Microeconomics Demand and Supply Assignment Solution

Microeconomics Demand and Supply Assignment Solution

Microeconomics Demand and Supply Assignment Solution


There is very strong competition in the manufacturing industries of vehicles leading to a greater variety of the model and a shorter model cycles. The high competition leads to the high development activity to raise the output, decrease the costs, meet the needs of the customers and increased the requirements legally. The major important design that tends to meet the above requirements is the application of lightweight design. A sheet metal forming is the main important procedures of manufacturing in the automotive industries and is very sensitive to the properties of the materials also an application of the materials need the attention of both engineers and designers. In this research paper, the business development of materials used in the automotive industry is discussed.

Automotive is one of the biggest consumers of the materials in the world. The increasing dependability and strength of the cars’ parts are the important and relevant challenge of the materials science. The development of the automotive industry, raising the requirements for the safety and quality of the used materials need the use and formation of new forms. The automotive industry uses the latest advances and inventions to improve the industries in terms of the kinds of materials that are used for manufacture. Lowering the car weight is because of the need for new, lighter and cost-effective materials

A decision on the material designated from the constituent of the automobile to be invented is made in the view of the functional situations and also the realities of the economy. The requirements of conserving the environment must be met too and the makers of the car are under the pressure to lower the consumption of fuel in the vehicles to cut down the dangerous emission and use the recyclable materials to the greater extent possible. To advance the comfort of driving, it is important to fit more insulation resources to enable the reduction of noise and introduce other materials such as heating systems for the driver and passengers seat and door mirror or the tailgates operated by power. The improvement of safe driving involves the importance to strengthen the body of the car, systems of brakes, and the tracking system[ CITATION Ton16 \l 1033 ].

In the view of overhead , the producers are struggling to decrease the whole weight of the car by establishing other new resolutions where the prominence are put on the application of the structures with thin walls made of alloys categorized with better mechanical characteristics and raising the content of materials made of the lightweight constituents. Among new materials that enjoy rising range of the use that can be mentioned are composites, foams of metals and the materials applied for the coating insulation with great resistant to abrasive wear[ CITATION Don151 \l 1033 ].

The selection of materials in the automotive industry is determined by the demands coming from the expectations of the customers and the legal requirements. The materials development use in the future will be governed by the ecological needs such as the reduction of consumption and the disposal of the used vehicle to reduce the costs. The current material distribution in the automobile manufacturer with respect to weight will not change abruptly, and the major reason for this is that ferrous metal, more so steels will play the dormant function in future because of their variability, cost-effective and availability[ CITATION Mat121 \l 1033 ].

The requirements for materials in locomotive

The materials used in the manufacturing of the automobile needs to satisfy many criteria before they are accepted. Some of the standards are the results of the legislation and regulation with the safety concerns, environmental concerns, and the customer's requirements.


Since there is the high emphasis in the reduction of the greenhouse gases and improving the efficiency of the fuel, the sector of transport, manufacturers of the vehicles, assemblers, suppliers, and the producers of the components are capitalizing in the lightweight resources development, investigation and commercialization. Everyone is moving to the aim of raising the application of lightweight materials and get more permeation of market by the industrial constituents and the structure of vehicles produced from lightweight materials. Since the major problem in the use of lightweight materials in the automobile is their extraordinary price, urgency is given to the innovations to decrease the cost through the introduction of new materials, technologies, and the procedures of manufacturing[ CITATION Han17 \l 1033 ].

The reduction of weight is a cost-effective way of decreasing the consumption of fuel and greenhouse gases from the segment of transport. It has been shown that every ten per cent of the eliminated weight from the total weight of the vehicle, the economy of fuel is enhanced by seven per cent and this means that every kg of the condensed weight in the vehicle, there is around twenty kilograms of the CO2 reduction. To achieve the construction of lightweight, the automakers have been exploring the replacement of the steel with magnesium, aluminium, foams and composites. The recovery and recycling of the end of the vehicles' life that comprise the recovery targets of eighty-five percent are driving the automobile business to use technology of lightweight materials to attain the objectives of the recovery. The steel of high strength is responsible for the biggest percentage of all tons of the lightweight materials used, followed by the aluminium and then plastics. In the terms of value, the plastics and their high prices are the largest section in the market followed by the high steel strength and aluminium[ CITATION Bri141 \l 1033 ].

The material characteristic of the steel and ease of production and the low price means that the vehicles made of steel have been the largest share in the market. The alternative materials like the composites and aluminium could be steel secured. The weight of the closures such as the bonnet, door, chassis, and the driveline accounts to the total quantity of the steel and other ferrous metals[ CITATION Bri171 \l 1033 ].

Figure1: potential weight saving materials[ CITATION Geo18 \l 1033 ].


One of the major significant factors that drive the consumers in the industry of automobile is the cost. Since the price of the materials is always determined in the products, it is important to know whether the material has the chance to be chosen for the vehicle's component. Price comprises the 3 major components; real price of raw materials, value added of the manufacturing, design price and the testing the product. Magnesium and aluminium alloys are more expensive than the currently used cast irons and the steels that they might replace. This is based on their decreased cycle time of manufacturing, improved machines, capability to have variable and thinner wall dimension closer tolerance of the dimensions and reduced assembly numbers[ CITATION Geo181 \l 1033 ].

Crashworthiness and safety

The capability to absorb the energy impact and be survivable for the car users is known as the crashworthiness of the vehicle’s assembly. The present style of the materials in the vehicle industry are toward substituting the part of metals by the polymer composites to improve the economy of fuel and weight reduction of the vehicle since the how composites behave in the compression is opposite to metals. Most composites are known by the brittle structure instead of the ductile response to load, while the structure of metals can collapse under the crash or under the impact by folding. The deformation of material and the behaviour of the reformist catastrophe in terms of yield, toughness, strain strengthening, strain at break and elongation are very significant in the absorption of energy of the car hence the thinned walled column are the major components in the design and concept of the locomotive body. The behaviours of materials are important too in the design of the entire car since their plastic collapse is the strategy that is used to lose the kinetic energy of the car in an accident[ CITATION Ahm13 \l 1033 ]

Consideration of life cycle and recycling

The main concerns in the automotive industries are the increased awareness for the environment that comprises the resources protection, CO2 reduction and recycling. The directive of the end of life vehicles purposes to decrease the number of wastes generated from the vehicles after they are scuffled and they are classed as the dangerous wastes until they are treated fully. Using the materials that can be reused and recycled are the ways that can enhance the life cycle of the automobile. This comprises the composites and metals, the arrangement and the procedures of forming of the metal materials are accommodating this reuse and recycle demand. This validates the excessive consideration toward the natural fibre made of composites and new thermoplastic resins that resist high temperature[ CITATION Ahm12 \l 1033 ]

Figure2: life cycle of the automobile[ CITATION Nat141 \l 1033 ]

It was realized that the present apparatus and the procedures are good for the steel made constituents and a complete redesign of these materials would be required to produce the aluminium constituents. Selection of the materials and the technology for manufacturing impacts the recovery of the automobile infrastructure. It is proved that replacing the steel by aluminium is the composite structures increase the fuel economy, consumption of energy and reduce the life cycle emission of the vehicles[ CITATION Ins121 \l 1033 ].

Issues that have influenced the change in the materials used in motor vehicles

1. Environmental constraints; one way of decreasing the emissions from the cars is by decreasing their consumption of fuel. Consumption of fuel can be improved by raising the efficiency of thermodynamics of the engine but the beneficial gains can be attained by lowering the vehicle's weight and its aerodynamic drag. To achieve reduction of weight, materials of greater performances are needed with great properties of strength, higher stiffness to allow the lightweight load bearing structures to be produced. Also, materials with improved capabilities such as moulding enable greater freedom of design in the production of complex shapes for the enhanced aerodynamics hence reduce the consumption of fuel[ CITATION Ins111 \l 1033 ].

2. Performance enhancement and economic demand; the raising need to recycle and reuse the materials has put more pressure on the manufacturer of motor vehicles. The disassembly of the vehicles is of great importance on the use of the separate components that can be maintained easily or replaced. This increases the initial price of the car by the cost of life cycles of the vehicles reduces. To achieve all these objectives, materials have to possess the long-term performances and can be attained by the use of improved quality materials[ CITATION Ins16 \l 1033 ].

High strength, energy intensity, manufacturability, resistance to corrosion, maintainability, and the lowest weight of the car body are also the factors that are to be considered when choosing materials to be sued in the automobile industry[ CITATION Ron16 \l 1033 ]

Materials used in the automobile engineering

Metallic constituents are very responsible for around 80% of the total mass of automobile, with the rest subsidized by the rubbers, plastics, textiles and paints. The group of the metallic materials used by the industry of automotive comprises the cast iron, steel, aluminium alloy, and sintered metals, composite materials based on metals, magnesium alloy and many metallic and ceramic coating[ CITATION Kar131 \l 1033 ].

1. The alloys of iron-carbon to strengthen section profiles and the sheets of the car body, components of the engines such as the joining rod, valve seats, crankshafts, camshafts, connector body, drive shafts, fuel tank, flywheel, opinions, and control arms in the new generation the engine for the combustion, the sintered metals are applied for the valve seats since they have greater performance when related with the valve seat made of the steel. The study and tests proved that the favourable characteristics can be recognized to the valve seat. The sintered seat is comprised of the cobalt, carbon, nickel, molybdenum, magnesium, zinc, titanium and the chromium.

2. The aluminium alloys are applied for the frames of a car body, clutch housing, steering wheels, components of the cooling systems, structures of the door, a housing of the gearbox, housing of pumps, components of the ignition systems, liners of cylinders, engine bracket and cylinder heads, rim wheels and pedal. The share of the aluminium alloys to make the components of the car increases continuously which has the good impacts comprising the reduction of the weight of the car. Aluminium's use in the autos and commercial cars is increasing because it provides the fastest, environmentally friendly, safest and cost-effective way of raising the performance boost the economy of fuel, decrease the emissions, while at the same time improving and maintaining durability and safety. Benefits of aluminium are[ CITATION Rob111 \l 1033 ];

3. Continuous growth; aluminium has grown for more than 40 years in the automobile industry and is the second after steel as the most materials in the automobile industry.

4. Recyclability; at the end of the life of the vehicle. More than 90% of the aluminium is recycled.

5. Energy efficiency; compared to other materials used in making the vehicles, aluminium save around 108 million barrels of the crude oil in the energy

6. Safety; aluminium can absorb twice the energy crush of the mild steel. Primarily structure weight saving enables other systems of the vehicle to be economized comprising the transmission, engine, wheel and suspension.

7. Performance; aluminium is lighter and enables the body structure of an automobile to increase the dent resistance since they can construct the panel body thick and decreasing the weight at the same time. The vehicle with lowered weight has a good hastening, good handling and braking. Also, the lightweight vehicles can drag and tow more since the engine is not carrying the weight unneeded.

Aluminium alloy sheets are less formable than the steel because of their less elongation shape formed by the steel cannot be formed by the aluminium alloy without causing wrinkling, cracking and spring back. The alloy of the aluminium exhibit the proof tensile strength and stress even though their elongation is small.

Stretchability; limit drawing height is the height where the fracture happens when the rectangular blank is formed by pressing using the spherical head punch. The results displayed that the stretchability of aluminium alloy is inferior compared to the steel. The alloys of aluminum for the automotive structures need formability, strength, corrosion resistance and weldability. For the weight reduction, aluminium sheets are applied in many automotive parts such as the structural parts and the panels. The alloys serve to lower the weight and cost hence they can replace steel[ CITATION Dir13 \l 1033 ].

Enough formability is the requirement of the aluminium sheets to generate difficult stampings at the required rates. The aluminium alloys selected for the external panels must be capable to age hardening to offer more power for the resistance dent during the baking over paint. For the aluminium to be used in automotive, it is effective that material display the capability to be cast into the components of leaf proof, good for the passage of water, flow of air, give good thermal conductivity and enough resistance to mechanical forces at high temperatures. The components are subjected to high mechanical stress from the vibration of the engine and loads of thermal expansion. This has enhanced the investigation to aluminium castings to evade the decreased impact resistance and fatigue. The use of aluminium in the automobile industry has grown for the past years. The heavy parts are being switched from the cast irons to aluminium causing the important reduction of weight[ CITATION Han15 \l 1033 ]

Figure 3: disadvantages and advantages of using aluminium in the automobile industry[ CITATION Abd131 \l 1033 ]

Magnesium alloy: in the view of the common trend to reduce the total weight of the car, the magnesium alloys are good materials of the automobile parts. The components strengthened from the magnesium alloys comprises the steering parts and wheels, clutch pedal and brakes, engine and seat frames, the housing of the transmission gear, and blower casing, wheel rims and the dashboard plates. The total mass of the materials made of the magnesium alloys is around 133 kg. magnesium becomes a relevant material in the automotive industry since its favourable ratio of the density to strength and the ease with which it can be worked into the component of thin-walled using the die-casting pressure. The major challenge of using this material is the recycling and corrosion. The problem of corrosion was solved by the innovation of the alloys HP[ CITATION Pan10 \l 1033 ]

Magnesium is 33% lighters that aluminium and 75% lighter than the cast iron and steel. The resistance of corrosion of present, great purity alloys of magnesium is good than the aluminium alloys. Even though its tensile yield is similar, magnesium has a lesser ultimate strength of tensile, creep and fatigue strength compared to aluminium. The modulus and the rigidity of alloy of magnesium is less and lower compared to aluminium. Specific strength and the stiffness of a structure are significant for the design of a component that saves weight and saving weight is significant in the automotive bodies. The problem of the magnesium alloy is that it is highly reactive in the molten state compared to galvanic corrosion resistance and aluminium. The difficulty in applying the magnesium alloy stem is their low melting point and their reactivity. [ CITATION Ame102 \l 1033 ].

Figure 4: Characteristic of magnesium, iron and aluminium[ CITATION Ame102 \l 1033 ]

Steel; averagely, 900kilogram of steel is used in every vehicle and is distributed as follows: 24 per cent in the drive train, 34 per cent used in the body structure such as the door, panel and the trunk closures for absorbing the energy in case of the crush. 12% in the suspension and the remainder in the wheels, fuel tank, tires, braking system and steering. The advanced high steel is used for all the designs of the vehicles and AHSS enable the makers of the car to reduce the weight of the vehicle by around 35%. They also save the energy and emissions and represent more than the total quantity of the carbon dioxide during the production of the steel in the car[ CITATION Jam151 \l 1033 ].

Advanced steel and iron technologies have been seen substantial improvement over the past years and comprised in new redesigns and designs by all automakers. The industry of steel and component dealers are capitalizing in the innovations heavily. The results of the investment are many such as the profitable use of the stainless steel, formulation of iron, high strength steel, fabrications and some techniques. The usage of the steel in the automobile industry demonstrated the reduction of weight plus the improvement of the stiffness, strength, and other characteristics of structural performance management. While the engine, chassis and other components made of the materials of ferrous consists the main part of the vehicle by weight, iron technology, lightweight steel, compete with another substitute in their applications. Weight decrease through the improvement in the use of steel and iron is important because they are materials that are dormant. Iron and steel form the important elements of the structures for many cars and are cheaper materials with more familiarity in the industry. Past many years have seen the constant increase in the use of HSS, more forms that are known as the high strength, low steel alloys (HSLA). The enhanced materials of steel and the processes for forming enable important optimization of the vehicles’ components and structures. The main reason for the use of steel in the automotive industry is their ability to absorb the energy impact in the situation of a crush. The good formability and the capability of joining makes the steel fists choice for the design of body in white structures (BIW)[ CITATION Aki13 \l 1033 ]

In the axial ductile loading of the constituents, the shape is not significant as the cross sectionals area because all the segments with similar area bear the similar stress. The strength of the components that should be under the axial loading is related to mechanical characteristics of the materials, in the torsion and bending, both shape and materials are critical parameters for the effectiveness in the components to carry the load applied. HSS is based in the alloys grouped on the yield strength basis[ CITATION Cli10 \l 1033 ]

Figure 5: disadvantages and advantages of using steel in the automobile industry[ CITATION Rad13 \l 1033 ]

Among the composite materials, the alloy of aluminium reinforced with the carbide silicon or the oxide of aluminium have been used to manufacture in the vehicle-making industries. In composites, both the matrix and the phase of reinforcement keep their initial chemical and physical characteristics and generate the mechanical properties which are not possible to be gotten when the materials are separately used. Hybrid composites are dealt with when more reinforcing phases with dissimilar morphologies are present in the structure of the composite. The characteristic of the mechanical strength, abrasive wear and resistance of the composites at raised temperatures are better than the characteristic of the alloys minus the additives of reinforcement[ CITATION Rad161 \l 1033 ].

In the locomotive industry, the composites of aluminium are applied to create the piston engines. The old pistons made of the silicon – aluminium alloys are also invented but with the seats for the rings of pistons made of the composite of aluminium strengthened with the particles of ammonium oxide. Such pistons invented in 1982 by the company of Toyota motorized was the originally industrial use of the metal composites to the building of the ignition engines. The use of this resources technology increased the life of the piston’s combustion engines. The composite cylinder liners have been applied in the situation of the modern generation of the frame engines made of magnesium or aluminium alloys. These liners of the cylinders are made if composites of aluminium strengthen with the silicon particles having specific dimension.

Metal foams: It is predicted that the manufacturing of the car in future will use the materials of the porous metals referred to the metals foams, currently made-up of aluminium alloys. They are known to have the little constant thermal conductivity and better properties of vibration damping which enable them to be useful as sound absorbing and insulating materials. For this reason, the metal foams are the good materials for the components of the car body. They have good properties of absorbing energy and also good for car bumpers. The function of the surface coating used to the auto constituents is to reduce the impacts of high temperature, the thermal shock and also enhance the resistance the wear abrasion. The first of the role can be made by applying ceramic coatings, while the metallic coating is good for the 2nd purpose[ CITATION Mic13 \l 1033 ].

A cating made of chromium is applied on the working surface of the cylinder surface system. Such coatings display great stiffness up to 100HV, a great resistance to the abrasive wear and a better resistance to corrosion. One flaw of the chromium coatings is that they have bad wettability with the oil which generates the dangers of seizing[ CITATION Rob143 \l 1033 ].

Sintered metals; the sintered metals are applied in many flow control and filtration within the industry of automobile. Control of emissions, a life cycle of power and engine and the testing machines are important for the designers and manufacturers of the automobile. The sintered metals can be used to filter the diesel engine and have replaced other filters since they are robust and can overcome the conditions on the engine such as the strong vibration. The sintered metals flow restrictors are used in the automotive testing machines. The tests apply the air and nitrogen and the result resembles the liquid leak rate. The restrictors are used as the calibration since they can be applied to calibrate the part that measures the leak of the gas. The sintered metals are also used in many alternatives energy applications and are the material used in the fuel cell, electrolyzes, flow batteries and other alternatives devices of energy. The alloys also give the advantage of corrosion resistance ion the automotive environment. These metals also provide the heat tolerance as the result of the retention of strength and oxidation at raised temperatures. The compaction of the metal powder, sintering furnace, and the diffusion bonding make the structure with a good combination of ductility and strength[ CITATION Jas16 \l 1033 ].

Polymers: The automotive industry uses the engineered polymers composites and the plastic in many applications as the 2nd class of the automotive materials after the ferrous materials and represents 68%by weight. Other metals that are not ferrous used to manufacture vehicles are magnesium, coppers, titanium, magnesium, zinc, aluminium and their alloys. The content of plastic of the commercial vehicle consists around 50%of the interior constituents comprising the door, subsystems and the seat assemblies. During the huge growth of plastic constituents in the automotive, the benefit of applying plastics have changed. The costs are met by the capability of the plastics to be moulded into the constituent of the complex geometries. The look in any car model displays the plastic is now used in the interior and exterior components such as the door, window, wheel covers, headlights, hoods, the housing of the view mirror, grilles, trunk lids and bumpers[ CITATION Cal11 \l 1033 ]

Figure 7: plastics used in the manufacture of a car[ CITATION Mel17 \l 1033 ]

Plastics: the demand for the plastic is simple to describe, they are very strong, yet versatile, lightweight and flexible enabling the innovation of technologies and freedom design. The automotive designer needs materials that can adapt to the sophisticated beauty efficiency if fuel, safety and comfort and plastics meet all these needs[ CITATION Ros14 \l 1033 ]



Figure 8: parts of a vehicle that are manufactured by plastics[ CITATION Wil14 \l 1033 ]

The versatility of plastics enable the advanced forms and shapes without compromising the comfort, safety and the stability of a vehicle. This makes them more attractive to the car designers, their durability and strength also help in expanding the lifespan of the vehicle for more than twelve years by giving a good protection against corrosion. The innovation of the vehicle body enhancement are realizing the increase in the plastics parts in the vehicle and around 100kg of plastics replaces 300 kg of traditional materials in the current vehicle. Plastics have replaced the glass in the headlights of the vehicles enabling greater freedom of design and gives the car clear, strong, scratch resistance and easy to fit alternative[ CITATION Wil152 \l 1033 ].

The polymer composite in the automotive use today are glass fibre reinforced thermoset used in the non-structural segments of the car assembly for the mid and low volume tracks and vehicles. The thermoplastic fibre mostly the carbon thermoset display twice weight reduction and recyclable. The polymer materials have unlimited long life services in the automotive industry. They are not subjected to corrosion since they can easily withstand the effects of important vibrations and loads. The stiffness and the strength of the carboy made of synthetics fibres can improve the safety and reliability of the vehicle while lowering its weight too. The structure made of a polymer is more expensive than the same product made of the steel. This results in the facts that polymer components are used mostly in the manufacture of the tuning cars of an individual assembly[ CITATION Mar121 \l 1033 ]

Figure 9: disadvantages and advantages of using the plastics in the automobile industry[ CITATION Mar121 \l 1033 ]

natural fibre; natural fibres from the plants such as sisal, jute and coir are available and have high strength and can be used for the medium and lightweight bearing use. The mechanical characteristics of natural fibres are compared to the properties of the traditional reinforcements hence the inherent characteristics of natural fibres can satisfy the requirement of the automotive industry more so in the reduction of weight and can replace the non-renewable synthetics fibres. Currently, many cars makers are concentrated to work on the biodegradable and renewable plant fibres. The light vehicles interiors segment has replaced the glass with plant fibres, this reduces the vehicle cost and weight[ CITATION Uda10 \l 1033 ].

Figure 6: classification of natural fibres[ CITATION Don144 \l 1033 ]

Figure 6: properties of fibres compared to polymers[ CITATION Geo12 \l 1033 ]

Uses of Rubber in the automobile industry

Brakes: the materials for these safety areas need the special attention to withstand the temperature and frictional heats from the process of braking. Boots, cups and hoses also require the silicone rubber.

Chassis: the seals of absorbing shocks, vibration mounts and air spring contributes to the quality of the rise of the vehicle and all need the rubber. Electrical components must be sealed from the debris and moisture by the rubber. The wiring system grommets, harness cable and plug are used with the panes and enclosures where the cable entry point must be sealed from dust and moisture by the rubber[ CITATION Hir17 \l 1033 ].

Technology advances and priorities

The industry of the plastics is very significant is supporting the automobile industry. The automobile designers are working tirelessly to optimize the other systems, integrating the blow moulded parts and injection giving a good work minus expensive assembly work. There are 4 areas that need the highest research and development with the plastics: light weighting, interior, body and exterior, and chassis and powertrain.

Interior; the priorities for enhancing the safety in the passenger sides comprise the making safety advances affordable via the innovative designs and more effective capabilities of manufacturing and enhancing the designs of the safety belts

Exterior and body: from the bumper to the panels of the body, laminated glass for the safety to rear parking helps, research activities must comprise the technologies for management that resist the intrusion of the vehicle, impede the crush of roof and reduce the body weight without compromising the safety of performances.

Chassis and powertrain: the research in this part focuses on the structures that produce and deliver the power and include the frame on its part. The priorities comprises the important advancements in the research for the design with plastics , using new ways to optimizes the safety and efficiency of fuel and expanding the capabilities for the composite materials, and also introducing a safety component that will be needed for future alternative for the powertrain option of the vehicle[ CITATION Hir17 \l 1033 ].


This paper presented a review of the materials that are utilized in the automobile industry. The selection of materials in the automotive industry is determined by the demands coming from the expectations of the customers and the legal requirements. The materials development use in the future will be governed by the ecological needs such as the reduction of consumption and the disposal of the used vehicle to reduce the costs. The current material distribution in the automobile manufacturer with respect to weight will not change abruptly, and the major reason for this is that ferrous metal, more so steels will play the dormant function in future because of their variability, cost-effective and availability. The demand of the lowered consumption will lead to the application of aluminium at the expense of other automobile materials. The proportion of the plastics will also increase in a similar manner. Thus, it can be concluded that the automotive industry is developing to the satisfaction of the customer who needs a safer and fast vehicle.


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