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ISE5602 Management of Innovation and Technology Assignment
According to Ramos (2018), technology and innovation are significant stimuli for change in the corporate world and society. The transformation of the strategies, procedures, processes, and management is a first drive for the organization competitiveness. Most firms are propelled to new markets on the integration of innovation while well-entrenched business might lose their competitive advantage. Achievements in all corners of service delivery reinforce the concept that technological advancement is inevitable and it always improves and develops the existing structures and plans. Experts across diverse business sectors are working on developing ideas that are capable of creating new innovative techniques to keep a competitive advantage on board.
Bin and Filhoa-Salles (2012) add that while managing technology in organizations, the elements of complex economic, political and the social policies are vital for consideration to enhance smooth operation. The focus of the proposal is to obtain a basic understanding of the nature of the innovation and creating more attention to the data record management process of new techniques. The project will as well be centered deeply on organization strategies, human resources and other crucial policies that are prone to innovation dynamics. Managing innovative capabilities incorporates different levels of organization attention. For instance, top management needs to understand the relationship that exists between innovation and strategy.
White and Bruton (2016) adds that the suitable organization structure for new expertise can be integrated and comprehensively initiate change which is a priority. More importantly, the innovative professionals engaged at every level of incorporating new techniques to replace the existing processes determine the competitive advantage that the organization has attained. With the changes unavoidable the management must keep a regular track of implications associated with every new technique enforced in the critical operational areas. The combination of different management attention creates a developmental partnership model for the organization to be regularly prepared to control any new techniques in their operation[ CITATION Bor11 \l 1033 ]. The aspect of managing technology and innovation impacts different activities of an organization uniquely.
The operational areas to be reviewed in this study are intellectual capital and organizational innovation, transformational leadership and organizational performance, human capital and corporate innovation and online learning within the business. Other significant operations affected by the techniques include smart-government and organizational innovation, innovative business structure, automated organization systems and inventory control system and organization innovation. Lastly, strategic compensation in technology firms, as well as product, process marketing, and organizational innovation, directs the set objectives and goals[ CITATION Set16 \l 1033 ]. The corporate world has widely experienced rapid changes and challenges from the phenomenon of globalization (Thamhain, 2015). The intellectual capacity within organization management guaranteed by the inevitable changes builds its competitive advantage capability.
The technological and innovative techniques put on board by the leadership targets in improving existing services and products and launching new brands in the market (Lager, 2016). Thus with the management playing a central role in both internal and external business regulation, supportive climate and allocation of innovative resources is a priority. The rapport between transformational leadership and organizational innovation is stable when a business receives higher external support. Therefore, for successful innovation management, the transformational leadership beyond the internal limitations guarantees successful transformation. Investment in research and development in an organization is vital in addressing changes. However, managing technology and research in developmental projects demands the combined efforts of human capital[ CITATION Sam12 \l 1033 ].
The prominent organizations across the corporate world incorporate human capital as a transformational tool of innovative potential to realities in service and product delivery (Daim et al, 2016). The new techniques in the market are only compatible with organization long-term plans when the executive and junior work knowledge define capital. The extended procedure of succeeding in adopting new automation relies on components of intellectual and human capital that creates a link for the two concepts to work smoothly (Berggren, 2011). E-learning or online learning within an organization is a self-developed innovation that management use to address the overhead training cost implications. The concept incorporates new training programs without necessarily having the trainees meet the facilitator but learning the new skills through simulated trained app.
The aspect of advancement and efficiency are requirements for businesses to withstand the competitiveness of the market. Thus turning to online-learning automates an organizational operation right from recruiting, training and placing which attracts top talent into the business. Further, innovative organization structure has challenged old business designs to meet the clients’ requirements promptly. Most of the business structures are built on outsourcing, coordination and the collaboration software that automate responsibilities within the central and decentralized branches. The innovative structure is extremely flexible allowing creative input from diverse teams within the organization's dream objective[ CITATION Sam12 \l 1033 ].
According to Bin and Filhoa-Salles (2012), compensation strategy on innovative companies promotes their dominance as market leaders. The adopted technology and innovation drive business and set productivity plans. The automatic compensation and incentive models are the latest trends that high profile companies target to retain highly experienced and delivering employees. Compensation in most businesses operates as an incremental strategy with specific incentives and rewards set aside to motivate staff members transforming a company towards its resolutions (Bin and Filhoa-Salles, 2012). Thus setting consecutive goals motivates creative teams to act quickly and integrate innovative culture to the business.
The smart government and organizational innovation play a significant role in their subject life standards. The government magnifies the application of technology to enhance closeness with the public to provide services and ease in the revenue collection. Authorities operate similarly like an organization with the integration of innovation promoting accountability, transparency, and e-government platforms for quick service accessibility (Lager, 2016). Finally, product, process marketing, and organizational change contribute to economic development by availing new clients to the business. The similarity in products manufactured globally leads to organization investing more in marketing innovation to sustain existing and new markets through a range of unique brands of products.
Organizations need to understand that smart governments in the contemporary world play a major role in innovative concepts for the subjects’ intelligent life. Shamsi Al (2018) and others explore this assertion in the article titled “The impact of innovation and smart government on happiness: proposing conceptual framework.” The ability of authorities to reach out to the citizens is driven by the need for an e-government platform that changes normal service delivery to new methods. Through the process expansion of national competitiveness in delivering quality services to the public is witnessed. The smart government is a leadership entity that works together to achieve cost-effective services and consistency in the delivery of public priorities.
White and Bruton (2016) add that the access to technologies has a positive impact not only on a local government but also works comprehensively to attain general global well-being of the economy. The technique of smart government under the e-government attracts various definitions based on the impact it has on state functions. For instance, in the United States, e-government refers to use of coordinated ICT in public administration and policy decision making to address all public interests. The aim of smart government in innovative terms has ensured affordable and sustainable solutions for collaboration among the local authority administrative departments. Thus, the skill is advancing the government and public operations through a combination of basic information sharing platforms to ease service delivery.
On the other hand, Abbas (2016) investigates the role of intellectual capital with its three dimensions: human, structural and customer capital. In the publication titled “the role of intellectual capital in achieving organizational innovation study of the case of Ain Touta Cement Company, Algeria,” the author states that world is facing rapid, innovative changes and challenges. The knowledge available for organization becomes its source of competitive advantage. While adopting the innovation, it’s necessary for intellectual capital strategies to be in place to coordinate work and activities at all levels. Human capital is the most vital aspect based on the knowledge of the organization's workforce (Ganzer, Chais, and Munhoz, 2017).
The concept set the firm in an interactive aspect to find solutions to current and future challenges through the best way ever of adopting change. The structural capital is a second component of the intellectual component for the company to achieve holistic objectives creating an opportunity for ease innovation adoption (Abbas, 2016). The approach consists of infrastructure meant to support the staff to act swiftly to changes in the market. Further, customer capital is perceived based on knowledge held by the clients. The organization acquires the knowledge as a tool to review their customers’ perception of new technology in the market and incorporate it to satisfy their interests.
The integration of open innovation is a new trend taking a course in different industries to optimize the efficacy of accommodating changes. A study by Jemala (2010), titled “Introduction to open technology innovation,” suggests that suitable structural and regional with good public infrastructure and skilled staff are best tools to steer new technology in the organization. The managerial process in extensive open business networks needs careful coordination of the tools. The boards that have an interchangeable role of management with the executives spur innovative culture with the openness to share ideas and to enhance mutual learning guaranteed. The freedom of the boards and top management to link their efforts brings in more cohesiveness of the firm’s structure to focus on the impact of new techniques. Jemala (2010) suggest that open technology innovation has the good ideas coming from outside of the company. The clients are involved in a broader expert discussion during a marketing process that strengthens the process of introducing new techniques in the market.
The concept of managing technology and innovation varies based on the organization preparedness to change from ordinary methods of conducting business. The organizational success is driven by the level of the management competence to coordinate both the external and internal environments towards accommodating changes. The aspect of management in its capacity in an organizational affects its phenomenon from human capital, resources, and marketing strategies, compensation and the real structure of a business. The performance objectives that firms set as visions in a competitive environment are prone to the automation trends. Therefore, facilitation of innovative culture in an organization has a direct link on organization performance.
Organizations are failing in their efforts to link performance and alterations from the innovative corporate world. The managerial elements that steer the mission of most organizations have little knowledge on the constructs of creative culture and its negativity on avoidance or integration to the daily operations. Automation is explored in a business environment to develop as a collection of several variables that affects specific functions to the extent of the whole system depending on its magnitude (Ramos, 2018). With the danger of losing the significant competitive advantage, managing technology and innovation is a priority to link outcome with the performance of the staff. The executives and boards of developing business are finding hard to withstand the innovative culture within their operations.
The dynamically changing technology in financial industry has associated threats that endanger the security of the systems in the industry. The threats such as hacking and cyber-attacking have many associated drawbacks such as loss of important financial information and losses. Hence, more secure and quality cryptosystems need to be implemented in the financial sector to enhance more security and privacy.
1.Area of Focus: Cryptosystems application in Financial Services Industry
2.Thesis Statement: Integration of cryptosystems in Financial Services to enhance security and privacy better due to the increased threats and cyber crimes in the financial industry.
3.Key Terms: Cryptosystems, Encryption, integrity, cybersecurity, Public key, Private Key, financial industry, threats.
Historical Overview of Modern Cryptosystems:-
The Cryptography is mainly considered as the security and confidentiality aspect of the data or a message with encryption techniques. Traditional cryptography originated from the use of secret keys made on alphabets[ CITATION Shast \l 1033 ]. With time the encryption methods improved and modern cryptosystems were adopted with digital algorithms.
Historical Financial Industry Overview:-
Financial services have been existing over years since transactions have been taking place. However, the services lacked encryption, evidence, security, and authentication. Barter trade was used before cash was invented. With time, banks were adopted, and modern cryptosystems were adopted to provide security[ CITATION Cam06 \l 1033 ]. Transactions have evolved with technology, and online and digital transactions have been used largely in the financial industry.
Current Link between Modern Cryptosystems and Financial Industry:-
Modern cryptosystems are all key providers of confidentiality, controlled access, integrity, non-repudiation, and authentication. All these cryptosystems aspects are required in financial industry[ CITATION And06 \l 1033 ]. Therefore, cryptosystems have to be integrated into the banking or any financial managment service to have secured and quality services with protected access.
1.The financial industries which have integrated the use of modern cryptosystems have been facing some challenges which may include
2.Costly software and networks which small financial industries can’t afford.
3.Some cryptosystems are still hack-able due to hackers possessing more expertise skills.
Principles of Modern Cryptography:-
The main objective of any cryptosystems is to have security. Security is essential and suitable to protect information being transmitted over unprotected networks or systems that don't have logical or physical accesses control[ CITATION Pet16 \l 1033 ]. The security of the system is enhanced by cryptosystems in the following ways.
1.Authentication identifies the originator of information to ensure instructions have been sent only from the right source and not unauthorized users.
2.Integrity enhances security by ensuring that the information can’t be modified by unauthorized users during its transmission.
3.Confidentiality enhances security by ensuring that the information is not disclosed to unauthorized parties.
4.Access control controls the access to company resources hence protecting the resources and ensuring efficient use.
5.Non-repudiation ensures the security of the flow of operations by getting confirmation that the instructions were sent and also get to know where exactly the equipment and systems went faulty.
1.This is a cryptosystems aspect that ensures that the sent data is only readable to the intended recipients without being eavesdropped or modified during transmission. The following aspects of cryptosystems achieve privacy.
2.Confidentiality promotes privacy by ensuring that the information is only disclosed to authorize users. It is achieved by having special keys that ensure that the data can only be decrypted.
3.Integrity ensures privacy is upheld and that unauthorized users can’t modify the information.
4.Access control limits the access to the company's resources to only the authorized personnel.
Types of Cryptography Used:-
Symmetric cryptography refers to a cryptosystem that uses the same secret key in encryption and decryption processes. The secret key must be known to the sender and the receiver. The creation of block cipher does the encryption. This mechanism involves splitting the text into various blocks of fixed length and different algorithms to create the ciphertext block. The exact algorithms and key used for the cipher blocks are applied in the decryption process to reproduce the original text[ CITATION Tha11 \l 1033 ]. Sharing the secret key is the main drawback of this kind of cryptography.
It is also referred to asymmetric cryptography. Public-key cryptography is different from symmetric cryptography in that it uses a unique pair of keys comprising of a single secret key and a unique public key. The public key can be spread widely while the secret key is known only by the owner[ CITATION Sal13 \l 1033 ]. It compiles authentication and encryption where the public key verifies the private key owner and only the owner of the secret key can decrypt the encrypted message using the public key. The secret key is only known the user and is strongly encrypted
The risk in Financial Industry:-
1.Web application attacks have increased due to the expansion of online and digital services. Hackers might check the most vulnerable parts of the app or even hack login
2.credential to access accounts.
3.Insider risks occur when the authorized workers misuse their authority of access or even work in conjunction with hackers.
4.Third party risks are risks emanating from outsourcers, partnerships, associations that can bring about breaches and data access[ CITATION Leu17 \l 1033 ].
5.Malicious hackers can easily use new technologies with inadequate security or unknown risks.
Data management risk:-
1.Poor data management is a threat to the financial industry. The risks maybe;
2.Data loss risk is the main data management risk. Banks have large essential databases to manage. If it loses information, it means the customers might lose their money. The data can be stolen affected by injection of malware into the networks.
3.Data inconsistency due to unreliable collapsing networks and software. Data interchange from various banks and phone application transactions may mismatch creating data inconsistency.
4.Data can be modified by the authorized users grumbling workers or workers working in conjunction with hackers.
5.Hackers can hack the databases to steal money or to loss evidence of loans then clear all the data to hide evidence.
Cybersecurity can be improved by setting firewalls that have been fitted with strong cybersecurity controls. The information should be prioritized depending on its sensitivity. Cybersecurity can be improved by backing up data and using anti-virus to lessen the impact of ransom ware attacks. Moreover, an intrusion detection, anti-spyware procedures, 24/7 detection and defence counterattack mechanism to ensure threats are administered in time.
1.Using a strong password to keep hackers out.
2.Implementation of VPN connections to secure the networks.
3.Implementation a Lattice-Based Polynomial Public Key Algorithm.
4.Secure HTTP protocol to ensure the privacy of communications. For example, transacting using a bank website to provide the conversation is private.
Encryption of data:-
1.Financial industries must have information encryption to alleviate the risks of disclosing or modification of sensitive data by fraudsters. The following are essential aspects that need encryption.
2.Any sensitive information used in the transaction or obtaining a financial service must be encrypted. This confidential information may include name, the national owner ID, and income.
3.Any information obtained from a transaction involving the bank like using credit cards. The details encrypted include the account number, credit purchases, and payment history.
4.The encryption implementation solution should meet the following;
5.The encryption must be strong enough to protect the details from disclosure.
6The encryption must be robustly reliable and have effective management practices.
The emerging more threats in the financial industry requires improvement of cryptosystems in the field to have more secure systems and networks which are not prone to attacks such as attacking. Lack of cryptosystems integration in the sector has many associated cyber crimes and threats[ CITATION Yeh07 \l 1033 ]. Using encrypted systems and cyber security mechanism helps in the hindering attacks. This prevents more loss-making, hacking, loss of data and promotes the growth of the financial industry.
Data, information, and systems need to be safe to prevent them from landing on wrong hands. When the system is exposed to the wrong people an organization can make irredeemable losses. In implementing new technology to a system an organization can be at the risk of exposure. Transformation in a system thus needs to be taken with an approach that does not expose the system to risks. The wait and see approach means that the system is not exposed to risk in the process of avoiding an action. This task will analyze a task that can be carried out using the wait and see approach and will end up not exposing the system to risks.
In this case, data tampering can be used by the organization and still not expose the system to more risk. To begin with, data tampering entails a deliberate move to modify data through editing, destroying and manipulating it using unauthorized channels. Tampering of data threatens the file system and the drivers whereby the driver can be using data while on the other hand the data is being modified by the application. Tampering of data can be done while the data is in transit or when it is at rest.
An organization can address the tampering aspect using the wait and see approach while at the same time exposing the system to less risk. This aspect can enable the organization holding the system to detect activities of a hacker or an intruder. The organization releases less risky data packets that are not protected to monitor the activities of hackers and intruders. This approach enables the organization to experience the way in which a hacker, modifies the content, breaches the security and changes the destination of data and information.
Interface and the Importance of Usability in Block chain Applications:-
Block chain remains one of the greatest innovations of the 21st century. The technology has come a long way since the early days of the Bit coin dark web transactions and has the potential of creating one of the greatest paradigm shifts in the business world by changing the way we will transact value in the future. Though still in its infancy, block chain technology is asserting itself in the mainstream, making a case for improved products and services built around innovation. At the dawn of the block chain era, forward-looking startups and developers are rushing to tap into whatever the new technology has to offer[ CITATION Yli16 \l 1033 ]. Amidst all the hype surrounding bit coin values and the enthusiasm of distributed systems, a key feature of the contemporary product development is often ignored: understanding the needs and the preferences of the user. It doesn’t take an expert to understand that usability is lacking in most block chain apps. The usability around block chain transactions, sending and receiving funds between parties, moving from one wallet to another, and exchanging with other crypto is a nail-biting experience.
What is Blockchain technology?
Disseminated over the past years as the basic framework behind bit coin, block chain is a decentralized database, secured by cryptography to allow incorruptible and irreversible public repository of data. The technology has evolved and has been identified by many experts to have the potential of replacing central banking platforms as well as being used in improving business processes, enhancing sharing of health information, trading, law, and voting[ CITATION Pil16 \l 1033 ]. The block chain is already disrupting and transforming processes in almost all sectors with enhanced transparency and security, decreased infrastructure costs, and improved data quality which makes it available to anyone who wishes to venture into the ecosystem.
The blockchain system is however technologically complex. Many are deemed to struggle in the world of unfamiliar concepts and complicated technological terms with security uncertainty due to the lack of central authority. The computer savvy might, however, experience no issues, but what about the non-technical audience or those who are simply unwilling to learn the technology? Faced with these technical challenges, many are set to abandon the crypto-as a wasted effort. Until block chain can offer something simple and intuitive to use, its true power will remain unrecognized[ CITATION Cro16 \l 1033 ]. To impact the lives of users, blockchain apps need to overcome this usability problem, which will require interface blockchain with a simple user interface.
If two parties are transacting within the network, the sender encrypts the data transactions which is decrypted by the receiver before it can be accessed using the paired public/private key cryptography with the information being associated with the sender’s Elliptic curve signature algorithm (ECDSA). The miners calculate the complex encryption equations. If the miner successfully determines an ECDSA solution, the solution is converted by a hashing algorithm into a hash value 256 bits in size. The hash value becomes the reward of the data transaction authorized by the blockchain technology[ CITATION Joh01 \l 1033 ]. When a transaction is sent from point A, the miner plays the role of the receiver and uses their computing abilities to crack the ECDSA equation of the transaction by recurrently calculating the equation until it finds a resulting data string that corresponds to the data string in the sender’s transaction.
If the two strings match, the data block is moved to the ledger; all the transactions are made available in the ledger to guarantee authenticity and avoid fraud. In the current generation blockchain, the miners take an average of 10 minutes to compute a standard SHA-256 encryption equation in routine practice. After the 10 minutes, the network executes what aggregates to a community synchronization process which updates all ledgers in the network in unison.
The contents (data payload) of a block are sealed and become incorruptible once the blockchain is complete. The procedures for this process are not complex: the completed block is printed in accord to every network machine ledger. Regarding attack, the argument is that there is no expedient technique for a hacker to crack transaction data, so the only method is to corrupt the whole network which is entirely difficult.
Why Usability is important for blockchain
Quality UI (user interface) designs can help blockchain companies enter the limelight, especially in the existing state of the buzzing industry. As decentralized applications and other blockchain technology start to enter the mainstream, startups must understand that they are facing the centralized companies that already exist. Even if their products come with fancy blockchain tech at the wheel, the centralized industry can still be a threat with better customer experience[ CITATION Alm18 \l 1033 ]. Cryptocurrency wallets will have tough competition with centralized apps like Venmo and PayPal - successful products that have been designed carefully and tested with a massive number of users. Social networks built on blockchain technology will need an amazing UX (user experience) to compete with Facebook and Twitter rather than just being dependent on the value proposition. Honestly, users do not care about blockchain technology; their main interest lies in having their everyday problems solved by design. If decentralized apps frustrate users because of poor usability, the apps lose because no one will want to return to a place where they had bad experiences especially when critical issues like finances are involved.
The apps that introduce people to the blockchain arena need to be functional, but they also need to be user-friendly. Innovators need to understand that technology is not only about quality that will drive success - design is. UI / UX are the most effective tools that organizations can use to make conversions and differentiate themselves in the blockchain compass and build their brands. A good user interface also increases the customer’s satisfaction and increase retention rates. If interested in recognition in the blockchain framework, participating organizations must learn to communicate with the users early and frequently. The users’ treasures quality applications designed along with usability relative to their real-world knowledge. Good usability typically depends on the following principles:
Control Over Irreversible Actions and Errors:-
Users usually tend to choose functions without prior knowledge of the potential consequences. The blockchain is highly irreversible; hence designers need to keep control over irreversible actions and errors in mind. For instance, once a user has recorded action on the decentralized ledger, it is impossible to alter or delete the content. Nimiq, for instance, provides a sense of control to the end user by designing their decentralized application to include multiple processes that help enhance user awareness. This technique helps the user to feel some sense of control over irreversible actions, and also feel confident while using the application.
Embrace Design Consistency:-
Designers should maintain the same visual language, locations of icons, call-to-action throughout the application. Blockchain app design should also be highly perceptible and manageable, so users don’t waste time trying to figure out its functionality. Simple online Nimiq is clean, familiar, and has a visually minimal design that appeals to users. Nimiq uses clear iconography, visual styles, plain and clear language, familiar flow and function that puts users at ease when interacting with the product.
Design for Real-World Applications:-
A simple approach to visual aesthetics can help easily communicate the functionalities of the blockchain application. Meaning that efficiency and satisfaction can be enhanced by just making it easy to correlate, categorize, and interpret the content quickly. Some of the system-oriented functions and terms are generally complex; it’s, therefore, essential to make them simpler by relating them to a real-world situation. In general, designers should adopt the type of language and iconography that the audience is used to while designing the blockchain apps.
High Learn-ability and Productivity:-
The blockchain is a significantly new technology. Hence designers should expect users to deal with the significant learning curve and take appropriate measures to help them. Usability and learnability coexist, so to enhance seamless learning experiences, the user interface or user experience designers should highlight the functions and features that should frequently be used to get comfortable with the product. Nimiq has virtually no learning curve. It has to establish the world’s first browser-based blockchain making access to cryptocurrency as artless as accessing the internet itself. The platform bridges the technical and mental gaps that exclude the majority of users from venturing into the blockchain world. A browser wallet made even more accessible than conventional wallet apps.
There are a lot of functions and processes involved in blockchain; users might therefore not be aware of what’s going on while performing some tasks. The designers should provide a status and progress update within the UI. For instance, users should be notified if a transaction is successful. The feedback should be clear, concise, and jargon-free and should be supported by relevant visual cues. The feedback time with Nimiq is overwhelming; the Mainnet is set to near instant transaction confirmation time.
The Trust Factor:-
Trust is the critical component of converting blockchain visitors into customers. People will never put their money in a system that they do not trust. A highly distributed and transparent technology like the blockchain mainly depends on trust, but trust without improved UX/UI makes the purpose worthless. Nimiq’s product design shows crystal clear that a frictionless payment process is the most important value to customers because only if it is so easy that it leaves no big question marks, will the users build confidence to trust the technology with their money.
According to this study user experience should be the primary focus in the development of blockchain apps. Seeking to drastically dis-align industries, blockchain innovators who focus on user-centered design principles to deliver their products and services can easily attract and retain users. Good usability and UX design also put them at the top of the competitors including those from the centralized technology. Nimiq is the only blockchain application build for simplicity-it is entirely built for the masses with a simple interface, consistent, and trustworthy.
Technological innovations are important since several businesses needs to attract and retain top talent in the market to advance its acquisition of innovative culture[ CITATION DAt11 \l 1033 ]. The capabilities to manage technology and innovation provides a steady-state of managing competitors and more importantly maintaining the company’s product brand at the top of the market. Conclusively, innovative experts regard as a critical social context where collective knowledge and new techniques through shared competence are learned. Thus through e-learning, mutual understanding of based ways to embrace technology is embraced.
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