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The MIS101 Management Information Systems Assignment Help is based on the value of IT in gaining strategic competitive advantage for the businesses. It is the critical evaluation of the article which is given by Nicholas Carr from the Harvard Business Review. It is based on various ideas and concepts of IT and computer systems which helps the business in gaining competitive advantage.
Management Information System is an approach where the database is created, organised and managed effectively so that the strategic decisions can be taken in the business. MIS is important to the business as it processes data from the inputs and then generates information which is valuable for managing operations of the business. It helps in maintaining records and managing operations according to that. MIS has a strong impact on the organisations. It brings clarity in communication and makes systematic procedures in the organisations which help in bringing professionalism in the business operations (Khattar & Hunsburger, 2015).
Management Information System helps in satisfying the different needs of the organisation. It is used by all the levels of the management. It also connects different departments of the same firm like marketing, finance, human resources, operations, etc. It guides about the shortfall in the targets and helps in achieving them. It directs the company about the trends of the market and also forecasts the future needs of the company and the customers. This is how it helps in meeting the goals and targets of the company (Maravilhas-Lopes, 2013).
Information Technology is the backbone of the businesses. IT can be referred to the application of computers so that the information can be understood, studied, transmitted and manipulated in the business. It can also be understood as the set of tools and methods used to manage the data of the business for better operations. IT has provided more power to the companies. It helps in the success of the firms. According to the article, in USA less than 5% of the American companies used IT in 1965 but the percentage grew decade by decade with the advancement in computers. In the present world, more than $2 trillion is spent on IT every year. This shows that IT has grown with such a rapid speed and it also developed the managers by making them more effective for their managerial jobs (Digesara, et. al., 2013,).
The system of computers has two fundamental systems: Software’s and hardware’s. Hardware’s are the physical components of computer system which can be touched like the keyboard, mouse, etc. So, hardware is a physical entity. On the other hand, software’s are the components of the computer systems which are not the physical entities and are in the form of programs. For e.g. Windows XP is an operating system which is used in the computer system but is not in physical form (Alpern, et. al., 2012).
Management Information System (MIS) are of different types and they have different strategic and competitive opportunities for business. These include Transaction processing Systems, Operation Information Systems, Decision Support systems, Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence. Transaction processing systems are used to handle large volumes of data which reoccur on daily basis. These are used mainly in banks which do same kind of transactions daily. This creates competitive advantage for the business as it increases the speed, brings efficiency and reduces errors (Yew, 2008).
Operation Information systems are found in corporate entities where the managers use this information system to ensure the smooth running of the organisations. This also helps in measuring the performance of the organisations. It is used for managing sales, inventory, etc. and creates a competitive ad strategic advantage because it helps in taking structured and efficient decisions, reduces the speed of operates and eliminate complexities. Decision Support Systems are used by managers to make intelligent decisions for the business. It helps in storing data and transforming that data for decision making. It provides advantage to the companies by providing the system handling the complexities and helps in making decisions. Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence is another form of MIS which use human knowledge to solve the problems of computer systems. These systems provide competitive advantage to the companies by providing ease to the companies for bringing effectiveness in their operations, by predicting the future and by making the operations flexible (Yew, 2008).
Various information systems and technologies which are discussed above supports decision making for the business. Because of these systems, the business is able to meet its business challenges. It is able to develop and manufacture the products speedily and within the specified budgets. It helps in integrating the structures and cultures of the business and thus, the efficiency is maintained. The business is able to provide the products as demanded and required by the customers. The information systems manage data which are collected through different operations of the company (Xu & Quaddus, 2013). This data is organised in various formats and then it is used to make decisions. These systems help in achieving the goals of the company. It helps in analysing the trends and then making the strategies to satisfy the customer’s demands according to the trends going on. These systems also help in taking the corrective actions if the operations are not going on track.
It is seen that for the organisations, databases are very important to be maintained because they effectively collect, store and retrieve the data whenever required. It also analyses the data which helps company in making research and development activities. Databases are necessary for the business as they speed up the processes and provide logic to the companies to make decisions. Data warehouse, on the other hand, data warehouse can be defined as the storage of large amounts of data of the company which helps in making decisions. Today, companies need data warehouses to effectively collect the data and use that as the knowledge for the organisation. It provides competitive advantage to the company and increase the productivity of the company (Rabuzin & Modrusan, 2014). Business Intelligence is also used in the organisations to support the collection and analysis of the information of business. It is the set of technologies and processes which helps in playing the key role strategic planning process of the organisation. Business intelligence not only improves the visibility of the business but also improves the efficiency. Most importantly, it increases the ability of the business to analyse the present customer buying trends which assist the business in making future decisions regarding production and marketing analysis of products and services (Rabuzin & Modrusan, 2014).
Internet is a collection of computer networks that are connected together by devices known as routers and use protocols for data transmission which is known as internet protocol (IP). The main objective of internet is to provide facilities for sharing information. Information can be transmitted or shared with the help of electronic mail, telnet, FTP, and World Wide Web. World Wide Web (WWW) is the collection of many internet sites which can be assessed by using hypertext links (Gangemi, 2015). Hypertext link contains links of other documents and information which are available on the web. WWW includes various components such as HTML, HTTP, URL, Home Page and Hypertext and Hyper media etc. WWW is a browser which is used with the help of internet. WWW not only provide information in the writing format but also in the form of sound, picture, animation and movies these all are called hyper text and hyper media. Web page on WWW is created with the help of using Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML). Each document available on WWW is having an address which is known as Uniform resource Locator (URL). To transfer the media file and documents Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) is used. Home page on the WWW is the place where information is the starting point of information (Gangemi, 2015).
Producers and manufacturers are also adopting information technology in their business and provide online facilities to their customer. E- Commerce means transmitting good services, funds and data electronically. E- Commerce is a means to use different services at one place at any time (Li, 2013).
E- Commerce business model includes:
Business to Business (B2B): Manufacturer sales its product to the wholesaler with the help of website and then ultimate buyer will purchase the good from wholesaler.
Business to Consumer (B2C): Producers or manufacturer direct sells their product to final customer online.
Customer to Customer (C2C): Here customers using the website sell their property to other customer.
Business to Government (B2G): Websites or internet facilities are used by the business organisation to exchange information with government.
Government to Business (B2G): Government approaches to business organisations for the purpose of tenders or auctions with the help of website (weiwei & yue, 2015).
With the help of E- commerce it is easy to shop with the use of mobile. Consumer can compare similar products of different brand names on one website. E- Commerce provides facility to make payment and money transfer with the help of mobile banking and E- banking (Li, 2013).
Object oriented technology is based on object oriented programming. Object oriented programming is the collection of programming language which is based on the concept of “object”. In this data contains in the form of field called attributes and instructions in the form of methods. Object oriented technologies are the software and they are working with the concept of object. Object oriented technologies are computer software, object of which is contained data and instruction which is used for working on data (Khattar & Hunsburger, 2015).
Systems Development: Phases, Tools, and Techniques
System development refers to the information development by following a process of investigation, analysis, design and development of the data so that it can be implemented. These systems help the workforce in managing their tasks well. System development has following stages as it is performed in a cycle which is called System development Life Cycle (SDLC). It is a step by step approach which develops information systems. The phases of System development include Planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation and maintenance at the last (Weiss, 2013).
Planning phase determines a plan by considering phase a blueprint is made which is to be followed in the SDLC. It will consider future requirements. In the development phase, the designs are transformed into the actions with the help of technologies. The next phase is testing in which the business requirements are met or not, it is tested. The next phase is implementation in which the system is distributed to the workers and training is given to the workers as to how to complete the jobs. The last phase is maintenance in which the system will be monitored so that the business goals can be met (Weiss, 2013).
The techniques in systems development include Insourcing, Self sourcing and Outsourcing. Insourcing is where the internal IT specialists are involved. Self-sourcing is where the system is used by end users and outsourcing is where the system development is delegated to the third party.
Ethical consideration is an important aspect for every sector. There are various ethical issues which can affect the information technology. Safety and security need to be considered for the privacy of others so as to keep the information of confidential data secure. The basic and most important ethical issues in information technology include security to the data, privacy issues which affects the individual at large, digital divide, and increase in the pressure over the experts of Information technology and Copyright Infringement. All these ethical issues need to be considered for the safety of the information (GONZÁLEZ-VALIENTE, 2015).
Due to the increase in the threats to the privacy, intellectual property and copyrights various laws have been framed by the government and different authorities. The threats and the ethical issues help in the reduction or elimination of the threats to the privacy, intellectual property and copyrights. The companies operating in the business environment are at great risk due to the threats to the safety to the confidential data of the business which affects the performance of the business. The risks and threats need to be recognised at the initial or early stages so as to ensure the safety and security of the privacy, intellectual property and copyrights (GONZÁLEZ-VALIENTE, 2015).
Computer crime can also be termed as cybercrime and it is the crime which is performed by a knowledge computer user and person. Computer crime is a very broad area which even uses internet for committing the crime. The examples of computer crime involves malware, accessing a system without the permission of owner, introducing viruses, stealing the information from someone else’s system, cyber terrorism, fraud, phishing, scam and many more. Cybercrime is at rise nowadays with the increase in the use of computers and internet (Fehr, et. al., 2016).
Digital forensic can be termed as a branch of forensic science where the investigations are carried on the digital devices so that the computer crimes can be caught and the person committing the crime can be punished. It can also be understood as the collection of tools and techniques so that the proof can be found in the computer systems. It involves collection, identification, analysis, interpretation and presentation of the evidences so that the criminal cases can be solved. It has now become a modern concept and an accepted one in the routine life. It covers almost all the digital devices including the future technologies. This is not an easy task but has made simpler to solve the complex situations and cases of digital crimes (Fehr, et. al., 2016).
With the advancement in information technology and in 21st century there are some emerging trends and technologies in Management Information System. It includes data mining, cloud computing, networking, etc. Management Information System includes the combination of hardware’s as well as software’s and it aims at improving the efficiency and productivity of the organisation. It plays an important role in routine business of the companies. (Khattar & Hunsburger, 2015).
One of the key emerging trends is cloud systems which are used by the companies to store huge amount of data online. It is easy to maintain and reduces the time of the organisation to manage the data and also cut down the costs. Mobile applications are the latest trend which are successful and are used by many companies to run their business through mobiles. The revenue generated and collected through the applications is shared between the app developer and the business.
Data analytics can be referred as the process of discovering the patterns in the data stored with the companies. This helps in making decisions for the companies and converts the raw data into a meaningful one.
This can be concluded from the essay that IT has grown into a meaningful field without which the business and corporate world will not be able to survive. It is the significant part which is involved in each and every functions and operations of the organisations (Khattar & Hunsburger, 2015).
Alpern, N.J., Alpern, J., Muller, R., ebrary, I. & Books24x7, I. 2012;2011;, IT career jumpstart: an introduction to PC hardware, software, and networking, 1st edn, John Wiley & Sons, Indianapolis, IN.
Digesara, A.N., Khatibi, M., Sotoodeh, M., Asataneh, A.G. & Mehdinia, H. 2013, "Review of MIS Management Information Systems", Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 496.
Fehr, C., LiCalzi, C. & Oates, T. 2016, "COMPUTER CRIMES", The American Criminal Law Review, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 977.
Gangemi, A. 2015, Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on World Wide Web,International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee, S.l.
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