Delivery in day(s): 4
Managing and Leading Strategic Change Proof Reading Services
An organisation achieves the success when it has strong leaders and managers that support, develop and encourage employee towards the organisation activities. The both terms are important for the profit of an organisation but it has significance difference between leadership and people management. Leadership is an ability of an individual to lead or guide other individual, teams or the members of an organisation. Managing the people within an organisation is called people management (Goetsch, & Davis, 2014). In this financial report, the discussion will be made on these two topics “Leadership and People Management”.
In starting of the report, theories and differences will be discussed to understand the both terms such as leadership and people management. After that, the discussion will be made on motivation. After analysing the motivation theory, the work performance of an employee will be discussed. At the end of the report, development and effectiveness of team will be discussed.
Theories of Leadership and People Management
It has been seen that an organisation achieve success when it have strong leaders. The leaders should have strategic thinking skills, planning and delivery skills, communication skill and others:
Strategic Thinking skills
The best strategic thinkers see the big success of an organisation, it is necessary for a leader to have strong strategic thinking skills.
Communication skills are important factor for everyone, but leaders need more these skills to motivate the team towards the organisation activities. Leader should be a good listener which is able to listen actively (Vernet, Moser, & Deichmann, 2015).
1.2 Difference between leadership and management
The main difference between manager and leader is that people follow the leader but managers have the people who work for them. People follow the leader just because of trust but manager control the people for efficient work. Leader influence the people for work but manager give orders to done the work. Leaders use the proactive strategy but managers follow the reactive strategy. The main focus of leader is inspired the people and manager focus on managing activities; it states that both have different responsibility. The major difference of leadership and management is that leaders have a skill of leading other but management is an art of organising and coordinating things in an efficient way. Leaders follow principles and guidelines but management follow policies and procedure to manage the things systematically. These are the difference between leadership and management (Bolden, 2016).
1.3 Leadership style in different situation
Participative leadership theory states autocratic style of leader; leader can take the decision without any consulting with others. This leadership style is applied when there is no need for consulting for decisions and the decision will not change as per the result.
Democratic style of leader states that leader involves the people in decision making process, but the process of final decision is different from the leader consultancy process. This style is applied in problematic situations; where there is wide range of alternatives and opinions. It is difficult for a leader to select the best decision among the alternatives.
Situational leadership theory states the situational style of leader; an effective leader does not fall into single preferred style. Things are not simple and straight on which the leader can take a single decision. Leader has to change the decision as per the situation, factors that affect the situational decision is motivational and ability of followers. Follower behaviour also affects the leader decision and behaviour. This style is applied in the different situations where the results are not remaining same and conditions are continuously changed (Shields, 2015).
2. Motivation and performance of leadership
2.1 Ways to motivate the staff
Appreciation is a factor which can helps the leader to motivate the staff. Leader has to appreciate the employee for his quantity and quality of work. Praise is a powerful source to improve the productivity of an employee. Appreciation receive by employee on the regular basis improve the efficiency of an employee and also enhance the productivity. Motivated employee always gives their best in his work (Landy, Zedeck, & Cleveland, 2017).
It is also factor that the employee gets motivated; a good leader is that who give the responsibilities to its employees by trusting them. Leader divides the challenging responsibility to its employees; it encourages the employee to give its best towards the organisation activities.
It has been seen that employee satisfaction is necessary to improve the productivity. It is necessary to fulfil the requirement of employee’s; so that they give their best in their work. Facilities provided by a leader satisfy the requirements and necessity of an employee which is the primary objective of an employee to do the job. It is also necessary to develop the good environment with the proper facilities so that the employee does not face any difficulty to do the better job. Proper resources motivate the employee to do the best job and providing the basic facilities attracts the employee to do more for more facilities (Judge, & Bono, 2001).
2.2 Motivation theory and Reward
Motivation is a process in which a person influenced the others to done the things through their skills. Motivation helps the leader to satisfy the follower needs and goals. Motivation theories are divided into two parts that is content theory and process theory. Content theory focuses on motivation meaning and process theory focus on the process of motivation. Reward is a prize which is achieve by the workers during their job. Reward can be financial gift which is pay by the company to its employee on its good performance or it can be non-financial reward such as promotion, achievement and praise. Motivation is process to influence the people to give their best towards the organisation activities and on the best performance employees get the rewards. Reward is a part of motivation because a leader encourages the employee by providing them rewards to give their best. Organisations use the rewards as a strategy to influence the people for an extra work. Monetary reward use by an organisation in a way from which employee is motivated. Reward is the main source to motivate the employee that is how it links with the motivational theory (Caza, McCarter, W., & Northcraft, 2015).
2.3 Effectiveness of Reward system
Reward system describes the mix of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards which is offered by the employers to employee in an organisation. This system combines the process, policies, and practices for implementing the system. Each organisation has its own reward system which motivates the employee.
Employee bonus system is a strategy which can be used to motivate employees. It depends on customer service, quality, group and individual performance. Bonus system motivates employees which improves the productivity as well as output of employee.
Salary is also a reward system which is very important factor of motivation for workers. It is observed that the salary is a motivation factor which motivates the people to give their best in their work. It is a reason behind the employee’s good performance (Bartol, & Srivastava, 2002).
Good performance of employees is a sign of good reward system; it helps the employee to perform better in workplace. Reward system helps the company to increase the profit through hard work and efficiency of the workers.
2.4 Monitor employee engagement and performance
There are many methods that can be used by the company to monitor the employee’s performance. The company can use the observation and feedback method to monitor their employee’s performance. In this method, the company hire the workers to monitor the performance of employees where the managers of the company provide real-time feedback; it helps the company to improve the productivity as well as the efficiency of an employee. By observing and evaluating the performance of an employee, the company provide feedback according to the performance of an employee (Wang, Zhang, Thomas, Yu, & Spitzmueller, 2017).
The company also use performance standard method in which a system is used to measure the employee performance. This system compares workers performance of employees with the previous performance or by setting the standard. The performance of an employee is expressed in terms of time, cost, quality, effect or way of performance (Erez, & Judge, 2001).
Performance assessment is another method which can be used by the company to evaluate the actual job performance of an employee against the selected performance standards. This method helps to evaluate the strength and weakness of an employee. To improve the weakness the company can develop an improvement plan to improve the performance of an employee according his performance (Morris, Daisley, Wheeler, & Boyer, 2015).
3. Basic notion of human behaviour in organisation
3.1 Factors involved in planning the monitoring and assessment of employee performance
Monitoring and assessment of employee performance refers the evaluation of the performance of employees at the individual level. There are many factors which helps the company to evaluate the performance of employees.
Age is a factor which helps the company to analyse the performance of an employee. The assessor has to consider the age of an employee to measure his performance because an employee gets the experience and their skills are also brushed up. It is observed that the performance of an old man is very different with the performance of new employee. This age gap is a major factor to consider at the time of monitoring the performance of an employee. In an organisation, employees are hiring as per their ability and experience so it is necessary for the company that it can measure the performance of an employee according to the age, and experience (Makoshi, 2015). .
Cultural diversity is also a factor which is important to consider at the time of measuring the performance. Every employee in an organisation comes with the different cultural background. Employee with different culture has to learn the different things and every person has different capacity to learn the things quickly (Banks, 2015). Thus, the company has to assess the performance with the different type of assessment process. At the time of assessment, cultural diversity is another factor to consider measuring the performance of an employee.
Resources available are a major factor to determine the performance of employees of the company. Available resources help the company to evaluate the level of learning or the opportunity of learning of the learners. Some of the resources are not available in the company which is necessary to perform well. It is necessary to have the all resources which are useful for improving the employee performance. If the company has fewer resources then the performance is measure according to the availability of resources. Thus, the evaluating process of the company should be according to the availability of the resources.
Learning needs diversity is an important factor for the company to analyse the different learning needs of the people. Every employee has different skills and wants to learn different skills which are not present in an employee. Evaluator has to consider the learning needs of an individual before monitoring his performance. Diversity in needs affect the evaluation process of performance.
These are factors which has assessor has to consider at the time of evaluating the employees performance.
3.2 Plan and deliver the assessment need of an individual
It has been seen that the companies develop the skills after evaluating the performance of an employee. The assessment can be delivered to them by various methods.
Motivation is the only source which encourages the employees to perform well in the organisation activities. Motivation enhances the performance of an individual; it is the responsibility of a leader to asses the performance and gives the feedback and appreciates the employee on his performance to attain the objective of the company. Motivation is necessary for developing the skills and enhancing the performance of an employee.
Delegation is a factor which encourages the employee to perform well; it is the responsibility of a leader to delegate the responsibility according to the performance of an employee. Delegation need should be developed in the employees so that they can understand their responsibilities towards work. It is helpful for an employee because it develop the skills and confidence in an individual. Team work is essential for employees and the employees also have the responsibility to delegate the work accordingly so that they can all manage without any conflicts and the help of manager (Dijk, 2016).
Communication is a factor which helps the company to assess the individual performance. Communication is a technique which influences the employee to do the work hard; a manager always has a skill of communication because communication has a strong power to influence the employees. It is most important tool to handle the employees as well as to work effectively with team.
Assessment of an individual is a planned process which is evaluated to evaluate the organisation performance. The strength and weakness of an organisation affects the functions of an organisation as a whole. Role plays and group discussion are the most important techniques that help the company to assess the needs of employees.
Role play is a method to create the artificial environment in the workplace which has been created and the employees of the company has the responsibility to play the role which has been delegated them. It helps the company in developing the employee’s skill.
Group Discussion is a method in which all the members share their point of view on the particular topic. In group discussion; directors, manager and employees of the company has to discuss about the needs which they have to develop.
3.3 Assessment Process
The success of assessment process depends on the improvement in the skills of an employee which affects the overall working of the company. There are many methods to evaluate the success of assessment process.
Appraisal is a method to evaluate the success of assessment; in this method an individual is praise on his performance by increasing their salary or to promote them. Appraisal also motivates the employees to perform better next time. If 60% of employee’s get appraisal that means employee perform well and skills are developed due to the assessment process.
Feedback is a method which is given by manager to its employee on his performance. This method motivates the employees to perform better and negative feedback encourages the employees to tries to solve the issues in his performance. It has been seen that this method improves the performance of an employee. If most of the employees have satisfactory performance then it can be said that performance assessment methods achieve success.
Promotion is the method in which the employee has been promoted due to its quality and excellent work performance. Excellent work performance of an individual recognises the success of assessment method.
Outcomes of the performance of employees evaluate the success of assessment plan. If the outcomes of employees have been increase with the quality of performance then it means the assessment plan is successful and if the performance of employees is not enhance them assessment process is not much effective to develop the employees skills.
4. Development and effectiveness of teams
4.1Benefits of team –work
There are many benefits of team work which helps the company to achieve the competitive advantage and grab the high market share.
Team members share a strong bond to attain the objective of the company. When people work with each other, feeling of safety is developed due to strong trust with each other. Open communication is a key which build the strong trust and give the effective solution in difficult group projects. Without any trust; the team does not attain the objective of the company (Costa, Passos, & Bakker, 2014).
There are different types of members in a team which have the different skills to solve the particular issues. Each and every member of a team presents their own ideas which help the group to take the right decision at the right time (Dijk, 2016).
When team is working together then the spirit to support each other is developed. Mutual support of each other encourages the people to achieve the goals. By supporting each other, team can easily achieve the objective.
It is observed that a team is working together then the capabilities to achieve the target are increases as compare to individual. Increasing the efficiency of an employee helps the company to gain the competitive advantage (McEwan, Ruissen, Eys, Zumbo, & Beauchamp, 2017).
4.2 Role of a Leader
It has been seen that, conflicts and issues has been raised which is not good for the company as well as for employees performance. It is the responsibility of a leader to control the conflict management between the employees and enhance the performance of employees.
A leader has to allocate the responsibility according to the capabilities of an employee. Conflict is raise due to interference of employees in the work of each other. It is the responsibility of a leader to allocate the work so that the conflicts are reduces (Mahajan, & Sharma, 2015).
Each and every people are different from each other which raise the conflict between the employees. As a leader, it has to respect the differences and learn the new things from the positive point of view. These steps taken by the leader reduces the conflicts which is raises due to differences. A leader understands the conflicts and then takes the steps to manage the conflicts. Not only reduce the conflicts but it also developing the bond among the team members.
There are many conflicts which are raised due to personal problems or when the employees are worry about anything. As a leader, it has to reduce the problems of employees which affect them or give them break so that they can feel better and did not fight with each other. Employees are getting frustrated due to overload of work; the leader has to entertain and provides the break to reduce the stress level of an employee. These roles of a leader help to reduce the conflicts among the employees.
4.3 Team effectiveness
A leader plays many roles but the main role of a leader is to achieve the objective of the company.
A leader supports the employees in their work which helps the company to achieve the objective. Personality, intelligence, and experience of a leader provide the positive result. It also plays the role of counsellor to provide the counselling to the employees. Support increases the efficiency of the team.
Friend, philosopher and guide
A leader plays the three roles to help the employees or to improve the work efficiency of an employee. Philosopher guides the employee when they required support and suggestions. He can also guide the supervisors at the time of decision making or change the policies. Leader listen the problem of an employees and tries to solve them quickly so that the employee improve its performance and the company can achieve its target (Hoffman, & Tadelis, 2018). By solving the problem of the employees; the efficiency level of a team is increases which help the company to achieve the objective.
A leader represents the business in front of many people. A leader promotes the company goods and services in seminars, conferences, meetings, and others. The role of leaders is to communicate with the outsiders to attain the objective. A leader also explain the goals and objectives of the company to employees so that they can do hard work to achieve the objective (Henker, Sonnentag, & Unger, 2015).
Leadership is a function which is necessary for all level of management. Motivation is an emotion which encourages the employee towards to attain the objective of the company. Motivation improves the efficiency of employee towards the work. Motivation plays a role which enhances the performance of the team which helps to attain the objective and goals of the company (Herzberg, 2017).
From the above analysis, it has been concluded that leader play the different role in the different situation. It helps the company tom encourage the employees to achieve the objective of the company. There are many differences in people management and leadership such as principles, formulation and many others. It is observed that the leader can motivate the staff by many methods such as rewards, salary and many others to achieve the objectives of the company. Rewards are the best source to motivate employees and enhance the performance of an employee. There are many methods which are used by the employee to monitor the employee performance such as performance standard. An employee performance affects organisation performance so it is necessary for the company to evaluate the performance of an employee. There are many factors from which the company can easily measure the performance such as age, cultural and many others. The company has to evaluate the success of an assessment process with the many methods which are depends on the employee performance. There are many benefits to work together as team workers in the organisation such as outcomes, mutual support and many others. A leader plays many roles but the main role play by a leader is to reduce the conflict between the employees and improve the effectiveness of team to achieve the objectives and goals of the company (Langfield, Logan, & Craith, 2009).
1. Banks, J. A. (2015). Cultural diversity and education. Routledge.
2. Bartol, K. M., & Srivastava, A. (2002). Encouraging knowledge sharing: The role of organizational reward systems. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(1), 64-76.
3. Bolden, R. (2016). Leadership, management and organisational development. In Gower handbook of leadership and management development (pp. 143-158). Routledge.
4. Caza, A., McCarter, M. W., & Northcraft, G. B. (2015). Performance benefits of reward choice: A procedural justice perspective. Human Resource Management Journal, 25(2), 184-199.
5. Costa, P. L., Passos, A. M., & Bakker, A. B. (2014). Team work engagement: A model of emergence. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(2), 414-436.
6. Dijk, V., Duimel-Peeters, I., Muris, J., Wesseling, G., Beusmans, G., & Vrijhoef, H. (2016). Effectiveness of teamwork in an integrated care setting for patients with COPD: development and testing of a self-evaluation instrument for interprofessional teams. International journal of integrated care, 16(1).
7. Erez, A., & Judge, T. A. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations to goal setting, motivation, and performance. Journal of applied psychology, 86(6), 1270.
8. Goetsch, D. L., & Davis, S. B. (2014). Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson.
9. Henker, N., Sonnentag, S., & Unger, D. (2015). Transformational leadership and employee creativity: the mediating role of promotion focus and creative process engagement. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(2), 235-247.
10. Herzberg, F. (2017). Motivation to work. Routledge.
11. Hoffman, M., & Tadelis, S. (2018). People Management Skills, Employee Attrition, and Manager Rewards: An Empirical Analysis (No. w24360). National Bureau of Economic Research.
12. Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits—self-esteem, generalized self-effic acy, locus of control, and emotional stability—with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied Psychology, 86(1), 80.
13. Landy, F., Zedeck, S., & Cleveland, J. (2017). Performance measurement and theory. Routledge.
14. Langfield, M., Logan, W., & Craith, M. N. (2009). Cultural diversity, heritage and human rights: intersections in theory and practice. Routledge.
15. Leary, M. R., & Baumeister, R. F. (2017). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. In Interpersonal Development (pp. 57-89). Routledge.
16. Mahajan, S., & Sharma, R. (2015). Impact of effective leadership on employee engagement. International Journal of Education and Management Studies, 5(4), 288.
17. Makoshi, J. A., Yamamoto, Y., Kato, R., Sato, F., Ejima, S., Dokko, Y., & Yasuki, T. (2015). Age-dependent factors affecting thoracic response: a finite element study focused on Japanese elderly occupants. Traffic injury prevention, 16(1), S66-S74.
18. McEwan, D., Ruissen, G. R., Eys, M. A., Zumbo, B. D., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2017). The effectiveness of teamwork training on teamwork behaviors and team performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled interventions. PloS one, 12(1), e0169604.
19. Morris, S. B., Daisley, R. L., Wheeler, M., & Boyer, P. (2015). A meta-analysis of the relationship between individual assessments and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 5.
20. Shields, J., Brown, M., Kaine, S., Dolle-Samuel, C., North-Samardzic, A., McLean, P., & Plimmer, G. (2015). Managing employee performance & reward: Concepts, practices, strategies. Cambridge University Press.
21. Vernet, A., Moser, C., & Deichmann, D. (2015). The team and its leader: Multilevel effects of network embeddedness on performance. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2015, No. 1, p. 17616). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.
22. Wang, Z., Zhang, J., Thomas, C. L., Yu, J., & Spitzmueller, C. (2017). Explaining employee benefits of employee proactive personality: The role of engagement, team proactivity composition and perceived organizational support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 101, 90-103.