Data Analysis and Decision Modelling Oz Assignments
Delivery in day(s): 4
The current task is intended to perform a clear study in understanding the overall changes in the provision of human services which are offered to the rural communities. The high school portion of the Kingston is about to get closed so this will affect the rural community in pursuing the high school from other schools. The current survey intends to know the various changes in the demographics constraints of the residences in the community located in the Kingston district. Nearly 104 respondents were chosen for the study and the data is collected from them, the respondents can participate in the survey on a voluntary basis and can answer the questions which are mainly closedended. The survey is made with a pretest and post test framework to understand the changes in the mindset of the respondents.
The hypothesis of the study
There is no significant difference between the parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year and the pre test scores on community attitudes
There is no significant difference between the distance from home to the school at Kingston and distance from home to the high school at Beganup
The mean difference between the pre test scores and post test scores on community attitudes is zero
Research questions
Based on the above hypothesis the research question of the study is framed as
What is the relationship difference between the parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year and the pretest scores on community attitudes?
Is there is any association on the distance from home to the school at Kingston and distance from home to the high school at Beganup?
Is there any meaningful difference between the pre test scores and post test scores on community attitudes?
The research design which is adopted for the study is descrptive research design, which intends to understand the participants in a clear and concise manner. The researcher has collated the data from the respondents through the use of questionnaire, furthermore the researcher has used the pre test and post test scores in order to measure the changes in the community attitudes. The researcher has used a detailed closed ended questionnaire to collate the data from the respondents, the researcher has received the data from 104 respondents
The research design can be enhanced if the questionnaire is more detailed so as to understand the impact of the close of high school department in Kingston. Also, the data can be collected from the primary school students or the students who will be joining in the high school grades by next year so as to understand the real impact of the close of the school.
The first step in performing the data analysis is to test the reliability and validity of the data, for this purpose Cronbach alpaha is used. It is widely stated that if the value of alpha is greater than 0.700 then the data is said to be reliable and valid.
Case Processing Summary  
 N  %  
Cases  Valid  104  100.0 
Excluded^{a}  0  .0  
Total  104  100.0  
a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. 
Reliability Statistics  
Cronbach's Alpha  N of Items 
.523  2 
ItemTotal Statistics  
 Scale Mean if Item Deleted  Scale Variance if Item Deleted  Corrected ItemTotal Correlation  Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted 
pretotal  23.6827  58.821  .355  . 
posttot  34.2692  64.276  .355  . 
The researcher has used the pre test and post test scores to measure the cronbach alpha, from the above table it is noted that the value of alpha is 0.523 which is less than the threshold level of 0.700. This states that the data is not reliable and valid.
This part of the assignment confines in understanding the descriptive statistics of the respondents
I am a parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year
parent  
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent  
Valid  Yes  60  57.7  57.7  57.7 
No  44  42.3  42.3  100.0  
Total  104  100.0  100.0 

From the analysis it is noted that 57.7% of the respondents have stated that they are parent of the child who will be attending the secondary school in the next year and only 42.3% of the respondents stated that they are not the parent of the child who will be attending the secondary school in the next year. This shows that the close of the high school department of Kingston will affect the enrollment of the students.
The distance from my home to the school at Kingston is
distking  
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent  
Valid  01 KM  28  26.9  26.9  26.9 
24 KM  16  15.4  15.4  42.3  
520 KM  24  23.1  23.1  65.4  
More than 20 KM  36  34.6  34.6  100.0  
Total  104  100.0  100.0 

From th analysis it is identified that 26.9% of the respondents have stated that the distance from their home to the Kingston school is less than 1 KM, whereas 15.4% of the respondents have stated that the distance is between 2 to 4 KM, 23.1% of the respondents has stated that their distance btween home and school is between 5 to 20 KM, however the largest proportion of the respondents nearly 34.6% of them has said that their distance between the school and home is more than 20 KM.
The distance from my home to the high school at Beganup
distbeeg  
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent  
Valid  020 KM  12  11.5  11.5  11.5 
2140 KM  20  19.2  19.2  30.8  
4160 KM  44  42.3  42.3  73.1  
More than 60 KM  28  26.9  26.9  100.0  
Total  104  100.0  100.0 

If the Kingston school is closed then the students may have to get rolled up in another school, so this question is posted to understand the distanc between the place of residence and Beganup. It is identified that nearly 11.5% of the respondents has stated that the distance between the home and Beganup school is between 0 to 20 KM, nearly 19.2% of the respondents has stated that the distance is between 21 to 40 KM, 42.3% of the respondents has stated that the distance is between 41 to 60 KM and the remaining 26.9% of the respondents has stated that the distance is more than 60 KM.
The age of my youngest family member
ageyfmem  
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent  
Valid  05  12  11.5  11.5  11.5 
612  28  26.9  26.9  38.5  
1318  24  23.1  23.1  61.5  
More than 18  40  38.5  38.5  100.0  
Total  104  100.0  100.0 

From the analysis it is noted that the 11.5% of the respondents has stated that the youngest family member is in the age group of less than 5 years, 26.9% of the respondents has stated that the youngest age group of family member is between 6 to 12 years, 23.1% of the respondents has stated that the youngest age group of family member is between 13 to 18 years and the remaining 38.5% of the respondents has stated that the youngest age group of family member is more than 18 years, this shows that most of the respondents has stated that the youngest family member is more than 18 years of age.
Number of years of residence in the Shire of Kingston
noyears  
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent  
Valid  01 Year  20  19.2  19.2  19.2 
24 Years  16  15.4  15.4  34.6  
510 Years  20  19.2  19.2  53.8  
More than 10 Years  48  46.2  46.2  100.0  
Total  104  100.0  100.0 

From the analysis it is noted that the 19.2% of the respondents has stated that their years of residence is the Kingston is less than 1 year, 15.4% of the respondents has stated that the years of residence in the Kingston is between 2 to 4 years, 19.2% of the respondents in the Kingston is between 5 to 10 years and the remaining 46.2% of the respondents has stated that the total number years of residence in Kingston is more than 10 years.
The occupation of the family member with the largest income
occupat  
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent  
Valid  Farmer  52  50.0  50.0  50.0 
Government employee  36  34.6  34.6  84.6  
Business  16  15.4  15.4  100.0  
Total  104  100.0  100.0 

From the analysis it is noted that 50% of the respodents has stated that the large income comes from agriculture, 36% of the respondents has stated that their family member is working as government employee and only 16% of the respondents has stated that they occupation is business.
Would consider residential/boarding school at a private school if the Kingston secondary school is closed?
bdingsch  
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent  
Valid  Yes  40  38.5  38.5  38.5 
No  64  61.5  61.5  100.0  
Total  104  100.0  100.0 

From the analysis it is noted that the 38.5% of the respondents has stated that they consider in choosing the residential or boarding school, whereas the large number of particpants, who are around 61.5% of the respondents has stated that they do not choose residential or boarding school.
In my view the standard of education in Years 8 –10 at Kingston is
stded  
 Frequency  Percent  Valid Percent  Cumulative Percent  
Valid  Low  28  26.9  26.9  26.9 
Medium  48  46.2  46.2  73.1  
High  28  26.9  26.9  100.0  
Total  104  100.0  100.0 

From the analysis 26.9% of the respondents has stated that the standard of education is low, whereas another 26.9% of the respondents has stated that the standard of education is high, however the majority of the respondents, with nearly 46.2%, has stated that the standard of education is medium in Kingston.
Null: There is no significant difference between the parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year and the pre test scores on community attitudes
Alternate: There is a significant difference between the parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year and the pre test scores on community attitudes
Case Processing Summary  
 Cases  
Valid  Missing  Total  
N  Percent  N  Percent  N  Percent  
parent * pretotal  104  100.0%  0  0.0%  104  100.0% 
ChiSquare Tests  
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  66.718^{a}  24  .000 
Likelihood Ratio  88.693  24  .000 
LinearbyLinear Association  30.247  1  .000 
N of Valid Cases  104 


a. 49 cells (98.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .85. 
From the chi square test it is noted that the p value is 0.00 which is less than the sigificance level of 5%, this shows that the null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accpeted. Hence it can be concluded that There is a significant difference between the parent of a child who will be of secondary school age next year and the pre test scores on community attitudes
Null: There is no significant difference between the distance from home to the school at Kingston and distance from home to the high school at Beganup
Alternate: There is a significant difference between the distance from home to the school at Kingston and distance from home to the high school at Beganup.
Case Processing Summary  
 Cases  
Valid  Missing  Total  
N  Percent  N  Percent  N  Percent  
distking * distbeeg  104  100.0%  0  0.0%  104  100.0% 
distking * distbeeg Crosstabulation  
Count  
 distbeeg  Total  
020 KM  2140 KM  4160 KM  More than 60 KM  
distking  01 KM  0  0  28  0  28 
24 KM  0  0  12  4  16  
520 KM  0  12  4  8  24  
More than 20 KM  12  8  0  16  36  
Total  12  20  44  28  104 
ChiSquare Tests  
 Value  df  Asymp. Sig. (2sided) 
Pearson ChiSquare  100.173^{a}  9  .000 
Likelihood Ratio  124.030  9  .000 
LinearbyLinear Association  4.739  1  .029 
N of Valid Cases  104 


a. 7 cells (43.8%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.85. 
From the chi square test it is noted that the p value is 0.00 which is less than the sigificance level of 5%, this shows that the null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accpeted. Hence it can be concluded that
There is a significant difference between the distance from home to the school at Kingston and distance from home to the high school at Beganup
Alternate: The mean difference between the pre test scores and post test scores on community attitudes is not zero
Paired Samples Statistics  
 Mean  N  Std. Deviation  Std. Error Mean  
Pair 1  pretotal  34.2692  104  8.01725  .78616 
posttot  23.6827  104  7.66946  .75205 
From the analysis it is noted that the mean value of the pretotal were 34.26 whereas the post total value was 23.69
Paired Samples Correlations  
 N  Correlation  Sig.  
Pair 1  pretotal & posttot  104  .355  .000 
The coefficient of correlation between the pre total and post total is 0.355, which is a low positive correlation between the variables.
Paired Samples Test  
 Paired Differences  t  df  Sig. (2tailed)  
Mean  Std. Deviation  Std. Error Mean  95% Confidence Interval of the Difference  
Lower  Upper  
Pair 1  pretotal  posttot  10.58654  8.91558  .87424  8.85268  12.32040  12.109  103  .000 
From the paired sample test it is noted that the p value of the pre total & post total is 0.00 which is less than the significance value of 5%. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accepted. (Field, 2013). Hence it can be concluded that The mean difference between the pre test scores and post test scores on community attitudes is not equal to zero
1. Field, Andy (2013). Statistics using SPSS. 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall publications.
2. Johanim, J., Khulida K. Y. and Abdullah, O. 2010. “Psychometric Properties of Organizational Structure Scale in the Malaysian Public Service Agencies: Preliminary Results”. International Journal of Human Resource Management Studies, Vol 17 No1, pp.3445.
3. Tabachnick, B. G. and Fidell, L. S. 2007. Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.), Pearson Education, Boston.