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HRM502 Human Resource Management Editing and Proof Reading Services
An organization to build an effective team of professionals needs an efficient human resource. The fundamental functions of the HRM (Human Resources Management) team comprised of recruiting people, performance appraisals, training them, motivating employees, workplace communication, and workplace safety.
For successful change agenda of the organization, a critical review of practice, system, and the process was done. In this report, the discussion will be conducted around the critical review of training and development, an HR practice. The report will justify the reason for the selection of training and development for the study by describing its relevance in the workplace. For this purpose, both positive and negative aspect will be discussed according to different information technology sources approaches in the literature review.
The relevance of training and development in a workplace
Addressing weakness – most of the employees do have some sought of weakness in their skills, which are required to perform a particular task in the workplace. A training program enables the employee to strengthen their skill, which they lack and need to improve to perform that task in a better way. Moreover, a development program is useful for employees to get on to a greater level, where they all have comparable knowledge and skills. These programs will reduce all weak links exist in the company, who depends severely on employees to perform basic jobs. To create an inclusive knowledgeable workforce, employees to work in groups or independently without any regulation or constant help from others, providing these programs become important. For change agenda, the need to review whether this area is working effectively or not becomes essential[ CITATION Fro18 \l 1033 ].
Training improves the success rate of change management – approx. seventy percent of the change initiatives fail due to negative employee behavior towards change and management unproductive behavior. As per statistics, around 33 percent of organization attitude do not support change and more than 39 percent of employees resist change. Need for training arise due to such behavior, by providing adequate training, knowledge, and make them understand the need for change; the resistance for the change can be reduced[ CITATION Cou18 \l 1033 ].
Consistency – for the company’s basic procedures and policies, the consistency is quite pertinent. With the structured training and development, an organization can ensure if the employees are having consistent background knowledge and experience. For awareness of expectations and procedure for employees within the organization is necessary. The regular training program in different are will assure if all the employees or staff members have been exposed to information at least once. [ CITATION Man15 \l 1033 ]
Training maintains visibility - According to a study, it is been observed that only forty percent of the employees are aware of their organizational goals, tactics, and strategies, or other relevant details like beliefs, perceptions, shared assumptions, and values. This means that the employees have the least visibility about working for conducts of their organization that does not make them have a sense of belonging. This could only improve by employee understanding of the organizational environment. For which a sound induction training is necessary for clearly shared missions, vision, strategies, and values and embedded in daily work tasks[ CITATION Mac14 \l 1033 ].
Improved employee performance – since with the training and development programs, one will be more aware of proper procedures and safety practices for basic tasks, an employee will be able to perform better his/her job. Training is also responsible for the confidence level of the employee since the person has a better understanding of the responsibility and industry, which he or she is liable for in the organization. This confidence will push them to think new ideas and perform that will help them to excel in their field[ CITATION Ani14 \l 1033 ].
Training promotes employee engagement – in the change management process, the engagement of employees are very necessary. If an employee, himself were part of the change and playing important role in change management would not resistance to change as such. This could be done with help of training and development program, that is the reason for this area selection for the review[ CITATION For17 \l 1033 ].
Employee satisfaction – employees who are accessible to training and development program feel they are valued as the company is investing in them. Moreover, a supportive workplace is created with the help of a training program, because there is some information or practice which employee may not gain access without training. Employees who are challenged through training opportunities and appreciated are more satisfied with their jobs[ CITATION Gib16 \l 1033 ].
Reduced employee turnover – the turnover rate is maximum at the time of change in the organization. Effective training for employees to make them feel comfortable and confident with their changing workplace, responsibilities, or job profiles can reduce the turnover rate of the organization[ CITATION Hil15 \l 1033 ].
Journal Article: The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance and Effectiveness: A Case Study of District Five Administration Office, Bole Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia [ CITATION Asf15 \l 1033 ]
The emphasis of this article was to understand “the impact of training and development on the employees’ performance and effectiveness at District Five Administration Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” The main approach adopted by the author includes “quantitative research method, cross-sectional institutional based” employed in the study. For a collection of data, Likert’s scale tool was used. For sampling, the technique used was systematic random sampling form hundred employees. Training and development had claimed statically significant and positively correlated relationship with employee effectiveness and performance. At the time when the research was conducted, 94 complete questionnaires, along with the rate of response of ninety-four percent were considered.
Advantages of approaches adopted by the author
Frequently used the method of training adopted was on the job training that is a demonstration and re demonstration by the employees taking training, which was found to be successful in terms of result or outcome in form of employee performance and effectiveness of the organization.
An in-depth study on the impact of training, and the use of ‘Pearson correlation and linear regression’ for variable training and development programs
The literature sources for the study included were potential and relevant in the research.
The trustworthiness of the tool was ensured by means of Cronbach’s Alpha, where the tool was piloted through the company and the responses of the samples were scored.
To ensure the logical consistency of response and completeness, data editing was done every day by the researcher. This lead to the identification of the mistakes and gaps of data were rectified easily. This approach was effective for the study.
Disadvantages of approaches adopted by the author
Sample size taken was relatively very small, that is 100 respondents, and this could be one of the constraints for relevant research. The chances of wrong or misguided information could increase with such a small sample size.
The training and development impact on client satisfaction and quality of service could also be included for the study. The focus was limited to employee performance.
The sampling method was structured random sampling, which can increase the chances of biases of the researcher in searching employees.
Journal article: Using a Personal Development Plan for Different Purposes: Its Influence on Undertaking Learning Activities and Job Performance [ CITATION Bea11 \l 1033 ]
(For reference: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12186-011-9060-y_)
According to the author, firms are nowadays implementing assessment methods like PDA (personal development plan) but it is realized that the real power of this method or tool depends on employees’ professional development. This tool is been implemented for different objectives like salary raise/ promotion on one hand and professional development on another hand. The study focuses on, understanding of employee perception, performance improvement through the Personal development plans and for this purpose, the primary data collection is used. The respondents include 268 employees from the governmental organization and 81 experts from an international organization. Moreover, regression analysis has been used for prediction of quality of performance linked to what an employee perceives as serving learning and purpose of development.
Advantages of approaches adopted by the author
Sample: the sample size of 367 people, which include both employees and expert, will make the research reliability to a higher extent.
In-depth study, of the tool of the personal development plan, including real-life examples, for better understanding, referring to many other reliable sources in the research
The author approach of the presentation includes tables, graphs, and statistics for a better understanding of the topic.
Various analysis has been conducted in the report, including data analysis, preliminary analysis, regression analysis (ANOVA).
Disadvantages of approaches adopted by the author
Generalization, one of the limitations include the research is more of generalization in finding across sectors or organization.
The study is limited to the PDP tool on employee perception, where environmental, personal, and career development can have an impact on PDP practice.
More areas such as self-efficacy, employee motivation level and need for reflection could be part of the topic, as it will affect employee performance.
Using other methods like 360-degree assessment, which will include the perception of subordinates, superiors, instead of the only perception of employees themselves would be the better approach in an organization.
Sample size (N=367) is quite small when the focus of the result is a concern. Experts could be given more weightage, which were 81 in the sample for more valid results.
Journal article: The Impact of Training and Development on Employees Performance and Productivity [ CITATION Abd16 \l 1033 ]
(For reference: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2849769 )
The success of an organization depends largely on the effectiveness of human resource. A highly developed employee and a well-trained staff are considered key for such accomplishment. The purpose of this research of this source was to find out the association between development, training, between training and development and workers performance and organization productivity. The key approach for this research was the quantitative approach; the author had used relevant data, collected through primary research that is with help of a structured questionnaire. The primary sources used includes questionnaire from 60 percent of total employees of an organization. Both inferential and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Inferential statistics such as Pearson product-moment linear regression and correlation coefficient were used in search of a significant positive relationship existed between performance management and productivity (dependent variable), and training and development (independent variable). From the findings of the research, the positive correlation was indicated among employee performance training and development, and productivity.
Advantages of approaches adopted by the author
Considering the quantitative approach to research is one of the positive aspects of the study. Using a new piece of information and not existing data will make the finding up to date. Employee’s perception change with time, using primary source by survey through questionnaire was a plus point for the study relevancy.
Managerial and Practical Implications, the study considers human resource as the most significant assent of the firm. For which ‘careful management approach’ used to gain the advantage of valuable sources.
The study provides an in-depth correlation between three components, effective approaches to training and development, employee performance, and organization yield.
Disadvantages of approaches adopted by the author
Only two independent variables are considered in the approach followed. That is training and development, another variable such as capabilities and empowerment could be considered for more relevant study for the organization effective performance. In addition, this study cannot conceal many donations to productivity and performance.
The approach of research on primary sources, the study variable measurement, and the effect on productivity and performance are based on employee’s attitudes and perceptions while filling the questionnaire.
The study is focused on findings that are valid for small to medium size companies; therefore, the verdicts of the research cannot be applicable to generalized larger organizations.
More potential valuable studies were not included in the in the research and the literature sources selected could be the elements of subjectivity and bias.
For such an extensive study or research, the sample size was too small, the reason being the lack of resources, time, and willingness to respond, which could result in non-relevant findings.
To conclude the discussion in this report, the selected area of HR, that is training and development, for which three articles were critically reviewed. Training and development is very relevant in an organization especially at the time of change management. Planning a training and development program is not only beneficial to improve the existing skills of the current workforce, but is also beneficial for organization productivity, and effectiveness. Moreover, through training and development, the opportunity for the employees will motivate workforce to not, resist the change in an organization, it allows employees to enhance their competencies and ability to adopt a new process or new technology.
Three journal articles review were “The Impact of Training and Development on Employees Performance and Productivity”, “Using a Personal Development Plan for Different Purposes: Its Influence on Undertaking Learning Activities and Job Performance”, and “The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance and Effectiveness: A Case Study of District Five Administration Office, Bole Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” Among the advantages and disadvantage of the approaches adopted by the authors discussed in the report, one of the common disadvantage observed in all three articles was small sampling size, sample size taken for a questionnaire from employees of the different organization were very small according to the scope of the study.
Recommendation to stakeholders
There are various stakeholders of the organization, as employees of the company, different levels of managers, society, and government. To sustain or improve training and development practice, recommendations to stakeholders are as follow:
Align training with management operating goals – top line managers must align their training programs according to organizational goals and objectives. It means that the gap between the needed skill for the accomplishment of organizational objectives and existing skills of the organizational human resource must be fulfilled through the training program[ CITATION For14 \l 1033 ].
Timely survey organizational employees – the managers must be aware of their employees, their competencies, required skills, current performance, and required performance effectiveness through a survey in the organization from time to time. This will make managers realize the need for training and area to be focused on training[ CITATION Hau16 \l 1033 ].
Benchmark against competition – employees and management must set the benchmark for the employees to be accomplished in a fixed interval of time so that the employee is motivated to reach that benchmark and if he or she is not able to reach the need for training would be clearly observed[ CITATION Sol17 \l 1033 ].
Measure result – the result must be measured timely, and through different methods. For example self-performance appraisal, 360-degree appraisal method, So that the employees are appraised and the lacking area is observed which will make clear the need for a training program for the employees who need that[ CITATION HBR18 \l 1033 ].
The government must comply with rules and regulations regarding training and development programs in the private and public sector – if the government makes it compulsory to conduct a minimum amount of training and development programs for the companies. The companies will become liable to do so, and this will increase organizational efficiency, which will influence the quality of the products and services offered that would affect the society as a whole. Since the sales and profit are increased of, the organization the tax amount will also be increased which is beneficial for the government and country as a whole[ CITATION Kon15 \l 1033 ].
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2. Anitha, J., 2014. Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International journal of productivity and performance management,63(3), p. 308.
3. Asfaw, A., Argaw, M. & Bayissa, L., 2015. The impact of training and development on employee performance and effectiveness: A case study of District Five Administration Office, Bole Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies,3(04), p. 188.
4. Beausaert, S., Segers, M. & Gijselaers, W., 2011. Using a personal development plan for different purposes: Its influence on undertaking learning activities and job performance. Vocations and Learning,4(3), pp. 231-252.
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Available at: https://elearningindustry.com/change-management-3-reasons-training-supports-organizational-change
[Accessed 06 04 2016].
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7. Ford, J., 2017. Employee perceptions regarding an organizational change initiative in a state wildlife agency. Human Dimensions of Wildlife,22(5), pp. 422-437.
8. Frost, S., 2018. The Importance of Training & Development in the Workplace.[Online]
Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-training-development-workplace-10321.html
[Accessed 30 06 2018].
9. Gibson, L., 2016. Personality traits and career satisfaction in training and development occupations: Toward a distinctive T&D personality profile. Human Resource Development Quarterly,27(1), pp. 13-40.
10. Hauch, V., 2016. Does training improve the detection of deception? A meta-analysis. Communication Research,43(3), pp. 283-343.
11. HBR, 2018. 7 Ways to Improve Employee Development Programs.[Online]
Available at: https://hbr.org/2015/07/7-ways-to-improve-employee-development-programs
12. Hill, C., 2015. The Importance of Developing Strategies for Employee Retention. Journal of Leadership, Accountability & Ethics,12(2).
13. Konings, J., 2015. The impact of training on productivity and wages: firm-level evidence. Review of Economics and Statistics,97(2), pp. 485-497.
14. MacKean, G., 2014. Organizational impact of evidence-informed decision-making training initiatives: a case study comparison of two approaches. Implementation Science,9(1), p. 53.
15. Manuti, A., 2015. Formal and informal learning in the workplace: a research review. International journal of training and development,19(1), pp. 1-17.
16. Solman, M., 2017. A handbook for training strategy..London: Routledge.