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Network Routing and Switching Assignment Help
This Network Routing and Switching Assignment Help is part of programming assignment in which we disscuss networking concepts.
Advanced Long-Term Evolution (LTE) wireless technology is based on IPv6, whilst the Basic LTE used in conjunction with 3G technologies can be configured using IPv4 or IPv6. There are many installations, service providers and users who are still using 3G based LTE. The transition to IPv6 is possible but cumbersome. The technical difficulty is aggravated when it comes to the mobile wireless sets as it means a definite downtime for the users. The problem with LTE based 3G technologies is that the IPv4 based IPs are almost exhausted and there is a need now to switch to LTE based 4G technologies completely based on IPv6. Thus, there is continuous demand for obsolete technology like 3G based networks to transition to 4G or Advanced LTE. Currently 3G networks, for instance, 3GPP or 3rd Generation Partnership Project is also in the state of transition to use Advanced LTE. , which is used to register mobile devices to cellular networks. It is also worth to point out here that the 3G networks are known and prone to attacks as numerous malware and Interleaving Attacks have proliferated. Apart from this there are False base station Attacks Man-in-the-Middle (MiTM) attacks, which can be restricted using the advanced LTE wireless technologies.
The advanced 4G based LTE comes with the following new features which makes it very attractive proposition not only for the subscribers but also includes the motivations for the service providers. This is so as the new advanced LTE comes up with the following outstanding features:
- Cost effectiveness and decrease in cost of ownership
- Broad spectrum
- Compatible and complete adaptability with the new 128 bit IPv6. It is a definite improvement over 32 bit IPv4 version
- Advanced LTE provides for the open interface instead of close interface. Open interface ensures that the new technology can communicate with a lot of new variety of devices as we find today. Closed interfaces can only communicate with a set of pre-determined devices which again poses a serious restriction.
- QoS improvement. There is a definite quality improvement of Services which is gauged by better throughput and performance ratio.
- Another great advantage with advanced LTE is that it consumes far less power as compared to its older version. The new avatar is a boon for the wireless devices as these are battery operated.
- The new LTE works on the principles of on-demand service and is therefore much more elastic and flexible to the needs. The new technology can accommodate a surge in the usage as it has better bandwidth that is higher frequency range.
- Better QoS, increased bandwidth and better performance makes the services more efficient and reduce the overall cost of operations for the service providers. This enables to cascade the cost advantage to the subscribers, making the services cheaper as compared to the older version.
- Advanced LTE and 4G also facilitates the migration of obsolete versions to the new version due to open ended architecture.
- The new advanced LTE helps the support to the new initiatives of flexibility at work options and Bring Your Own Devices (BYoD) which is the latest trends in the corporate world. Increased security, better support to the new variety of devices due to open ended architecture and IPv6 helps to adapt the new initiatives.
Compare and contrast
Long Term Evolution, or LTE, is the fourth generation (4G) of mobile communications and information technology. LTE represents several major advances over the previous wireless model. LTE is designed to provide the maximum functionality and performance of modern Internet technologies on a smart phone or other wireless device. One of the major characteristics of LTE networks is the use of packet-switched data channels rather than circuit switched phone lines to carry voice traffic. LTE is designed to carry higher level services including voice, video, and messaging over IPv6, in order to make use of the flexibility, scalability, and decoupling of the user that the sixth version of the Internet Protocol provides. Latest LTE and BYODs use IPV6. IPv6 contains quite a few advances over IPv4 as it was designed to increase the address space, improve support for extensions, simplify headers, and provides authentication and privacy capabilities. These IPv6 capabilities are essential to successful LTE implementation. The goal is for IPv6 to be sufficiently versatile to allow for all existing IETF standards to be leveraged over mobile devices. Specific goals include optimal routing, network simplification, and seamless mobile connectivity. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP): Evolved Packet System (EPS) was created as a networking solution for the rapid expansion of mobile devices. The 3GPP architecture allows the interoperability of both mobile and traditional packet based networking. Although this architecture has many advantages, its security is reliant upon its authentication procedures. The authentication procedures are problematic and prone to attacks. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) published RFC 6459 which specifies the EPS architecture in response to this problem. The EPS is essentially a broker for communications between the internal network, user equipment (UE) and the internet. This architecture was designed to first handle interoperability between channels, contexts and protocols. Based on the 3GPP EPS architecture, we know that the security of the architecture is weak due to the context establishment occurring before the authentication phase.
As the number of devices on the Internet grew beyond that supported by the 32-bit IPv4 address space, new technologies (such as NAT) were developed to allow clusters of internal devices on a private network to access the Internet using the same outward-facing IP address. While this temporarily delayed the need for a larger IP address space, it also introduced delays, inefficiencies, and complexities to many networks. NAT increases the number of hops and therefore the overall load time for apps or websites. IPv4 also relied on temporary, dynamically allocated IP addresses for devices that were only periodically connected to the Internet. One of the ramifications of this is that many modern applications that require open pipes (such as Twitter) must rely on frequent “keep alive” packets to maintain temporary addresses on a device.
Key service providers
Google has deployed IPv6 to the Google enterprise network, and internal corporate network of desktops and offices. While the team was successful in their goals of rolling out IPv6 on the enterprise network in a limited period of time, they encountered many problems due to flawed incomplete support for IPv6 in many networking products. In particular, the team found that mid-range devices lacked IPv6 support for enterprise features, and some hardware platforms only support IPv6 in software, reducing the efficiency of the device in such cases.
Verizon has rolled out the Long Term Evolution, or LTE, as its fourth generation (4G) of mobile communications technology. For Verizon, LTE represents several major advances over the previous wireless model. LTE is designed to provide the maximum functionality and performance of modern Internet technologies on a smart phone or other wireless device. One of the major characteristics of LTE networks is the use of packet-switched data channels rather than circuit switched phone lines to carry voice traffic. LTE is designed to carry higher level services including voice, video, and messaging over IPv6, in order to make use of the flexibility, scalability, and decoupling of the user that the sixth version of the Internet Protocol provides
Ireland, Europe: WirelessLAB is the new innovation network created to sustain and advance the development of an innovative environment for Ireland’s wireless technology community. WirelessLAB aims to promote Ireland as CoE, or centre of excellence for wireless technology.
Brazil: Ericsson provides the fastest wireless solution based on 3G/WCDMA mobile broadband. They have upgraded to the new 4G based technology. In one of the largest city in Brazil, Curitiba, citizens access good Internet services based on hi-bandwidth connectivity. The technologies as listed above provide great improvements compared to previously available mobile/wireless communication setup. Qos: More reliable connections and wider coverage. The total consumer complaint about wireless network connectivity has reduced from around 100 a month before launch to near zero. Forbes magazine, cites Curitiba as world’s “greenest” cities. Wireless Solution used by 70 percent of relevant population.
Current 3GPP implementations that support IPv4 only can be upgraded to also support IPv6 PDP contexts. Also, when roaming to other networks that don’t support IPv6, the system can always fall back to IPv4. RFC 6459 describes the support for IPv6 in 3GPP network architectures. Section 7 addresses the dual-stack approach to an IPv6 transition. This is probably the preferred approach since 3GPP networks can natively transport IPv4 and IPv6 packets between the User Equipment (UE) and the gateway.
Any other relevant information
While the discovery of new vulnerabilities is to be expected with any new use case for a major technology, in the end, IPv6 will likely improve the overall security posture of mobile (and other IP-based) communications. One potential vector for this improvement is through the use of cryptographically generated addresses (CGAs). CGAs take advantage of the extremely large size of an IPv6 address to chain tie a particular digital signature or certificate to a particular address by basing the address on a hash of the corresponding public key. It will be worth tracking further developments to see what new offensive and defensive techniques will be developed based on the new features of IPv6. IPv6 is critical to the next phase of wireless evolution, but the implementation of IPv6 support in wireless devices is still somewhat immature, and will require continued refinement as the popularity of IPv6 solutions and LTE-based smart phones continues. As the number of devices on the Internet grew beyond that supported by the 32-bit IPv4 address space, new technologies (such as NAT) were developed to allow clusters of internal devices on a private network to access the Internet using the same outward-facing IP address. An upgrade to IPv6 presents many advantages to mobile platforms such as smart phones. IPv6 provides plentiful end-to-end addresses, improved security, optimized routing, increased reliability, and more, which are all expected to contribute to an increase in the use of mobility with IPv6. Specific benefits will include increased performance for mobile applications and longer battery life for phones. Despite these improvements, there are security concerns that go along with a large-scale switch to IPv6
An upgrade to IPv6 presents many advantages to mobile platforms such as smart phones. IPv6 provides plentiful end-to-end addresses, improved security, optimized routing, increased reliability, and more, which are all expected to contribute to an increase in the use of mobility with IPv6. Specific benefits will include increased performance for mobile applications and longer battery life for phones. Despite these improvements, there are security concerns that go along with a large-scale switch to IPv6. While great efforts have gone into the planning, like any growing technology, new vulnerabilities are frequently uncovered as more use cases are discovered and a broader target space for attackers develops. Still, despite these measured risks, IPv6 will likely continue to take root in the mobile industry, which may lead to the full realization of LTE, or even the next iteration of wireless communication technology. Despite the many benefits that IPv6 offers to the mobile industry, there are some risks that should be considered as well. As with most technologies, the more that IPv6 is implemented, the more opportunities there will be to discover vulnerabilities resulting from wrong configuration or simply oversights in the original design. The primitive state of IPv6 implementations encountered by the Google enterprise network team demonstrates the relatively immature state of the technology in practice, even though the specification and a great deal of academic analysis has existed for well over a decade.
Internet Society (2013). One Year After World IPv6 Launch, Number of IPv6-Connected Internet Users Doubles. World IPv6 Launch. Available from http://www.worldipv6launch.org/press/one-year-after-world-ipv6-launch/
Akamai(nd) IPv6 Traffic Volume. Available from http://www.akamai.com/ipv6
Lakshmi (nd). Techwriters Future. 3GPP Long Term Evolution” IPv6.com; Available from http://ipv6.com/articles/wireless/3GPP-Long-Term-Evolution.htm
Arkko, J. & Baker, F. (2011). RFC6180: Guidelines for Using IPv6 Transition Mechanisms During IPv6 Deployment. IETF. Available from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6180