Human Physiology OZ Assignment Help

Human Physiology OZ Assignment Help

Human Physiology OZ Assignment Help

Question 2

Introduction

This question is describing the functioning of neuromodulators along with explaining the process of modulation of pain in them.

Neuromodulators are known as the subset of neurotransmitters where its release occurs in a diffused manner. It is also known as a chemical messenger which is released from the neuron into the central nervous system. Neuromodulators and neurotransmitters acts on the basis of neuroreceptors (Andrea and Leon, 2010)

Neuromodulation includes the process where neurons try to connect and regulate other neurons with the help of some chemical messengers. These chemical messengers are known as neuromodulators. According to Barrett, et. al. (2010), neuromodulation helps in the sensation of pain through stimulation and administration of medications directly to the nervous system of the body. There are several examples of neuromodulation such as Spinal cord stimulation and sacral nerve stimulation. These are helpful in reducing the pain sensation of a patient who is suffering from chronic visceral pain. Chemical messengers in neuromodulation are used from transmission of pain from one neuron to another neuron. In this medications can also be provided which will be helpful in modulating the neurons and increasing the threshold for perception of pain. Electronic impulses are used in the case of spinal cord modulation with a prospective to modulate the neurons and release of chemical messengers. Neuromodulation also includes peripheral nerve stimulation in which electrical impulses or anesthetic agents are used for blocking the local area of a specific nerve (Markovitz, et. al., 2015).

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that a neuromodulation is a great approach that can be used for transmission of neurons without requiring any medications and reduce the risk of any kind of side effects.

Human Physiology OZ Assignment Help

Question 3

Introduction

Morphine refers to the class of drugs that is found in opium. It is also known as opioid (narcotic) analgesics which are used for analgesic and anesthetic effect.

Morphine is a chemical which is found in natural resources and it is used for medical purposes such as recreational of drugs etc. In the words of Pasternak and Pan (2013),Morphine has known as phenanthrene opioid receptor which basically binds and activates the Mu-Opioid receptors which are present in the central nervous system.Morphine has got the highest level of potentiality in comparison to other opioids in terms of their medical use. The main features of Morphine which differentiate it from other opioids are they are easily available through natural resources and they are related with rapid action and easy withdrawal (Casy and Parfitt, 2013. Morphine works as a k-opioid and delta opioid receptor agonist and with different densities, these are distributed in the whole nervous system of a person.Morphine also works as serotonin releasing agent and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor where it results as sedation and spinal anaestheisa. Opioid analgesics also includes its many subtypes where each subtype is having their own impact which is depending upon certain factors such as agonist or antagonist of receptors, its affinity towards binding with a receptor, its lipid solubility etc (Gupta, et. al., 2015).

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that Morphine is one of the most potential and rapid action opioid in comparison to other opioid analgesics.Morphine can be effectively used for controlling dosages of patients who are suffering from chronic visceral pain.

References

1.Barrett, K.E., Barman, S.M. and Boitano, S., (2010). Ganong's review of medical physiology. New Delhi: McGraw Hill, 2010.

2.Casy, A.F. and Parfitt, R.T., (2013). Opioid analgesics: chemistry and receptors. Springer Science & Business Media.

3.D’Andrea, G., and A. Leon. (2010). Pathogenesis of migraine: from neurotransmitters to neuromodulators and beyond. Neurological sciences 31, no. 1 (2010): 1-7.

4.Gupta, M., Msambichaka, L., Ballas, S. K., & Gupta, K. (2015). Morphine for the treatment of pain in sickle cell disease. The Scientific World Journal, 2015.

5.Markovitz, C. D., Smith, B. T., Gloeckner, C. D., & Lim, H. H. (2015). Investigating a new neuromodulation treatment for brain disorders using synchronized activation of multimodal pathways. Scientific reports, 5.

6.Pasternak, G.W. and Pan, Y.X., (2013). Mu opioids and their receptors: evolution of a concept. Pharmacological reviews, 65(4), pp.1257-1317.