporting, and much, a great deal more. Cisco Meraki conveys rapidly and effectively, without preparing or exclusive summon line interfaces.
Meraki's organizers imagined Cloud Networking while filling in as graduate understudies at M.I.T. Cisco Meraki now has a complete line of cloud systems administration items that control more than 20,000 client systems, incorporating enormous worldwide organizations with a huge number of gadgets.
Wireless Cloud Architecture is the wireless signal-processing of the base station are handled by the Open Wireless System Cloud (OWSC) framework as well as related management functions in the core network. OWSC framework the virtual base stations (VBS) in the cloud replace the traditional base stations.
How Cloud Controlled WLANs work
The actual Wireless Controller is in the cloud. The access points get their configuration and management in a data centre that is not located on your premises. It’s usually owned and managed by the company who makes the wireless access points.
• Rapid deployment with self-provisioning, self-optimizing hardware
• Control applications, users and devices
• Built-in multi-site management
• Automatic monitoring and alerts
It is remote framework engineering for a remote access network. This framework makes utilization of developing Cloud computing innovation and different advancements included with remote infrastructure. Cloud applications move the registering force and information stockpiling far from the cell phones and into capable and brought together figuring stages situated in clouds, which are then gotten to over the remote association in light of a flimsy local customer. Synopsis Based on open data innovation architecture, the WNC gives all the vital and preparing assets for a remote access system working in a cloud mode.
Note that it is helpful to discrete the equipment and programming for various remote principles and different administrations and business models, as well as to meet the new framework prerequisites for rising remote technologies, such as shared handling at various sizes of system use. We investigate a few important framework challenges including computational necessities of virtual base stations, I/O throughput and timing systems for synchronization. Based on current data technologies, we make a few proposals as for future framework design. We further talk about the application, issues and focal points identified with Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC).
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloud
1. Both the user and Business can also access Unlimited Storage Capabilities & Scalability.
2. It is much more reliable and relevant.
3. Cloud Computing allows the business in order to stop the same application.
4. Organization can easily access the cloud based Infrastructure.
5. The data can be easily accessible by the cloud computing architecture.
1. It is important to keep safe the data, files & records of user’s in order of security mechanism for organization.
2. There are various problems that can come when a user transfers a file or data from one cloud plate from to another, migration process takes much time to transfer the data.
3. Bandwidth problem occurs in cloud based network.
4. Uploading and Downloading takes more time than usual file takes.
Key Services providers
- Centralized Management: Administration suppliers need instruments that empower them to deal with their conventional and cloud foundations as one element. The capacity to merge basic IT operations and element cloud administration capacities, for example, execution, deficiency, accessibility, administration work area, computerization and occasion administration is basic to conveying fantastic administrations crosswise over disseminated assets. It is having a reliable, associated set of measurements crosswise over both on-premises and cloud frameworks speeds investigating. It additionally rearranges and upgrades administration work processes and minimizes mix work to build effectiveness and lessen costs.
- Customer Self-Service Portals: Service Provides are putting forth clients their own particular electronic gateways for perspectives into framework and application accessibility and execution. With multi-inhabitant perspectives to see every client's information independently, benefits suppliers can give every client secure perspectives into their own particular information. Giving clients sees into the same information they utilize –, for example, administration levels and accessibility, execution levels, ticket lines and transmission capacity utilization for charging and investigation – empowers administration suppliers to be more responsive and productive and rapidly include income creating administrations crosswise over virtual and cloud assets.
- Automated Provisioning: Client desires of cloud administration quality require an elevated level of velocity and scale on top of customary administration supplier operations, making computerization vital. This incorporates the capacity to procurement administration checking naturally. Effective cloud administration suppliers are including robotization into their client self-administration entryways, so that the setup of new administration administrations should be possible without requiring human intercession.
- Bandwidth Reports and billing Calculations: Successful cloud suppliers additionally create standardized and adjustable reports on data transfer capacity utilization and accessibility per client to guarantee complete deceivability into cloud organizations. This incorporates the utilization of implicit reporting instruments to perform robotized charging estimations as indicated by every client's genuine use and charging terms.
Other relevant Information’s
1. Central Management
2. Application Control
3. Guest Wi-Fi
4. Enterprise Security
5. Teleworker VPN
6. Device Management
1. Network-wide visibility and control
2. Self-provisioning for rapid deployment
3. Automatic reporting
4. Seamless firmware updates
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Question 5 Answer the below questions
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol, IPv6 is the Internet's next-generation protocol, designed to replace the current Internet Protocol, IP Version 4. It enables data communications over a packet switched network. Packet switching involves the sending and receiving of data in packets between two nodes in a network. In comparison, IPv6 addresses are 128 bits, which allow for approximately three hundred and forty trillion, trillion unique IP addresses. An example IPv6 address is:
Example: 2001:DB8: FFFF 1:201:02FF:FE03:0504
a) What is the full (expanded) address of the abbreviated IPv6 address FDEC::CF:0:FFFF?
Full form of abbreviated IPV6 address is
FDEC: 0000:0000:0000:0000:00CF:0000: FFFF
b) What is the type of block of the abbreviated IPv6 address
The IP address 2001:A100:FC1:: A4B8:AE12:3217: FCBA is a special purpose IP address used for Teredo tunnelling, Its s 3.4×10^38 Address.
c) What is the type of address of the abbreviated IPv6 address 0::FFFF:22.214.171.124?
It’s a2^33 Address in which there will be enough IPv6 /48 allocations to cater for 2^ (45-33).
The assignment has provided an in-depth idea about the networking, routing, and switching concepts. It proves to be a very good analysis task for brainstorming and to furnish the skills in concepts such as sub netting, resolving IP addresses, making routing tables and so on.
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