ENS6152 Steel Design Assignment Help
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This is the solution of financial management assignment help in which we discuss net present value for profit calculation and consider cash flow on inflation and deflation
Years 
Cash Inflow 
Cumulative 
P.V. Factor 
Present Value 
1 
250,000 
250000 
0.901 
225250 
2 
200,000 
450000 
0.812 
162400 
3 
170,000 
620000 
0.731 
124270 
4 
150000 
770000 
0.658 
98700 
5 
130000 
900000 
0.593 
77090 
6 
130000 
1030000 
0.535 
69550 




757260 
Project HT
Years 
Cash Inflow 
Cumulative 
P.V. Factor 
Present Value 
1 
170,000 
170000 
0.901 
153170 
2 
180,000 
350000 
0.812 
146160 
3 
200,000 
550000 
0.731 
146200 
4 
250000 
800000 
0.658 
164500 
5 
300000 
1100000 
0.593 
177900 
6 
550000 
1650000 
0.535 
294250 




1082180 
Net Present Value
Preset value of cash inflow  Preset value of cash outflow
Project SQ
757,260 – 670,000 = 87,260
Project HT
1,082,180 – 940,000 = 142,180
Net present value is the technique that calculates profit of whole project undertaken in real terms. Net present value considers cash inflows at discount rates. Present value of cash outflow is reduced from present value of cash inflow in order to arrive at net present value of project (Badie, 2000). Projects having positive NPV can be selected and projects having negative present value shall not be considered.
Advantage
it considers inflation factor in cash flows and it is easy to calculate and understand.
Disadvantage
Projects having different life then NVP cannot used to make selection decision.
Decision: In present case there are two projects undertaken and both having same life therefore project having highest NVP shall be selected. Project HT NPV is $ 142,180 and project SQ having NPV of $ 87,260. Therefore project HT will be selected.
Project SQ
Payback Period= 3 + (670,000 – 620,000) ÷ 150,000 = 3.33 years
Project HT
Payback Period= 4 + (940,000 – 800,000) ÷ 300,000 = 4.47 years
Payback period is the period that denotes the period within which initial investment of project will be recovered (Badie, 2000). Payback period denotes recovery period and will become base for the decision making process in terms of time required to recover initial cost. Projects having low payback period shall be accepted because it denotes when initial cost of project will be recovered.
Advantage
Payback period is used for decision making when company is requires and company wants to recover its initial cost in quick session.
Disadvantage
Payback period does not consider post recovery profitability of projects and it does not present correct decisions i.e. it does not consider inflation rate.
Decision: Project SQ having payback period of 3.33 years and project HT having payback period of 4.47 years. Therefore project SQ shall be selected because its cost recovery rate is more than project HT.
Project SQ
Years 
Cash Inflow 
P.V. Factor @ 11% 
Present Value 

Present Value 

1 
250,000 
0.901 
225250 
.855 
213750 

2 
200,000 
0.812 
162400 
.731 
146200 

3 
170,000 
0.731 
124270 
.624 
106080 

4 
150000 
0.658 
98700 
.533 
79950 

5 
130000 
0.593 
77090 
.456 
59280 

6 
130000 
0.535 
69550 
.390 
50700 




757260 

655960 
IRR = 11 + (757260 – 670,000) ÷ (757260 – 655960) x 17 – 11
11 + (1.130 ÷ 1.154) x 6
16.87%
Project HT
Years 
Cash Inflow 
P.V. Factor @ 11 % 
Present Value 
P.V. Factor @ 16 
Present Value 
1 
170,000 
0.901 
153170 
0.862 
146540

2 
180,000 
0.812 
146160 
0.743 
133740

3 
200,000 
0.731 
146200 
0.64

128000

4 
250000 
0.658 
164500 
0.552

138000

5 
300000 
0.593 
177900 
0.476

142800

6 
550000 
0.535 
294250 
0.41

225500




1082180 

914580

IRR = 11 + (1082180 – 940,000) ÷ (1082180– 914580) x 16 – 11
11 + (0.84833) x 5
15.24%
Internal Rate of Return is the return which is actual rate of return that any project or investment fetches. IRR is the break even rate at which present value of cash inflows is equal to present value of cash outflow of particular project. Internal Rate of Return considers inflation factor or discount rate at which project is taken. At Internal Rate of Return point net present value of project will be nil (Hammond, 1999). Internal Rate of Return is the rate that shall be fetched by investment or project i.e. at least that rate shall be achieved from investment or project.
Advantage
It is the actual rate that project fetches at breakeven point or at zero level. Internal Rate of Return considers inflation rate or discount factor that will adjust inflation in market in cash flows of project.
Disadvantage
Internal Rate of Return doe not because base for mutually exclusively projects i.e. whose investment amount cannot be change or modified. It requires complex calculation.
Decision: Projects having minimum Internal Rate of Return shall be accepted because low Internal Rate of Return implies recovery of cost invested in project. Decision can be on the basis of lower of IRR i.e. management desired rate of return and IRR. If IRR is lower or equal to that desired rate then project shall be accepted otherwise not.
In this case project HT having Internal Rate of Return of 15.24% and project SQ having Internal Rate of Return of 16.87%. Therefore on the basis of above criteria project Ht shall be selected because it will be able to recover cost more quickly as compared to project SQ.
Profitability Index (PI) = Present Value of Cash Inflow / Present Value of Cash Outflow
Project SQ
Profitability Index (PI) = 757,260 / 670,000 = 1.13
Project HT
Profitability Index (PI) = 1082180 / 940,000 = 1.15
Profitability Index is basically ratio that calculates relationship and nature of relationship between present values of cash inflow and present value of cash outflow. Project having profitability index as 1 it implies that present value of cash inflow and present value of cash outflow is same (Arnold, 2005). Profitability Index is used to rank projects on the basis of per unit value created in investment or project.
Advantage
It considers present value factor and used to rank project on the basis of value of investment i.e. unit wise value of investment.
Disadvantage
it does not provides criteria for selection of project it only ranks them.
Decisions: Projects SQ having PI of 1.13 and project HT having PI of 1.15. Ranking can be given to mutually exclusive project. According to PI project HT will be ranked as first and project SQ will be second.
Mutually exclusive projects are those projects under which acceptance of one project will impact cash flows of another project. Therefore mutually exclusive projects are interdependent projects on each other. Under mutually exclusively projects concept of capital rationing come into play. Capital budgeting rationing is the situation under which company is available with more than one project or investments but having limited funds to support or undertaken project (Bankman, 2006). In this case ranking concept shall be applicable and project having first rank will be accepted. Ranking shall be on the basis of profitability index. Along with raking concept projects having lower IRR shall be selected because it is the rate at which present value of cash inflow is equal to present value of cash outflow. In this case following is the rank of project according to profitability index:
Projects 
PI 
Rank 
IRR 
Project SQ 
1.13 
II 
16.87% 
Project HT 
1.15 
I 
15.24% 
Since both method of capital appraisal suggest that project HT shall be selected because it has been ranked I and it has lower internal rate of return. On the basis of above points and table, between two mutually exclusively projects, project HT shall be selected.