MGT202 Organisational Behaviour Assignments Solution

MGT202 Organisational Behaviour Assignments Solution

MGT202 Organisational Behaviour Assignments Solution

Introduction

The essay brings about the description of the concepts in the field of organisational behaviour in business organisations. The topic in the essay states that elements essential for organisational and employee performance are built up over time, leading to bigger success. Motivation is the vital element in employee performance and productivity, and drives for organisational success. It drives people towards contributing and showing commitment towards organisational goals and objectives. The topic highlighted for the analysis is “Motivating employees through effective Job design” (Albrecht et al., 2015).

Job design is the important or core function of human resource management in every organisations. It is the responsibility of every manager to clearly define the job to be performed by employees to satisfy their goals. The essay includes thesis/argument of the topic, supported with a number of arguments from multiple perspectives. Thus, in the later part, the reader gains an understanding about how managers can create effective job design, to facilitate creation of motivational jobs (Parker, 2014).

Motivating employees through Job Description

The thesis statement of the essay focuses on the topic mentioned above “Motivating employees through effective job design”; describes about the importance of the motivation leading to creation of motivating jobs in an organisational context. Employee motivation represents the level of energy and commitment that the workers or employees in an organisation bring to attain organisational goals. In the terms of human resource management, concern for employee motivation is found to be very important by the managers of the organisation. Managers define employee motivation as factors, which induce employees to achieve work-related tasks or goals. It includes two aspects of motivation, i.e. extrinsic and intrinsic motivation (Van de Walle, Steijn and Jilke, 2015).

Intrinsic motivation leads to higher employee performance in the organisations. Intrinsic motivation to employees explains about the internal factors of the organisation (Breevaart et al., 2016). It represents the behaviour of the individual, influenced positively by the internal rewards in the organisation. Intrinsic rewards or benefits to employees lead to satisfaction amongst employees, as they feel motivated to work more when rewarded for work. Intrinsic motivation acts as stimulator for employees, and they become more committed towards their work. Extrinsic rewards motivate employees in financial terms, whereas intrinsic motivation focuses on abstract terms. It includes aspects such as gaining recognition, title, and appraisal/promotion, involvement in the decision-making process, flexible working hours, effective work-design, positive feedback from managers, and other related aspects (Menges et al., 2017).

An effective work-design or job design policy is the main factor highlighted through this essay. Managers must focus on designing jobs encouraging their employees to create motivating jobs. The way the function of job-design is performed, will influence the performance, commitment towards organisation, absenteeism, and rate of turnover in the longer term (Cummings and Worley, 2014).

Job design is a psychological theory of motivation, which states that a manager should emphasize on systematic and purposeful allocation of tasks or jobs to the individuals in an organisation. Manager defines about various jobs stating the purpose of job design, which further leads to job analysis. Job analysis aims at determining and organising tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a single unit of work in organisation. The process of job design, vary with the nature of organisation and operations performed. The basic structure of job design is similar to every organisation, as it includes certain elements and components which manager in every organisation follows to achieve goals and objectives (Petrou, Demerouti and Schaufeli, 2018).

Principles or the key factors, which managers must consider implementing effective job, design in the organisation. These factors include variety, responsibility, autonomy, task identity, feedback, employee involvement in decision-making, and working environment and so on. Managers can help employees to create meaningful and motivating jobs in the organisation by creating variety in their jobs as it improves the interest, challenge, and commitment of the jobholder of the task. Repetitive tasks may create dissatisfaction, and employees may lose interest in the job; variety means adding something more to the duty. Responsibility is the major factor in every job, so it should be clearly defined by the managers or job-providers. Appropriate description of jobs to the employees will help them determine their responsibilities and accountabilities. It also helps them to understand significance of their work and how work done by them accomplishes purpose of the organisation. Responsibility is followed by factor of autonomy given to the employees to regulate or control their own work in the organisation. Employees are at discretion within the set parameters of performance. For an instance when a manager provides discretion at the decision –making processes to determine the methods of working is one of the factors, which represents the individual’s autonomy. Other two factors include identifying and distributing the task, clarifying the person’s with their role in the beginning and in the end. Giving feedback to the employees is another principle, which managers must follow to lead them towards creating meaningful jobs (Oldham and Fried, 2016).

Managers and organisation must ensure maintaining positive organisational culture, as it will motivate employees to bring with positivity and enthusiasm. Organisation must comply with the ethical rules, moral values and CSR (corporate social responsibility) practices, which gives a real image of the organisational practices. In a specific manner, a manager while performing the function of job design in the organisation may consider an approach of scientific management. The philosophy of scientific management is oriented towards ensuring that the employees in an organisation acquire maximum possible benefits. Scientific management proposed number of aspects, which affects the process of job design. The idea behind this approach was to identify one best method to efficiently perform the job and reduce the wastage in the processes. Manager may focus on applying time-motion studies, which helps them to ascertain the time required by each task to be performed by individuals. After ascertaining the required time, planning is to be done regarding tasks/duties accordingly. Thus, standardized job performance is the key element of the scientific management approach for job design. Following standardized job performance approach will lead to effective planning of the tasks or duties in the job. Employees will be able to understand their work in the manner they are expected to perform; they will feel motivated towards their duties, because of effective job design (Shin and Konrad, 2017).

Considering all the factors, principles, and the necessary elements, a manager must focus on conducting the process of effective job design, to motivate employees to create efficient and value-creating jobs. Steps to effective job design includes, assessing the skills, abilities, needs and motivation of employees and organisation, and then constructing job design. After constructing job design, implementation process is carried on in the organisation. Implementing new job design and action to evaluate the effectiveness of the process in the organisation. Managers must take necessary steps to take measures in case of any deviations found in the process of job design (Herzberg, 2017).

Approaches to job design must be taken into consideration by managers to encourage employees to work with commitment and create purposeful jobs. Job design approaches affect the motivation level of employees indirectly, thus they play a vital role in shaping organisational performance and effectiveness. An organisation or management team need to analyse the current scenario and apply job design approaches. As every organisation is unique, and separate identity operating with different goal and objectives, thus require different set of approaches. Job enrichment, job engineering, Quality of work-life and socio-technical design, social information processing approach are approaches in context to job design. Job enrichment refers to the technique, which includes giving importance to the great variety of content that requires a high-level of knowledge, and skills by employees. It also states about giving autonomy to the employees in relation to the planning, directing and controlling of their own performance. It will thus facilitate in providing them sufficient opportunities to enhance their personal growth and work experience. Job enrichment itself acts as motivation approach, and used by organisations as a motivational approach, to give employees greater satisfaction in doing their work. Enrichment of job means providing an employee with additional requirements previously reserved for acquiring a higher managerial position in the organisation (Bailey et al., 2017).

Three psychological states of a well-defined job to an employee, including work that is meaningful, responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge in respect to the positive outcomes, are critical to employee motivation. Thus, it helps in creating competent and impressive jobs in the industry. Job-design although leads to positive outcomes, motivates employees, and creates meaningful jobs, but organisations faced number of issues while designing and structuring jobs. Issues, which can occur in the process of job design process, are job-insecurity, low salary or pay to employee benefits in the organisation. These factors are essential ensured by managers in the business organisations for effective organisational performance and achievement of goals and objectives. Some of the issues observed recently in the process of implementing job design important managerial functions. These include telecommunity/work from home, job-sharing, flexible working hours, alternative work patterns, stress related to technology and task revision. Therefore, these terms are necessary for a manager to consider and define jobs in the organisation (Alexander and Haley?Lock, 2015).

Organisations in the business environment implement the process of job-design effectively, in accordance to the number of factors or conditions. These include factors such as organisational factors, behavioural factors, and environmental factors, affecting the job-design process. In case where an organisation fails to motivate employees through ineffective jobs, it creates dissatisfaction among them, and job needs to be redesigned. Organisational factors include work nature, ergonomics, workflow, and the culture in the organisation. The nature of work, states about various elements of the job and job design, which should be clearly defined. Ergonomics relate to identifying physical attributes, and skills of employees to enhance efficiency and productivity. Ensuring workflow and good organisational culture will help in maintaining healthy relationships (Parker et al., 2017).

Other factors include environmental factors, which also affect the job-design to a certain extent. These include both internal and external factors, such as employee skills and abilities, availability and the socio-cultural aspects. Availability of the employee abilities plays a crucial role in enhancing the employee’s performance. Demanding a job, which is higher than the present skills and abilities of the employees, will lead to a decrease in their productivity and satisfaction level (Li et al., 2014).

A manager in any organisation must focus on improving the process of job-design process in respect to the predetermined goals and objectives. Theories of employee motivation such as Abraham Maslow’s need hierarchy can be used to understand about varied levels of needs of employees in the organisation. These needs ranges from low level to higher level of needs, and when a low-level need is satisfied, then only the other needs can be satisfied (Healy, 2016).

Job design theory of motivation is one of the important aspect and theory that can be used to enhance the effectiveness of organisational practices. Job design approach is effectively inter-connected to factors such as reward system, performance appraisal methods, leadership, customer needs, working conditions, and team composition and norm. Human resource is treated as valuable asset of every organisation; therefore, significance of effective job design must be considered (Shahzadi et al., 2014).

Motivated employees are critical for organisations to survive and attain competitive advantage over other business organisations. Effectiveness of organisational practices and well-defined jobs leads to job-satisfaction that further reduces the possibilities of employee turnover, absenteeism, and staff mobility. These factors depend upon the nature and content of work, and helps organisations in retaining efficient employees for the longer period (Shantz et al., 2013).

To conclude the above discussion on the process of job design, it has been analysed that effective job design contributes to employee motivation and enhances organisational performance. It has been demonstrated through the above description, how important job design play a role in increasing organisational effectiveness by motivating employees and creating meaningful jobs. As per the thesis and analysis on the above statement that motivation to employees drive their performance, and it has been found that there is a positive correlation between job design, motivation, and between motivation and productivity. Thus, the essay above mentioned about the manager’s effective role in creating process of job design efficient to motivate employees in the organisation. Hence, the factors, characteristics, and components of job-design process must be considered by managers to create meaningful jobs, and attain success in the long term.

References

1. Albrecht, S.L., Bakker, A.B., Gruman, J.A., Macey, W.H., and Saks, A.M. (2015) Employee engagement, human resource management practices and competitive advantage: An integrated approach. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(1), pp. 7-3.
2. Alexander, C. and Haley?Lock, A. (2015) Underwork, Work?Hour Insecurity, and A New Approach to Wage and Hour Regulation. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 54(4), pp. 695-716.
3. Bailey, C., Madden, A., Alfes, K. and Fletcher, L. (2017) The meaning, antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement: A narrative synthesis. International Journal of Management Reviews, 19(1), pp. 31-53.
4. Breevaart, K., Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E. and Derks, D. (2016) Who takes the lead? A multi?source diary study on leadership, work engagement, and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 37(3), pp. 309-325.
5. Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G. (2014) Organization development and change. United States: Cengage learning.
6. Healy, K. (2016) A Theory of Human Motivation by Abraham H. Maslow (1942)–reflection. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(4), pp. 313-313.
7. Herzberg, F. (2017) Motivation to work. United Kingdom: Routledge.
8. Li, A., Early, S.F., Mahrer, N.E., Klaristenfeld, J.L. and Gold, J.I. (2014) Group cohesion and organizational commitment: protective factors for nurse residents' job satisfaction, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout. Journal of Professional Nursing, 30(1), pp. 89-99.
9. Menges, J.I., Tussing, D.V., Wihler, A. and Grant, A.M. (2017) When job performance is all relative: how family motivation energizes effort and compensates for intrinsic motivation. Academy of Management Journal, 60(2), pp. 695-719.
10. Oldham, G.R., and Fried, Y. (2016) Job design research and theory: Past, present and future. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 136, pp. 20-35.
11. Parker, S.K. (2014) Beyond motivation: Job and work design for development, health, ambidexterity, and more. Annual review of psychology, 65, pp. 661-691.
12. Parker, S.K., Van den Broeck, A. and Holman, D. (2017) Work design influences: A synthesis of multilevel factors that affect the design of jobs. Academy of Management Annals, 11(1), pp. 267-308.
13. Petrou, P., Demerouti, E. and Schaufeli, W.B. (2018) Crafting the change: The role of employee job crafting behaviors for successful organizational change. Journal of Management, 44(5), pp. 1766-1792.
14. Shahzadi, I., Javed, A., Pirzada, S.S., Nasreen, S. and Khanam, F. (2014) Impact of employee motivation on employee performance. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(23), pp. 159-166.
15. Shantz, A., Alfes, K., Truss, C. & Soane, E. (2013) The role of employee engagement in the relationship between job design and task performance management, citizenship and deviant behaviours. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(13), pp. 40-47.
16. Shin, D. and Konrad, A.M. (2017) Causality between high-performance work systems and organizational performance. Journal of Management, 43(4), pp. 973-997.
17. Van de Walle, S., Steijn, B. and Jilke, S. (2015) Extrinsic motivation, PSM and labour market characteristics: a multilevel model of public sector employment preference in 26 countries. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 81(4), pp. 833-855.