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Week 2: Ideology
Television influences our thought and perception related to reality. It promotes acertain way of thinking and has an impact on the world around us. Apart from other TV shows, reality series is also influential in imparting ideologies through real life situations (A single mum from WA wins Bachelor Sam Wood's heart, 2016). There are famous TV reality shows like The Bachelor and The Biggest looser which showcase the belief that nothing is impossible and competition is the key step to success. All reality shows based on one theory that is survival of the fittest. The Bachelor and The biggest loseris a combination of two ideologies. One is about winning the competition and the second one is being beautiful is an advantage to man and woman both (A single mum from WA wins Bachelor Sam Wood's heart, 2016). Ideologies that are promoted through these TV shows have a great impact on viewers. The word ‘reality’makes it more real to the viewers who think that they could lead their life in this manner.
Figure 1: The Bachelor
Week 3: Modernity discourse and power
As Foucaultsaid ...waysof constituting information, together with thesocietal practices, forms of subjectivity and control relations that inhere in such facts and relations between them. Discourse is more than away of thinking and producing sense. They comprise the 'nature' of the body, unconscious and conscious intellect and emotional life of the subjects they seek to rule
... a form of authority that circulates in the public field and can connect to strategies of authority as well as those of conflict.
Foucault’s theory has instilled an attention to history not in thetraditional sense but in the sense of ‘archaeology’ or ‘genealogy’. National Museum of Australia establishes ahistory of discourse and power related to cultural importance and exhibits the same through reception, cataloguing, selection and displaying objects(Doiz, Lasagabaster & Sierra, 2013). These discourses determine the collective memories and establish ways through which society has mobilised from past and present. Museums also contribute in shaping social, political, moral and ideological values. In this way, museums are not only an institution of power but are an instrument of modernity, discourse and power(Doiz, Lasagabaster & Sierra, 2013).
Week 4: Images, Power and Politics
Australian constitution has a democratic legislature which consists of Queen of Australia and two houses of theAustralian parliament, one is senate and the other is House of Representatives (Punch & Sugden, 2013). There are mainly three drivers exist in Australian politics.These are Voting System, Media and Parties. These are though independent still connected with each other. Critics argue that although parties remain in the scenario but they are disconnected from the mass. On the other hand, it is argued that economic management of the country is no longer related to people but with global capital (Punch & Sugden, 2013). Social experts believe that health and education sector is neglected in Australia as budget allocation is reduced significantly. The main reason behind this downfall is the lack of leadership in Labour party (Punch & Sugden, 2013). The party deviatesfrom its structural form and their only focus is on leadership changes. It is observed from several surveys that people want and alternative apart from two major political parties.Media has a significant role to play in Australian politics by projecting the issues related to social structure. Though critics argue that media is biased and often manipulate the original news.
Week 5: Nationalism
Why is this television program being screened?
Border Security was an Australian television program that showcased the work of Border Protection, Immigration Department, Australian Border force, Australian Quarantine and Inspection services(Border Security Australias Front Line season: 15 episode 12, 2016). Border agency criticised the show and they argued that it leaked the confidential information to Canadians and gives international audiences a clear picture of its activities. Critics stressed that this show was exploitative(Border Security Australias Front Line season: 15 episode 12, 2016).
What does it convey about Australia?
There is an argument that this show breached Canada’s Privacy Act. Moreover, a commercial production company of Canada Force Four Entertainment, who sold the series to other countries, was not held accountable for this breach(Border Security Australias Front Line season: 15 episode 12, 2016). It proves that the Australian authority did not take considerable measures before giving the series a clean cheat for broadcast.This show was related to border issues and national security issues which are very sensitive matters (Border Security Australias Front Line season:15 episode 12, 2016). So the Australianauthority should be more careful before allowing such controversial show to be aired (Doiz, Lasagabaster & Sierra, 2013). Moreover, the show glorified law enforcement activities in a one-sided manner which has a socio-political impact at large and the media representation regarding the show was not neutral as well(Border Security Australias Front Line season:15 episode 12, 2016). But the Australian government did not bother about the impact of the show and just ignored it.
Figure 2: Border Security
What is a nation?
Nation means a large group of people who share common characteristics including traditions, language, ethnicity and habits.
What does the national flag mean to you?
National flag symbolises a country’s culture, heritage, civilisation and freedom. National Flag is a process of claiming theland of a country, flags tell us about our history.
How important is aculture to nation-building?
Cultural cooperation is amore equality-oriented approach that exists in society. Since culture is related to identity, so theexpression of identity through culture is a necessity for human development. Culture links the mankind to nations and communities. Culture plays a significant role in protecting human rights. Strong culture promotes freedom of speech and expression, debate and diversity and most of all democratisation.
Week 6: 'Race', Orientalism and Otherness
What race or ethnic identity is presented as ‘Australian’ in the media, by thegovernment, or at university?
In a poly-ethnic country like Australia, media plays a pivotal role in the circulation, transformation and production ideas about race(ABC News, 2017). Most of the visible difference projected in Australian television comes from UK, SBS or US. Media of Australia makes sure that there is thenegligible presence of people who have ‘visible different’ colour (Doiz, Lasagabaster & Sierra, 2013). Though there are governmental policies to promote diversity, still agencies such as Screen Australia and the ABC don’t showcase cultural diversity (ABC News, 2017). On the other hand, despite governmental policies regarding cultural diversity, very few people from ‘visibly different’ group get a chance to be selected as apublic servant. This racial discrimination is evident in university as well(ABC News, 2017).
What behaviours or ideas are associated with blackness, whiteness, and Asianness?
Half of the population of Australian society is either born in other country or have at least one parent who born in outside Australia. Still, racial discrimination is evident in Australia. According to thesurvey, one in every people living in Australia faces racial abuse. The Australian government does not acknowledge that. In the past decade, Melbourne and Sydney had seen racism that leads to violence. This racial discrimination is apparent in housing and employment opportunities (Doiz, Lasagabaster & Sierra, 2013).
What impact does Australia’s status as a British colony have on our understanding of race?
Racism isevident in Australian history and British colonisation had some racial characteristics (Stark, 2015). When colonies Commonwealth was formed in 1901, the principle of the Commonwealth was to maintain racial unity in the form of White Australia. The Pacific Island Labourers Act, which was passed by Commonwealth Parliament, forced out Pacific Islanders who work in Australia (Stark, 2015). The purpose of this Act is to ensure that the living standard of white Australian would not get undermined by‘cheap coloured labour’.It was followed by Immigration Restriction Act (1901), this is one of the worst legislative instrument of the White Australia Policy. This Act brought in dictation test to exclude non-Europeans.
Week 7: Post-Modernism
During the colonisation era, when Australia was a British colony, Australian literature was influenced by British traditions (Punch & Sugden, 2013). Especially in the19thcentury,Australian poetry was based on theliterarystyle of Wordsworth, Keats, and Shelley. Their creations were imitated randomly in Australian literature (Punch & Sugden, 2013). In the year 1901 when Australia became more independent and Commonwealth of Australia formed then authors such as Patrick White, Christina Stead became more influential modernised writers who attacked conventional concepts of Australian literature based on bush myth. Patrick White’s famous novels were The Twyborn Affair (1979), Memories of Memoirs of Many in One (1986).In these novels, the writer used post-modern techniques of narration. Apart from this, Peter Mathers’s Trap (1965), David Ireland’s The Unknown Industrial Prisoner (1972) and The Chant Bird (1968) had foreseen the postmodern period of Australian literature.
Week 8: Globalisation
What impact does the production of these products have in your life? What about on the person who made it?
In fact, globalisation brings the whole world in our drawing room. The invention of theinternettakes this concept further (Stark, 2015). Due to globalisation larger variety of products are available to us. Economic globalisation increases theeconomic connection between countries and the world has become a single marketplace (Stark, 2015).One could have Apple I-phone while sitting in any Asian countries or could wear Nike by purchasing it from the nearby marketplace. It increases the production, market, competition as well as technology which not only helps the business to expand but creates millions of job opportunities and scope of employment (Stark, 2015).
What about the environment?
Globalisation changes our lifestyle and increases consumption of products that has an adverse effect on theecological system. Globalisation increases transportation thus increases pollution levels in the environment (Doiz, Lasagabaster & Sierra, 2013).
What is globalisation?
Globalisation is a process which increases the movement of people, product, and information. It is an international integration that arises from exchanging views, products, ideas and approaches (Doiz, Lasagabaster & Sierra, 2013).
What is a corporation and why is it important to globalisation?
Corporations or multinational corporations operate beyond the national borders of a country and they produce and deliver goods and services to many countries (Punch & Sugden, 2013). Corporations are important for economic globalisation.Corporations promote innovations and technologies across the world (De Vogli, 2011). They introduce new technology to remote places as well. This helps many industries to redesign the business and sustain in the market. Corporations this way bring progress to poorest economies, thus helps in globalisation (De Vogli, 2011). Corporations promote growth and efficiency in theworldeconomy; it brings economic integration and in this way helps in globalisation (De Vogli, 2011).
Why do people protest at G8, APEC, and OPEC conferences?
Globalisation has some adverse effects for which the environmentalist, green activists raise concerns in G8, APEC or OPEC conferences. Globalisation rapidly increases the use of natural resource consumption like coal and thus increases carbon dioxide emissions(Environment News South Africa, 2017).Globalisation transfers employment opportunities from developed countries to developing countries due to the availability of cheap labour (Punch & Sugden, 2013). On the other hand, investors also shift from developed countries to developing countries which are a big cause for concern. As these conferences are attended by world leaders, so the activists chose these places to protest(Environment News South Africa, 2017).
Week 9: Environment & Consumption
Globalisation has changed our lifestyle and it gives faster access to technology. It increases the communication and innovation. It has opened up an immense channel in front of the consumer and changes their living standard with development. But it has some negative effects as well.
Globalisation increases the consumption level of people and raises the demand for the product. This increasing demand for products with limited resource affects the ecological balance of environment (Olcina Cantos, 2012). Due to globalisation, people use start using products from foreign countries thus increases the transportation cost and fuel consumption rapidly(Buzzle, 2017). Again these preferences for foreign products affect domestic business. Noise pollution and intrusion in thelandscape are other two adversities of globalisation (Kemp, 2011). Again due to massive industrialisation harmful chemicals change the nature of the soil that affects the agriculture and food production (Olcina Cantos, 2012).
Week 10: Environment & Consumption
Gender, Youth & Desire
How do you know if someone is a woman – is it biological, or are other knowledge involved?
There are some biological aspects from which it could be understood that a person is a woman. Apart from that women have some specific gestures, body languages which are different from man. Again attire could differentiate between a man and a woman (Vandello et al., 2013)..
What is a good performance of femininity?
Femininity has contributed towards major societal changes for women’s rights. Especially fights for gender neutrality of woman.
What is a bad performance of femininity?
A femininewoman always prefers polarity and that in other way influences gender biases. Femininity accepts men are stronger physically and mentally (Rudman & Mescher, 2013).
What is feminism?
Feminism is a concept, ideology or movement that protects the economic, social, political rights of a woman.
What is masculinity?
It is a set of behaviours, attributes and roles that are associated with men and boys, though man and woman both could possess masculinity (Vogel et al.,2011).
What is a good man?
Since parameter of goodness varies people to people, agood man is a relative term. Still, a good man is someone who respects women and acknowledges their rights as a human being (Vogel et al.,2011). Gender neutrality is a virtue of a good man (Iwamoto et al., 2011).
Are men naturally violent?
Men are not naturally violent but most of the time they are physically stronger than women (Vandello et al., 2013). So there is a presumption that they are suitable for war and combat. Though war is not all about physical strength, it needs some tactics and skill. That is why many countries allow women to join the army (Vandello et al., 2013).
A single mum from WA wins Bachelor Sam Wood's heart. (2016). [video] Hollywood: Chiara Zaffino.
Border Security Australias Front Line season:15epsode 12. (2016). [video] Sydney: Jeffery Elrod.
ABC News. (2017). Australia becoming 'a more racist country', survey finds. [online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-02-09/australia-is-becoming-a-more-racist-country-survey/8254592 [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017].
Environment News South Africa (2017). Globalization and Its Impact on the Environment. [online] Available at: https://www.environment.co.za/environmental-issues/globalization-and-its-impact-on-the-environment.html [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017].
Buzzle. (2017). Facts About Globalization and its Alarming Impact on the Environment. [online] Available at: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/globalization-and-its-impact-on-the-environment.html [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017].
De Vogli, R., (2011). Neoliberal globalisation and health in a time of economic crisis. Social Theory & Health, 9(4),311-325.
Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D. & Sierra, J., (2013). Globalisation, internationalisation, multilingualism and linguistic strains in higher education. Studies in higher education, 38(9), 1407-1421.
Iwamoto, D.K., Cheng, A., Lee, C.S., Takamatsu, S. & Gordon, D., (2011). “Man-ing” up and getting drunk: The role of masculine norms, alcohol intoxication and alcohol-related problems among college men. Addictive behaviors, 36(9). 906-911.
Kemp, S.P., (2011). Recentring environment in social work practice: Necessity, opportunity, challenge. British Journal of Social Work, 41(6).1198-1210.
Olcina Cantos, J., (2012)." Globalisation and Sustainability: Threats to the environment in a globalised world. The point of view of Spanish geography.In 32nd Congress of the International Geographical Union, pag (374-392).
Punch, S. & Sugden, F., (2013). Work, education and out-migration among children and youth in upland Asia: Changing patterns of labour and ecological knowledge in an era of globalisation. Local Environment, 18(3), 255-270.
Rudman, L.A. & Mescher, K., (2013). Penalizing men who request a family leave: Is flexibility stigma a femininity stigma?. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 322-340.
Stark, J., (2015). Product lifecycle management.In Product Lifecycle Management (pp. 1-29).Springer International Publishing.
Vandello, J.A., Hettinger, V.E., Bosson, J.K. & Siddiqi, J., (2013). When equal isn't really equal: The masculine dilemma of seeking work flexibility. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 303-321.
Vogel, D.L., Heimerdinger-Edwards, S.R., Hammer, J.H. & Hubbard, A., (2011). “Boys don't cry”: Examination of the links between endorsement of masculine norms, self-stigma, and help-seeking attitudes for men from diverse backgrounds. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(3),368.