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HI6005 Management and Organisations in Global Environment
The organizational culture is a system of shared assumptions, values and beliefs which manages the employee behaviour in the professional field. The shared value has a strong influence among the employees in the organization and de4veloped a strong core of conduct about the uniform, act and job performance. It has been observed that every organization develops and maintains a unique culture and develop some guidelines and boundaries for the behaviour for the employees (Fullan, 2014). It has been found that the culture of the organization is composed by the seven different characteristics that range in priority from high to low. There are some distinct value for every characteristics such as which, when combined and unique culture of the organization. It has been found that organization’s members have implemented the judgement on the value of these characteristics and after that they have adjust their behaviour to match the perceived set of values (Benn et al. 2014). There are some factors which decide the organizational culture such as innovation, attention to detail, emphasis on outcome, emphasis on people, teamwork, aggressiveness and stability. On the other hand there are five different factors which affect organizational culture such as top leadership principles, nature of business, policies, work ambiance and values of company, external parties and clients, recruitment and selection process. The symbols of the organization culture can be defined by both ways such as describe and prescribe human behaviour within the organization (Barbera, 2014). The business system has been selected by the organization based on the interviews among the employees. The organizational cultural symbol depends on the two different factors such as internal factors and external factors. The internal factors reflect by the physical arrangement of offers, allocation of parking facilities and dress code. On the other hand external symbol depends on the logo, colour scheme, architecture or design (Hogan and Coote, 2014, p.1610). As stated by sometimes the organizational culture has been selected by the rituals. The rituals are generally two types such as internal and external. The internal rituals are welcoming, farewell parties and duration of coffee breaks. The external rituals depend on the degree of politeness when communicating with clients, welcoming applicants for interview and efficient service to the clients. It has been observed cultural controls in organization might be thought negative or variant (Wang and Rafiq, 2014, p.59). It has been observed that leaders of the organization have developed cultural controls to create social norms and a sense of shared values within the organization. Sometimes the internal communication has been affected mix cultural strategy of the organization. It has been observed that employees cannot make effective communication due to difference between languages. It also created workplace discrimination. The workplace discrimination also affected the business. For instance, the retail sector workplace discrimination affects the customer satisfaction. Therefore, Tesco has implemented the language and communication training session for their employees. It helps them to increase the customer satisfaction and brand popularity in market. It has been observed that large organizations have expected level of behaviour norms where they have encouraged individuality or conformity (Benn et al. 2014). It has been found that social norms refer to the unwritten rules of behaviour which directs the individuals react in special situation. The employee hand book is considered as a full of rules and regulation about the culture and methods of behaviour control. It has been found that some organization has Nondisclosure agreements, policies regarding anti-discrimination, work schedules of employees, code of conduct and general information. As stated by Cummings and Worley (2014, p.1612), this social norms include federal law and state law and other company policy which are in lined with the organization’s structure and culture.
Organizational structure and strategy
As opined by Cummings and Worley (2014), the strategy of the organization refers to the plan for the whole business of the organization that directs utility of the major resources of the organization. The association’s strategic goal of the organizations depends on different structures over time for remaining viable. The organizational structure is considered as a foundation for their strategies and vibrancy for the employees through which the organization gets success (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). Organization’s structure is an internal structure of the organization which indicates the information flow and managerial structure of the organization. The organizational structure also covers the links with external organizations such as partners. It has been observed that top management of Marks & Spencer has maintained Six Elements of organizational structure such as geography, number of employees, product evaluation, and distribution of authority, control and marketplace. According to the geographical aspect, the organization structure depends on the location of the corporate office and business. As stated by Senge (2014), large number of employee can be required to design several layers of management in the organization. As the business of the organization increase, then the management needs to be flexible enough to accommodate more employees and the potential needs of the large management structure. Marks & Spencer has implemented product evaluation process to retain the customers and attract the customers. The product development process and manufacturing process have a great impact on the organizational structure of the organization (Camisón and Villar-Lopez, 2014, p.2892). It has been noticed that distribution of the authority has been implemented by Marks & Spencer, when they have implemented the centralised management system. The organization has implemented centralised management system because the authority wanted that the major decision should be taken by the specific executive group. The functional structure of Marks & Spencer is simple. The chairman is considered as a top of the organization (Ahearne et al.2014, p.70). The information flows from chairman to deputy chairman and international board of directors. There are three departments under the deputy director such as second deputy chairman, secretary and treasurer. The second deputy chairman manages three departments such as store managers, regional managers and country managers. Those three departments manage department managers. The department managers manage national and international employees. Workplace conflict is considered as an issue for the retail organization such as Marks & Spencer. On another hand miscommunication among the products manufacturing, shipping and sales department creates customer dis-satisfaction regarding propose delivery date (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). On the other hand the organization cannot easily accept any managerial changes if required. Therefore the organization has to design new training session for the employees and floor managers must be clear about the leadership style of the organization. Apart from that the organization has to design new communication system and centralised information flow system to avoid the mismatch between production department and sales department. Therefore the ordered product would be delivered within proposed delivery date. Before implementing the new management system, the organization has to observe requirement of the managerial change (Camisón and Villar-Lopez, 2014, p.2895). After that the organization has to implement the changes and activate the new managerial system for small time. After that the organizations finally implement the new strategy along with customization based on the previous feedback. The organizational structure of Marks & Spencer is effective when the organization uses it properly. It has been noticed that Marks & Spencer has taken the help of strategic marketing consultant when upper management creates departmental goals for the rest of the organization (Ahearne et al.2014, p.82). The organization has developed effective goal making strategy with the help of their managerial structure and centralised management system.
Fullan, M., 2014. Leading in a culture of change personal action guide and workbook. John Wiley & Sons.
Benn, S., Dunphy, D. and Griffiths, A., 2014. Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge.
Barbera, K.M., 2014. The Oxford handbook of organizational climate and culture. Oxford University Press.
Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014. Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.