Hypothesis Testing Oz Assignments

Hypothesis Testing Oz Assignments

Hypothesis Testing Oz Assignments

Introduction

The current task is intended to perform a clear study in understanding the overall changes in the provision of human services which are offered to the rural communities. The high school portion of the Kingston is about to get closed so this will affect the rural community in pursuing the high school from other schools. The current survey intends to know the various changes in the demographics constraints of the residences in the community located in the Kingston district. Nearly 104 respondents were chosen for the study and the data is collected from them, the respondents can participate in the survey on a voluntary basis and can answer the questions which are mainly closed-ended. The survey is made with a pre-test and post test framework to understand the changes in the mindset of the respondents.

Hypothesis and the research questions for the study

The survey is made from 104 respondents with the purpose of understanding the changes in the provision of human services mainly offered to the rural communities by the Kingston college.

The hypothesis of the study

There is no significant difference between the parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year and the pre test scores on community attitudes

There is no significant difference between the distance from home to the school at Kingston and distance from home to the high school at Beganup

The mean difference between the pre test scores and post test scores on community attitudes is zero

Research questions

Based on the above hypothesis the research question of the study is framed as

What is the relationship difference between the parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year and the pre-test scores on community attitudes?

Is there is any association on the distance from home to the school at Kingston and distance from home to the high school at Beganup?

Is there any meaningful difference between the pre test scores and post test scores on community attitudes?

Research methods and design

The research design which is adopted for the study is descrptive research design, which intends to understand the participants in a clear and concise manner. The researcher has collated the data from the respondents through the use of questionnaire, furthermore the researcher has used the pre test and post test scores in order to measure the changes in the community attitudes. The researcher has used a detailed closed ended questionnaire to collate the data from the respondents, the researcher has received the data from 104 respondents

The research design can be enhanced if the questionnaire is more detailed so as to understand the impact of the close of high school department in Kingston. Also, the data can be collected from the primary school students or the students who will be joining in the high school grades by next year so as to understand the real impact of the close of the school.

Reliability test

The first step in performing the data analysis is to test the reliability and validity of the data, for this purpose Cronbach alpaha is used. It is widely stated that if the value of alpha is greater than 0.700 then the data is said to be reliable and valid.

Case Processing Summary

 

N

%

Cases

Valid

104

100.0

Excludeda

0

.0

Total

104

100.0

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

.523

2

Item-Total Statistics

 

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

pretotal

23.6827

58.821

.355

.

posttot

34.2692

64.276

.355

.

The researcher has used the pre test and post test scores to measure the cronbach alpha, from the above table it is noted that the value of alpha is 0.523 which is less than the threshold level of 0.700. This states that the data is not reliable and valid.

Descriptive statistics

This part of the assignment confines in understanding the descriptive statistics of the respondents

I am a parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year

parent

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Yes

60

57.7

57.7

57.7

No

44

42.3

42.3

100.0

Total

104

100.0

100.0

 

From the analysis it is noted that 57.7% of the respondents have stated that they are parent of the child who will be attending the secondary school in the next year and only 42.3% of the respondents stated that they are not the parent of the child who will be attending the secondary school in the next year. This shows that the close of the high school department of Kingston will affect the enrollment of the students.

The distance from my home to the school at Kingston is

distking

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

0-1 KM

28

26.9

26.9

26.9

2-4 KM

16

15.4

15.4

42.3

5-20 KM

24

23.1

23.1

65.4

More than 20 KM

36

34.6

34.6

100.0

Total

104

100.0

100.0

 

 

From th analysis it is identified that 26.9% of the respondents have stated that the distance from their home to the Kingston school is less than 1 KM, whereas 15.4% of the respondents have stated that the distance is between 2 to 4 KM, 23.1% of the respondents has stated that their distance btween home and school is between 5 to 20 KM, however the largest proportion of the respondents nearly 34.6% of them has said that their distance between the school and home is more than 20 KM.

The distance from my home to the high school at Beganup

distbeeg

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

0-20 KM

12

11.5

11.5

11.5

21-40 KM

20

19.2

19.2

30.8

41-60 KM

44

42.3

42.3

73.1

More than 60 KM

28

26.9

26.9

100.0

Total

104

100.0

100.0

 

If the Kingston school is closed then the students may have to get rolled up in another school, so this question is posted to understand the distanc between the place of residence and Beganup. It is identified that nearly 11.5% of the respondents has stated that the distance between the home and Beganup school is between 0 to 20 KM, nearly 19.2% of the respondents has stated that the distance is between 21 to 40 KM, 42.3% of the respondents has stated that the distance is between 41 to 60 KM and the remaining 26.9% of the respondents has stated that the distance is more than 60 KM.


The age of my youngest family member

ageyfmem

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

0-5

12

11.5

11.5

11.5

6-12

28

26.9

26.9

38.5

13-18

24

23.1

23.1

61.5

More than 18

40

38.5

38.5

100.0

Total

104

100.0

100.0

 

From the analysis it is noted that the 11.5% of the respondents has stated that the youngest family member is in the age group of less than 5 years, 26.9% of the respondents has stated that the youngest age group of family member is between 6 to 12 years, 23.1% of the respondents has stated that the youngest age group of family member is between 13 to 18 years and the remaining 38.5% of the respondents has stated that the youngest age group of family member is more than 18 years, this shows that most of the respondents has stated that the youngest family member is more than 18 years of age.


Number of years of residence in the Shire of Kingston

noyears

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

0-1 Year

20

19.2

19.2

19.2

2-4 Years

16

15.4

15.4

34.6

5-10 Years

20

19.2

19.2

53.8

More than 10 Years

48

46.2

46.2

100.0

Total

104

100.0

100.0

 

From the analysis it is noted that the 19.2% of the respondents has stated that their years of residence is the Kingston is less than 1 year, 15.4% of the respondents has stated that the years of residence in the Kingston is between 2 to 4 years, 19.2% of the respondents in the Kingston is between 5 to 10 years and the remaining 46.2% of the respondents has stated that the total number years of residence in Kingston is more than 10 years.

The occupation of the family member with the largest income

occupat

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Farmer

52

50.0

50.0

50.0

Government employee

36

34.6

34.6

84.6

Business

16

15.4

15.4

100.0

Total

104

100.0

100.0

 

From the analysis it is noted that 50% of the respodents has stated that the large income comes from agriculture, 36% of the respondents has stated that their family member is working as government employee and only 16% of the respondents has stated that they occupation is business.


Would consider residential/boarding school at a private school if the Kingston secondary school is closed?

bdingsch

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Yes

40

38.5

38.5

38.5

No

64

61.5

61.5

100.0

Total

104

100.0

100.0

 

From the analysis it is noted that the 38.5% of the respondents has stated that they consider in choosing the residential or boarding school, whereas the large number of particpants, who are around 61.5% of the respondents has stated that they do not choose residential or boarding school.


In my view the standard of education in Years 8 –10 at Kingston is

stded

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Low

28

26.9

26.9

26.9

Medium

48

46.2

46.2

73.1

High

28

26.9

26.9

100.0

Total

104

100.0

100.0

 

From the analysis 26.9% of the respondents has stated that the standard of education is low, whereas another 26.9% of the respondents has stated that the standard of education is high, however the majority of the respondents, with nearly 46.2%, has stated that the standard of education is medium in Kingston.


Test of hypothesis

Hypothesis 1

Null: There is no significant difference between the parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year and the pre test scores on community attitudes

Alternate: There is a significant difference between the parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year and the pre test scores on community attitudes

Case Processing Summary

 

Cases

Valid

Missing

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

parent * pretotal

104

100.0%

0

0.0%

104

100.0%

Chi-Square Tests

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

66.718a

24

.000

Likelihood Ratio

88.693

24

.000

Linear-by-Linear Association

30.247

1

.000

N of Valid Cases

104

 

 

a. 49 cells (98.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .85.

From the chi square test it is noted that the p value is 0.00 which is less than the sigificance level of 5%, this shows that the null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accpeted. Hence it can be concluded that There is a significant difference between the parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year and the pre test scores on community attitudes

Hypothesis 2

Null: There is no significant difference between the distance from home to the school at Kingston and distance from home to the high school at Beganup

Alternate: There is a significant difference between the distance from home to the school at Kingston and distance from home to the high school at Beganup.

Case Processing Summary

 

Cases

Valid

Missing

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

distking * distbeeg

104

100.0%

0

0.0%

104

100.0%

distking * distbeeg Crosstabulation

Count

 

distbeeg

Total

0-20 KM

21-40 KM

41-60 KM

More than 60 KM

distking

0-1 KM

0

0

28

0

28

2-4 KM

0

0

12

4

16

5-20 KM

0

12

4

8

24

More than 20 KM

12

8

0

16

36

Total

12

20

44

28

104

Chi-Square Tests

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

100.173a

9

.000

Likelihood Ratio

124.030

9

.000

Linear-by-Linear Association

4.739

1

.029

N of Valid Cases

104

 

 

a. 7 cells (43.8%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.85.

From the chi square test it is noted that the p value is 0.00 which is less than the sigificance level of 5%, this shows that the null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accpeted. Hence it can be concluded that

There is a significant difference between the distance from home to the school at Kingston and distance from home to the high school at Beganup

Hypothesis 3

Null: The mean difference between the pre test scores and post test scores on community attitudes is zero

Alternate: The mean difference between the pre test scores and post test scores on community attitudes is not zero

Paired Samples Statistics

 

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Pair 1

pretotal

34.2692

104

8.01725

.78616

posttot

23.6827

104

7.66946

.75205

From the analysis it is noted that the mean value of the pretotal were 34.26 whereas the post total value was 23.69

Paired Samples Correlations

 

N

Correlation

Sig.

Pair 1

pretotal & posttot

104

.355

.000

     

The coefficient of correlation between the pre total and post total is 0.355, which is a low positive correlation between the variables.

Paired Samples Test

 

Paired Differences

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Pair 1

pretotal - posttot

10.58654

8.91558

.87424

8.85268

12.32040

12.109

103

.000

          

From the paired sample test it is noted that the p value of the pre total & post total is 0.00 which is less than the significance value of 5%. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accepted. (Field, 2013). Hence it can be concluded that The mean difference between the pre test scores and post test scores on community attitudes is not equal to zero

References

1. Field, Andy (2013). Statistics using SPSS. 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall publications.

2. Johanim, J., Khulida K. Y. and Abdullah, O. 2010. “Psychometric Properties of Organizational Structure Scale in the Malaysian Public Service Agencies: Preliminary Results”. International Journal of Human Resource Management Studies, Vol 17 No1, pp.34-45.

3. Tabachnick, B. G. and Fidell, L. S. 2007. Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.), Pearson Education, Boston.