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In understanding a family, it is imperative to study its health history; this is because the genetic factors associated with them may contribute too many diseases and conditions. The aim is to ensure the family members at risk to be identified early and their genetic information collected and analyzed correctly for lasting solutions. There are some diseases for example colon cancer, coronary artery disease, and depression/anxiety are very prevalent in some families more than others (16). It is salient that one understands hereditary family conditions for risk of these diseases can be an incentive for taking screening tests or having to make organizational behavioural changes which would help reduce the impact of the outcomes (14). Genograms and family history and ecomap assessment tools can assist the caregivers, personalities, and families in obtaining information for example diagnosis, severity, the age of onset and more importantly the ensuing relationship with the affected. This paper aims to analyze information gotten from Genogram and ecomap of Jean Campbell and St- Francis family having an in-depth look at a three-generation relationship and their health conditions. The interview was conducted with Sean, the third generation from Haiti but was raised up in the states.
A genogram is generally a multi-generational diagram examining one's family; it assists one to view multiple relationship dynamics paying close observance to trends to review developmental influence and brings out possible health trends (13). These tools are used by the medical practitioners and researchers in assisting them to identify medical risk factors. The information that is gotten after creating an ecomap is used in offering treatments (planning) targeting developed, underdeveloped or unhealthy relationships (16). An ecomap may also be a useful tool in examining factors for example environment or socioeconomic status influence that is the family functioning and development.
In conducting the family genogram, it constitutes myself Maha and I exhibit love to all my family members. I suffer allergies and I developed laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. My father Youif is very close to me but he suffers High blood pressure. My paternal grandfather and mother are both deceased without any medical records of any disease. Ahmed my father’s brother is deceased and aunt is alive but suffering diabetes, physical disability and has high blood pressure. My father’s sister Myriam is my aunt in distrust and she suffers high blood pressure, cancer and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Fatma, who is my father’s sister is deceased and also Amira my aunt is deceased.
Nora who is my father and a very close person in my life is alive but suffers high blood pressure, diabetes, allergies and physical disability. Attallah is my maternal grandfather is deceased as well as Modallah my maternal grandmother. They have no traces of any diseases. Ghazalah my aunt who happens to be my mother’s sister with close relationship that is harmonious suffers from high blood pressure as well as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mohammed who is married to my aunt is deceased without any trace of diseases. Hameed who is my brother and a close person to me but has some traces of violence underwent open heart surgery and he suffers from high blood pressure. Hakeem my brother is also very close to me but also is violent. He suffers high blood pressure. Naser is also my brother and a close relative who suffers diabetes and high blood pressure. Hanan is my sister and a very close relative. She suffers cancer and high blood pressure. Mony is my sister that is very close but she suffers allergies. Nisreen and Sabreen are my sisters with Sabreen being very close to me but has no traces of any diseases with Nisreeen.
In many families, there are potential strengths as well as weaknesses. A significant portion of every family is their dynamic relationships characterized their existing close relationship. In the ecomap, it is evident that the family has a close relationship that subsists within the family unit (13).
In an existing genogram, family structure impacts hugely for the ensuing risk for abuse. The best example is a single parent household, mostly due to lack of fatherhood presence. The risk of abuse is compounded in those families where there are a father, non-family members and the presence of the entire family. It has been noted that families that face domestic violence they have 30% to 60% risk of suffering. Other factors have been termed as environmental for example poverty, living in high crime areas have also been potential predisposing factors to abuse. Stress and dynamic factors and scarcity of social services foster an environment for violence.
Family structures entail those people that are considered to be part of the family. They are the present individuals coupled with the past figures of the family including the quality of relationships that dictates their existence. This information is salient as it does identify the individuals that should be included in an assessment. The subsisting relations and the sources of the elders support connote the flashpoints of potential conflicts. This is well captured in the construction of a genogram. A genogram is set as a visual representation of the composition of a family, relationships, structure and is presented using set standard symbols that thus depict the family. Nevertheless, there is no sub-optimal family structure, and a genogram has the capability of providing preliminary as well as valuable information concerning essential personalities in the family and their relationships.
Genograms are most important as they are useful in nearly all professions. They deal in coming up with patterns of hereditary coupled with their psychological issues. They are able to study behavior with their social interactions. Medical genograms enable the doctors to evaluate a patient’s health risks. The doctor’s knowledge of a patient's pre-existing health conditions helps them in making the accurate diagnosis and having an accurate treatment program. A patient knowing their lineage diseases and illnesses can assist them to have a head-start in taking preventive measures. In having sufficient details of four generations is sufficient for accurate predictions.
The genograms give the emotional bonds that subsist among individuals that form a social unit or a family. It acts as an assessment tool that measures the cohesiveness of a family to determine the proper care which is needed. Thus, it gives invaluable information to a health practitioner. The family counselors get a starting point in explaining family dynamics to a person undergoing family therapy. Genealogists use them in documenting complex family trees that include marriages, divorces, adoption and strained relationships. It can give exciting information including naming patterns, significant events, and rivalry.
Family structures and their manner vary across many cultures and marriages. The selection of a partner becomes an integral process and a universal phenomenon. The criteria for selection evolve from the rules of normative frameworks and their related psychological orientations that are prevalent in different cultural contexts. In having a comprehensive understanding of the processes and different phases of partner selection, it is essential that there should be a merge of the elements, phases and the processes. The best example is integrating the evolutionary and social psychological perspectives (17).
The changes that occur in the family structure presents a nodal point that has significant impacts on the life of a child. In many of life events like the death of a parent or a grandparent are likely to result to predictable consequences in the life of a sibling and they can give a social worker to offer timely guidance. The particular structure of such a family with the resources at their disposal is a better predictor or whether the parent and consequently the kid will be able to navigate these rocky shoals (13).
Alcohol use among adults has been studied for long, and there is significant evidence that shows that non-intact family status is associated with increased risk for drinking. In other instances, it has been shown that there is a higher risk in their drinking.
There are ecological theories that have shown that the context of the physical environment goes a long way in determining the genogram of a family. The model, in general, is not deterministic but it has many similarities to the ensuing community and individuals in a family set up can determine the genogram of their family. The number of wives and the dowry system are also factors that determine a genogram (12, 17).
In the development stages of children, the constellation of the family structure can affect the relationship of the father with the children. Thus, the nature of father’s involvement is affected (13). During pregnancy, the father’s role is secondary, but the chances of their involvement have a chance of changing in the future. As the roles of the father become like it is disciplining, it gradually changes into different spheres as the roles changes to different elements and across circumstances (8).
Many individuals usually pass themselves to their kin people. The things they pass can either be beautiful or valuable for example they can pass stories, culture, and belongings. Other characteristics are unique in nature like cowlick and green eyes (15). There are other insidious characters like the genetic predisposition to depression and addiction. Other traits are passed down through unhealthy ways of thinking and behaving.
Genograms are able to make people be able to examine patterns for a family set up. They make the family systems to be out in the open, and the physicians are able to determine their strengths and weaknesses (20). They are the foundations for setting up generational strengths and weaknesses. They are always structurally similar to a family tree, but their purpose is different. The genogram provides information pertaining to relationships and interactions among family members. While the family tree only gives the lineage of a family.
A genogram is a more valuable tool when it carries information about several generational. Patterns in a genogram sometimes are hard to decipher, and they can be mapped at the paper (19). In a genogram a trend of marital problems can show family history, the best thing with a genogram is that it can even highlight patterns like aloofness and anger which are mostly the cause of marital problems (17). In the construction of it, one uses a combination of rules and symbols.
The medical practitioners for example nurses can use the Campbell’s family genogram and ecomap tools in prescribing a comprehensive health assessment and enumerate potential factors that may affect his health. This is in disregard to the fact that the accuracy of genogram is based on perspective and preceding memories of a person creating it. There is evidence that making use of Eco map and genogram tools of assessment can assist to enhance intervention strategy and communication in a patient’s record (Smith, 2016). It can help in coming up with a treatment plan, care provision, prevention, and health promotion.
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