Delivery in day(s): 4
Management Team and Leading Project Proof Reading Services
Effective and efficient management and leadership of project teams is an essential aspect of organizational performance. The purpose of this report is to bring into perspective the how Five-cent media is facing problems with its project team. The programmers are demonstrating and are bound to go on strike if their requirements are not met. However, not all the programmers are striking as some are still undertaking their normal duties bringing into perspective an aspect of division among themselves. The study brings into perspective various theories which are an essential aspect of project managment teams and employee these theories include the goal setting theory of motivation which brings into perspective the effects of setting goals on an individual as well as on an organizational level. The equity theory which brings into perspective the measurement and the relational definition of employee satisfaction. Self-determination theory which focuses on human personality with a perspective on inbuilt growth tendencies ant the psychological needs of an individual and finally the utilitarianism theory which brings into perspective aspects of right and wrong basing its argument on the making a choice between one action and another taking into consideration other people's interests.
Five-cent Media is facing a problem with its workers especially the programmers' aspect. The programmers are demonstrating over various aspect of their job that is affecting not only their performance but also an aspect of job satisfaction. Five cents management is likened to the blood-soaked villains in the company's video game that have greatly contributed to the company's growth a great deal. Workers have experienced quite numerous problems including quite a good number of employees, 10, 000 to be exact have been working without contracts for a period of three months. The problems faced by the programmers included round the clock coding marathons, working without contracts, and potential employee layoffs by the company.
Various theories can be used to evaluate and analyze Five cents situation and scenario in a great and in an in-depth approach. The theories may revolve around various business aspects not forgetting that the human resource is a critical aspect of business success and therefore the theories also focus on the employee aspect. Management perspective has also not been left out of the picture.
The Goal Setting Theory of Motivation:-
The goal setting theory was developed by Edwin Locke. It brings into perspective the effects of setting goals on organizational and individual performance (Stickler, 2011, p. 4). He brought into perspective that individuals who subscribe to the aspect of setting specific goals are better performers as compared to those who subscribe to the generic aspect (Herzberg et al., 2011). This theory is based on five goal setting principles which include clarity, commitment, feedback, challenge, and the complexity of the task (Locke & Latham, 2013, p. 75). Self-set goals are an important aspect of individual motivation. However, the effectiveness of this goals depends on the type and quality of goals set (Miner, 2011, p. 221).
Clarity can be defined as the aspect of coherency and intelligence applied to an issue or situation. Clarity is an essential aspect of achievement and performance (Latham, 2012, p. 45). Goals that are clear and measurable are easy to achieve than those that are complicated and of poor definition. Specific and clear goals have a specific timeline of completion, and therefore individuals should be motivated to work towards this timelines.
Commitment refers to an aspect of being focused on something. It is the art of complete dedication to a particular course. The efforts of an individual should be geared towards the achievement of set goals. Goal sharing is an essential aspect of commitment as it enables one to maintain an aspect of accountability to himself towards the achievement of that particular goal (Locke & Latham, 2013, p. 65).
Feedback can be defined as the information received in regard to a particular aspect, for instance, a particular product. Having a defined mode or information reception regarding the progress you are making taking into consideration the set goals is essential (French, 2011). If in case the feedback you receive is negative you are bound or are required to adjust the complexity and the level of difficulty of your set goals (Locke, 2011, p. 465). This is a good alternative to giving up or continuing with the initial set goals and in the long run ending up not achieving your target.
A challenge can be defined as the extent of difficulty. The complexity of the goals should be a bit lenient in order to act as motivating factor setting highly complex goals is demotivating and may result in not achieving your set goals (Miner, 2015, p. 303).
For highly complex goal an individual is supposed to provide enough time in order to understand the requirements of the goals. This is meant to facilitate learning and conceptualization of the goal concepts. Providing an allowance for modification is an essential factor when dealing with highly complex goals (Jarvis et al., 2012, p. 32).
The five cents media management had put into use the goal setting theory of motivation theory. They had set goals on when particular games were to be complete and launched to the market. Heroes' duty 2 was to come out to the market at the onset of the holidays. However, taking into consideration the complexity of the game and the changes that need to be made by the programming team led by Catsumi this will not be possible. Catsumi has shown commitment to the goals set by focusing on the development of the game even when his collogues are out demonstrating. He has shown an attitude of I want to do it. Taking into consideration the consideration the complexity and the level of difficulty of the task he has hinted to the CEO that the game might not be ready by the onset of the holidays as various changes need to be made to the underlying code.
The equity theory first came into perspective in the 1960s. It was developed by John S. Adams. The theory brings into perspective the measurement and the relational definition of employee satisfaction (Miller et al., 2010, p. 2). The equity theory brings into perspective a comparative approach to inputs and outcomes. Employees try to strike a balance between what they give and receive from an organization or company. They rate their level of satisfaction based on their own level of satisfaction and that of their own colleagues (Schermerhorn, 2010, p. 366).
The inputs provided to an organization can refer to a wide range of issues which might include time, the level of organizational loyalty provided to an organization, the sacrifices made to the course, enthusiasm (Thomas, 2008, p. 148). The employees of Five-cent medial have sacrificed their time to meet the marathon coding systems, Catsumi has shown commitment to the course by being focused to the development of the Hero's Duty 2 even when he is supposed to be out demonstrating. A colleague to Catsumi has also shown loyalty and commitment to the achievement of the company by hinting that the longer the stalemate continue the market condition will deteriorate to a worse position than it is currently.
The output that an organization offers to an individual employee includes challenging assignments, career advancement, and promotion, job security, recognition, an opportunity for personal growth and flexibility (McGrath & Bates, 2017, p. 115). Five-cent media's management has provided the programmers with better pay. However, they have not provided job security to the employees. This is due to the fact that some employees have operated for a duration of three months without a contract and therefore they aren't so sure for what duration their services are needed. The CEO also hints that if the stalemate continues offshore programmers will be contracted to complete the development of the ongoing games and therefore the employees are not guaranteed of their jobs. The employees also bring into perspective that if the condition continues they will lose not only the agreed 5% increase in pay but also their jobs.
The equity theories bring into perspective an aspect of justice (Schminke, 2011, p. 36). However, in Five-cent media, this aspect cannot be brought into perspective clearly because the terms of the contract of employees are not clearly defined. This is evident due to the fact that the employee a section of employees have operated without contracts for a duration of three months and therefore there is no comparative basis.
The input provided by employees to the company are more as compared to what the organization is willing to give unto them. The 5% revenue sharing offer is also being reduced and spread across years. In the first year, they are bound to receive 2%, 3% during the second year, 4% during the third year and 5% during the fourth year. The value of their inputs in being diminished.
Self-determination theory refers to a theory that focuses on human personality with a perspective on inbuilt growth tendencies ant the psychological needs of an individual. Here the motivation of an individual derives its basis from the choices that an individual makes without influence from any external factor (Ryan & Deci, 2017, p. 5). This theory brings into perspective the fact that all individuals have within them a desire to grow and achieve.
This theory brings into perspective three basic human needs that when satisfied contribute greatly to an individual's growth. These needs include competence, relatedness, and autonomy.
Competence refers to that aspect that is geared towards controlling the mastery of experience and outcome control.
This refers to the willingness to interact with and to be connected to. It brings into perspective care for others. It brings out the desire to build and have a healthy relationship with others.
This brings into perspective the desire to facilitate the course of one's own life. However, it does not rule out the aspect of dependence.
This theory brings into perspective two levels of motivation which are controlled motivation and autonomous motivation (Deci, 2012, p. 25). Controlled motivation can be described as the lowes level of motivation whereas autonomous motivation can be defined as the highest level of motivation because at this point all the three needs have been met (Gagné, 2014, p. 324). The theory suggests that autonomy individuals are at liberty to choose activities and to take ownership of the tasks that have been bestowed upon them. Employees need to have the freedom to do work using their own approaches, however, management needs to encourage them to take a step and take responsibility for the outcome of their work.
Five-cent media has not provided enough consideration to this theory. However, Catsum tries to put into practice this theory by trying to take charge of the development of the game Hero's Duty 2. Catsumi has also tried to take control of the course of his work. He says the deadline for the development will not be met because he needs to make changes to the underlying code since the present characters do not meet his expectations. The management has tried to implement and give support to the realization of the self-determination theory by trying to build a relationship with the employees. Yasser tells Coretta to give Catsumi a little push while showing him some love. However, it also undermines the relationship aspect by taking into consideration the issues about contracts which has greatly affected the relationship of various programmers due to the fact that they hold different views and Yasser takes advantage of this situation. In addition, the company has failed to support autonomy by failing to give jurisdiction over online games.
The utilitarianism theory is a theory that brings into perspective aspects of right and wrong basing its argument on the making a choice between one action and another taking into consideration other people's interests (Eggleston & Miller, 2014, p. 25). It operates and negates the aspect of self (McCloskey, 2015, p. 143). It greatly supports a choice that provides the highest level of satisfaction to a large number of individuals. The pioneers of this theory include Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. The principle of utility states that the actions performed by an individual or a group of people are worthy of praise if they greatly promote the welfare of individuals (RAWLS, 2009, p. 468).
Five-cent Media has failed to take into consideration the utilitarianism theory. Yasser takes pride when the employees are not on the same page since it buys her time to outsource offshore programmers. From her perspective, it is also an opportunity to continue paying them the initial remuneration without affecting the pay rise initially agreed upon.
In implementing the goal setting theory of motivation, all aspects brought into perspective should be considered. Individuals when setting their personal goals they should take into consideration organizational goals and objectives. Taking into consideration the complex projects undertaken by Five-cent Media, a feedback mechanism should be employed to gather information regarding the performance in relation to set goals and if the set goals contain an indication of non-attainment the goals should be revisited and deadlines and other project properties reset to facilitate performance (Locke, 2011, p. 465).
Efforts (inputs) applied by individuals should be directly proportional to the output received by employees. The management of Five-cent Media should take into consideration the efforts that employees put to ensure that goals are met. The outputs that the organization gives to the employers should be directly proportional to work done. There should be uniformity and application of the law of justice when considering and remunerating various employees (Schminke, 2011, p. 36). One employee on the same level should not earn more than another without basis.
Five-cent Media should put a focus on the development of leadership focus on autonomy since it is an essential component of motivation. Management should ensure that they play a key role in ensuring that the three basic needs that are essential in self-determination theory are satisfied (Gagné, 2014, p. 324). The company should allow the employers to take jurisdiction of the online games. It should also make a substantial effort in ensuring that employee relationships are enhanced and not taking pride in employee wrangles and poor relationship.
The welfare of employees is essential in organizational performance. Five-cent management should ensure that all the steps that they undertake concerning employee remuneration should be for the general welfare of all organizational employees (Eggleston & Miller, 2014, p. 25). The notion of benefiting from the poor relation of employees and failing to honour the raise agreement is misplaced and should not be a consideration whatsoever. All aspect of the utilitarianism theory should be brought into focus and followed efficiently.
In conclusion, the management and leadership of project teams is an essential aspect of organizational performance. To achieve set organizational goals organizations must focus on the welfare of employees by taking into consideration motivational theories which might include goal setting theory of motivation, equity theory, and the self-determination theory. In addition, ethical issues are essential. The ethical issues refer to what is considered right or wrong by taking into perspective thebusiness managment and all the stakeholders in the arena. In this areas focus should be on theories such as the utilitarianism theory.
1.Deci, E., 2012. Intrinsic Motivation.Newyork City: Springer Science & Business Media.
2.Eggleston, B. & Miller, D., 2014. The Cambridge Companion to Utilitarianism.s.l.:Cambridge University Press.
3.French, R., 2011. Organizational Behaviour.2 Edition ed. s.l.:John Wiley & Sons.
4.Gagné, M., 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-determination Theory.s.l.:Oxford University Press.
5.Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B. B., 2011. The Motivation to Work.s.l.:Transaction Publishers.
6.Jarvis, D., Jarvis, J., Ronnquist, R. & Jain, L., 2012. Multiagent Systems and Applications: Development Using the GORITE BDI Framework.s.l.:Springer Science & Business Media.
7.Latham, G., 2012. Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research, and Practice.2 Edition ed. s.l.:SAGE.
8.Locke, E., 2011. Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behavior: Indispensable Knowledge for Evidence-Based Management.2 Edition ed. s.l.:John Wiley & Sons.
9.Locke, E. & Latham, G., 2013. New Developments in Goal Setting and Task Performance.1st Edition ed. s.l.:Routledge.
10.McCloskey, J., 2015. John Stuart Mill: A Critical Study.s.l.:Palgrave Macmillan UK.
11.McGrath, J. & Bates, B., 2017. The Little Book of Big Management Theories: And How to Use Them.s.l.:Pearson Education Limited.
12.Miller, F., Vandome, A. & John, M., 2010. Equity Theory.s.l.:VDM Publishing.
13.Miner, J., 2011. Organizational Behavior 6: Integrated Theory Development and the Role of the Unconscious.s.l.:M.E. Sharpe.
14.Miner, J., 2015. Organizational Behavior 1: Essential Theories of Motivation and Leadership.s.l.:Routledge.
15.RAWLS, J., 2009. A Theory of Justice.Original Edition ed. s.l.:Harvard University Press.
16.Ryan, R. & Deci, E., 2017. Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness.s.l.:Guilford Publications.
17.Schermerhorn, J., 2010. Management.s.l.:John Wiley & Sons.
18.Schminke, M., 2011. Managerial Ethics: Managing the Psychology of Morality.s.l.:Routledge.
19.Stickler, V., 2011. Motivation at Work: Goal Setting.1st Edition ed. s.l.:GRIN Verlag.
20.Thomas, D., 2008. Cross-Cultural Management: Essential Concepts.s.l.:SAGE.