Delivery in day(s): 4
Flow Chart Process Assignments Solution
The ProcessflowDiagram for a paper product production process is shown in the below Flow chart:
The flow chart clearly explains the process that are involved in the manufacturing of paper. Any product cycle has three stages such as Pre manufacturing phase, Live Manufacturing phase, and Packing and delivery stage. The Pre manufacturing phaseincludes the process for background study, design and analyzing the data such as customer feedbacks needs, etc. In the pre manufacturing stage all the budget planning that are required to make the raw material as finished product is done, this process of planning the manufacturing process is known as process planning. Also the cost estimation is done before the starting of the production itself, thus the process planning and the cost estimation takes place in the pre manufacturing stage. The second stage is the manufacturing stage which consists of various fabrication processes to manufacture the product (Bilir, L.K., 2014).
The manufacturing phase utilizes various man power and machines to make the raw material into the finished product. The manufacturing process must to done with care in order to eliminate wastage of resources and to obtain a good product. The post manufacturing stage is the stage which consists of packing and delivering the product to the customers. It includes marketing and sales the post manufacturing stage also includes quality checking, customer support, etc. In this particular model the Collection of waste paper and virgin production from the wood makes up the part of pre manufacturing process. Then all the fabrication processes such as Virginian, whitening, drying, bleaching, washing, screening, etc. comes under manufacturing processes. The final process is the post manufacturing process which includes delivery of the product to the customers.(Bilir, L.K., 2014).
Kg of Co2
Mode of transport
Kg Co2 for Vehicle
Now from the above table it is clear that the waste paper need truck to be transported whereas in case of thevirgin paper, car is enough. Comparing to truck and car, Car co2 emission is lower than that of the truck. We can purchase easily new paper from near stationary shop better than traveling 1,000 km to recycle paper. But in case of raw material side the waste paper is better than that of the virgin paper. (Laurijssen, J., Marsidi, M., Westenbroek, A., Worrell, E. and Faaij, A., 2010).
Forests are the most important resource in our world but unfortunately the deforestation rate is increasing day by day. Almost more than fifty percent of the trees that are harvested are being turned into some forms of paper merchandise.(Isaksson, J., Pettersson, K., Mahmoudkhani, M., Åsblad, A. and Berntsson, T., 2012).The global paper and paper virgin product production is increasing in a huge rate as much as 17 percent than the previous year, so an action must be taken in order to safeguard our trees and to aid afforestation.The recycling of paper products should be encouraged so that the deforestation process will go low. Also producing paper products from virgin woods not only affects the forests but also it emits greenhouse gases as a result of manufacturing processes(Laurijssen, J., Marsidi, M., Westenbroek, A., Worrell, E. and Faaij, A., 2010).(Isaksson, J., Pettersson, K., Mahmoudkhani, M., Åsblad, A. and Berntsson, T., 2012).
For each and every thousand kg of a recycled product that replaces virginfibershows the reduced usage in the following terms:
Wood - 100%
Total energy consumption - 27%
Wastewater - 33%
Air particulate emissions - 28%
Solid waste - 54%
There is a complete abundance of the wood cutting when the virgin paper are replaced with the waste papers, which leads to the reduction in total amount of energy efficient resource consumption (Monte, M.C., Fuente, E., Blanco, A. and Negro, C., 2009). The water wastage is also greatly reduced which are spent on the processing of the fabrication, in the manufacturing plant. The air particular emission will also be reduced in a considerable manner around 28 percentage. Also the solid waste is reduced(Monte, M.C., Fuente, E., Blanco, A. and Negro, C., 2009).
From the above discussions we can come to a conclusion that virgin papers are better in case of considering transportation losses whereas waste papers are better in case of raw materials.
Compare the usage of Paper towels and air dryer and environmental effect. Which affects the environment gratley. Paraters such as CO2 and SO2will take part.
Weight of paper towel is 7g
Hand dryer capacity 2000W works for 30 seconds
Let us consider 7g of paper is used for thrice a day in a year, then:
Used amount of paper = 7x 3x 365
Amount of paper used = 7665g = 76.65 Kg
The consumption of 1 kg of paper cost carbon dioxide of around 1.8kg
Now for the total weight of 76.65 Kg of paper the emission of Co2 will be around 141.57 Kg
Now for the total weight of 76.65 Kg of paper the emission of So2 will be around 60.57 Kg
When the hand dryer is operated for 30 seconds, and the wattage of an electric hand dryer is generally 2000W .
Now the electric consumption by the Handdryer is calculated as:
Amount of electric consumption: Ec(kWh)
Now it is calculated that the amount of electricity used for drying hand once is 1.67 X 10-2 kWh. Let us consider we use it thrice a day for a year then the amount of electric consumption will be around 18.25 Kwh (Kilo Watt hours) Which will emit carbon dioxide of 12 Kilograms. This calculation is for the electric eolic power plant and when it comes it the gas power plant the amount will vary and it will be around 25Kwh. Thus the usage of hand dryers will emit around 12-14 Kilograms of Carbon di oxide a year and an amount of 20Kg of SO2 will also be emitted.
From the above calculations it is clear that the usage of paper towels costs more usage of CO2 and So2 emissions than that of the Electric hand dryer, so it is better to use the electric hand dryer rather than using paper towels.
1. Bilir, L.K., 2014. Patent laws, product life-cycle lengths, and multinational activity. American Economic Review, 104(7), pp.1979-2013.
2. Laurijssen, J., Marsidi, M., Westenbroek, A., Worrell, E. and Faaij, A., 2010. Paper and biomass for energy: The impact of paper recycling on energy and CO2 emissions. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54(12), pp.1208-1218.
3. Isaksson, J., Pettersson, K., Mahmoudkhani, M., Åsblad, A. and Berntsson, T., 2012. Integration of biomass gasification with a Scandinavian mechanical pulp and paper mill–Consequences for mass and energy balances and global CO2 emissions. Energy, 44(1), pp.420-428.
4. Monte, M.C., Fuente, E., Blanco, A. and Negro, C., 2009. Waste risk managementfrom pulp and paper production in the European Union. Waste management, 29(1), pp.293-308.