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Figure 1: Map of Work Motivation Theories
(Source:Boo, Dörnyei and Ryan 2015)
With the help of the map of the different work motivation theories, this could be analysed that there are types and perspectives of motivation. Motivation is essential in nature in any aspect of life. Nature has intrinsic kind of motivation which is the activation or the energization of the goal-oriented kind of organizational behaviour The two different types of motivation are inclusive of the following:
Intrinsic motivation is defined as the concept wherein the individuals find the tasks interesting and enjoy performing them in an effective manner (Afsar, Badir and Kiani 2014)
Extrinsic motivation is defined as the concept wherein the individuals perform the different kinds of tasks for receiving external rewards as to avoid the different kinds of negative consequences (Afsar et al. 2016).
There are various kinds of perspectives of the motivation which is inclusive of the following:
1. Behavioural –This respective theory is inclusive of the Skinner’s Reinforcement theory (Gerhart and Fang 2015)
2. Humanistic-This respective theory is inclusive of Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory along with the Carl Roger’s Self-Actualization theory
3. Cognitive-This theory is inclusive of goal orientation theory, attribution theory, self-worth theory, self-determination theory along with self-determination theory
4. Social-This theory is inclusive of Self-efficacy theory which will be helpful in managing the different kinds of efficiencies of the organization effectively.
5. Motivation is essential to be provided to the different individuals working in the organization as this will help in increasing the overall productivity of the organization in a positive aspect. Firstly, Maslow’s Hierarchy theory helps in stating that people have pyramid of hierarchy of the different needs which will help in satisfying the needs from bottom to top. There are different kinds of deficiency needs which will stifle any other kind of movement when the employees are not satisfied and the other growth needs which can help in progressively satisfied once the different basics have been covered (Guillén, Ferrero and Hoffman 2015).
On the other hand, the two factors of Herzbergare such that wherein the certain factors in the workplace help in the job satisfaction which is being provided to the different employees. The job along with hygiene aspects are being taken into consideration which will improve the overall motivation among the different employees. The job satisfaction is essential in nature which is required to be provided to the different individuals working in the organization.
Additionally, on the other hand, reinforcement theory is defined as the process of shaping the entire behaviour which helps in controlling the different kinds of consequences of the behaviour. In this respective kind of theory, this is the combination of the rewards or punishments which is being used in order to reinforce desired kind of behaviour which is being used to reinforce the different kind of desired behaviour or extinguish the unwanted kind of behaviour (Lazaroiu 2015).
Additionally, the expectancy theory helps in proposing the way in which the individual will be behaving in the entire organization. The respective theory helps in making the different employees motivated as this will help in performing the tasks in an effective manner. The three major factors which are required to be taken into consideration is inclusive of expectancy, valence and instrumentality (Njoroge and Yazdanifard 2014).
Goal Orientation theory proposes is defined as the social cognitive theory of motivation which will be generated when the individuals are motivated in nature and gain more competitive advantage in the organization (Kim et al. 2017). These kind of long term goals help in directing the behaviour towards the achievement and success and gain competitiveness in nature. Furthermore, the attribution theory is inclusive of the behaviour of the individuals which is attributed towards the different feelings, beliefs and intentions towards the behaviour (Olafsen et al. 2015).
Lastly, the self-efficacy theory helps in introducing the different kinds of beliefs of the different individuals who has the entire ability to achieve the different goals in an efficient manner. In order to become aware of the different situations, this will be helpful in managing the different kinds of situations in an effective manner (Menges et al. 2017).
From the different kinds of motivation perspectives and types, this will help in managing the different kinds of individuals in an efficient manner. The different perspectives are helpful in analysing the different kinds of motivational aspects which will help in managing the different aspects of the individuals in an appropriate manner.
As per the John Holland’s theory of personality and job fit, most of the individuals are of one of the personality types which is inclusive of the following: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising along with Conventional. As per the John Holland’s Theory of Choice of Career, this can be identified that while choosing a career, the different individuals prefer jobs wherein they can be around others who are like them (Massenberg, Spurk and Kauffeld 2017). The individuals try to search for environment wherein the individuals will be using their skills along with abilities and this will be enjoyable for them top social work in such motivating kind of environment.
Realistic-Type of individuals who are comfortable working alone or with the different realistic people (Nicholls 2017)
Investigative-Type of individuals who feel creative working in groups and allow creative expression along with unsystematic teams
Artistic-Type of individuals who allows creative expression along with unsystematic teams.
Enterprising-Type of individuals who feel like working in groups along with all kinds of individuals wherein they feel needed
Social-Type of individuals who will working in groups with all kinds of individuals in leadership position
Conventional-Type of individuals who feels like working with defined kinds of duties which are being assigned to all
As per the respective theory of personality-job-fit theory, this helps in postulating that the personality traits help in revealing the insight which is related to the adaptability in the organization. There will be motivation among the different employees when they will be working in the organization wherein they will be working as per their wish and this will help them in generating positive results. The different individuals are assessed on the basis of different competencies which helps in revealing motivation, efficacy along with respect for the different co-workers.
Proper motivation is essential in nature as this will help in managing the different kinds of activities in an efficient manner. Motivation is one of the crucial aspects which is required to be analysed and adopted by the different individuals as this increases their productivity and helps them in motivating themselves to perform better in the organization. Furthermore, this is essential in nature that the person should be performing such kinds of activities which will be beneficial for them and wherein they will be motivated in order to perform the tasks in an efficient manner.
Content Theory or the need theory helps in outlining the different reasons for motivation which is required to be provided to the individuals. Furthermore, this helps in explaining the different necessities along with the requirements which are essential in motivating the person in an efficient manner. The different theories which are inclusive are: Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory, Frederick Herzberg Two factor theory and McClelland – Need for achievement, affiliation and power (Van der Heijden, Gorgievski and De Lange 2016).
Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory of Needs is one of the major aspects wherein there are five level of the needs which is inclusive of physiological needs, safety needs, esteem needs, social needs along with self-actualization needs. In the respective theory, when one individual pursues one level of needs of the different hierarchy, furthermore he will be trying to pursue the next level of the needs and this will help the individual according to the hierarchical order.
With the help of the content theory, this can be analyzed that when the employees will be motivated, this will help in optimizing the performance in an efficient manner. This can be analyzed that the needs can keep on changing which will be based on the experience of the individuals along with various other factors.
Process Theory helps in outlining the different kinds of behavioral patterns of the different kinds of individuals which helps in fulfilling the different needs and requirements. The process theories help in exploring wherein this will help in identifying wherein the cause of the behavior is caused or stopped by the different motivational factors. The major four predominant process theories are inclusive of reinforcement theory, expectancy, goal setting along with equity theory. This respective theory argues that the goals have to be more specific in nature which will help in driving the performance in an efficient manner.
Reinforcement Theory is the other approach of motivation which helps in arguing that the behavior which results in rewarding consequences which is likely to be repeated in nature, However, on the other hand, this can be seen that the behavior which results in the punishing kinds of consequences is less likely in nature to be repeated in nature. There are major four kinds of reinforcement which can result from the behavior are as follows: positive reinforcement, punishment, extinction and avoidance.
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