FIN700 Financial Management Assignment Help

FIN700 Financial Management Assignment Help

FIN700 Financial Management Assignment Help

Question 1

a) Three-period certainty model problem

John Brown earns sole income from the trust and the capital market rate of interest is 5% per annum. John will receive $40,000 now in Year 0, $30,000 at the end of Year 1 and $60,000 at the end of Year 2. In this way John will have the following amounts as funds during the period of three years:

Year 0 = $40,000

Year 1 = $40,000 + $40,000*0.05 + $30,000

            = $42,000 + $30,000

             = $72,000

Year 2 = $42,000+ $42,000*0.05 + $30,000 + $30,000*0.05 + $60,000

            = $44,100 + $31,500 + $60,000

            = $135,600

FIN700 Financial Management Assignment Help

Thus, John Brown will have an amount of $135,600 in two years’ time of he does not consume during this period (Fair, 2014). If John consumes as per his $32,000 now and $ 42,000 in one year then the amount for consumption remaining with him at the end of each period will be as follows:

Year 0 = $40,000 – $32,000

= $8,000

Year 1 = $8,000 + $8,000*0.05 + $30,000

            = $8,400 +$30,000

            = $38,400

Here, John wishes to consume $42,000 but he has funds of $38,400 only and therefore he cannot consume $42,000. He will have to limit his consumption up to $38,400.

b) Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

Name of company

Expected return

Beta

Formula

CAPM

Shamrock Ltd.                                    

10.40%

0.4

=8% + 0.4*6%

10.40%

Camellia Ltd.                                    

12.90%

0.7

=8% + 0.7*6%

12.20%

Rose Ltd.                                         

13.80%

1.1

=8% + 1.1*6%

14.600%

Daffodil Ltd.                                       

17.60%

1.6

=8% + 1.6*6%

17.600%

(i) Undervaluation and overvaluation of shares

Shamrock Ltd. = In this case, expected return is 10.40% and expected return using the CAPM model is 10.40%. Both the expected return and expected return using CAPM is same. This shows that shares are correctly valued. 

Camellia Ltd. = In this case, expected return is 12.90% and expected return using the CAPM model is 12.20%. Expected return using CAPM is lower than the expected return. This shows that shares are overvalued. 

Rose Ltd. = In this case expected return is 13.80% and expected return using the CAPM model is 14.60%. Expected return using CAPM is higher than the expected return. This shows that shares are undervalued (Noda, et. al., 2016).

Daffodil Ltd. =   In this case, expected return is 17.60% and expected return using the CAPM model is 17.60%. Both the expected return and expected return using CAPM is same. This shows that shares are correctly valued.

(ii) Security market line graph (SML)

This graph shows the presentation of CAPM formula. This chart represents beta on the X axis and returns on the Y axis. This chart shows expected return on securities on beta.

Name of company

CAPM

Beta

Risk-free rate

8%

0

Shamrock Ltd                                    

10.40%

0.4

Camellia Ltd                                      

12.20%

0.7

Rose Ltd                                            

14.60%

1.1

Daffodil Ltd                                        

17.60%

1.6

security market line graph

This security market line graph shows expected return on beta. As described in the table X-axis of this chart shows beta and Y axis of this chart shows expected return on securities (Elbannan, 2014).

Question 2

a) Time value of money and deferred perpetuities

(i) Present value of the constant income flows at the beginning of the eighth year

Year

Return

PV factor

Present value

1

0

0.943396

0

2

0

0.889996

0

3

0

0.839619

0

4

0

0.792094

0

5

$80,000

0.747258

$59,780.65

6

$130,000

0.704961

$91,644.87

7

$180,000

0.665057

$119,710.28

   

Inflow at beginning of eight year

$271,135.80

This calculation shows that the present value of income cash flow at the beginning of the eighth year will be $271,135.80.

(ii) Present value of whole income stream

Perpetuity: Perpetuity is a type of annuity when an infinite amount is received for periodic payments. Perpetuity formula is applied for calculation of present value of such annuity amount. This helps in calculation of present value of future cash flows (Yu, et. al., 2010). The formula for calculation of present value of a perpetuity is as follows.

Present value of perpetuity= D/R

Present value of perpetuity= $250000+ ($271,135.80/6%)

Present value of perpetuity= $4,437,802.47

This shows that present value of whole stream income is $4,437,802.47.

b) Loan repayments and loan terms

Lisa Brown obtained a loan of $700,000 with equal monthly repayments over 12 years and the rate of interest is 8.4% compounded monthly. The installment amounts for monthly repayment can be calculated as follows in excel:

Instalment = PMT (rate, nper, PV)

            = $7,731.54

The Balance of the loan at the end of the second year can be calculated as follows:

Month

Principal

Interest

Balance

1

2832

4900

697168

2

2852

4880

694316

3

2872

4860

691444

4

2892

4840

688552

5

2912

4820

685640

6

2933

4799

682708

7

2953

4779

679755

8

2974

4758

676781

9

2995

4737

673787

10

3015

4717

670771

11

3037

4695

667734

12

3058

4674

664677

13

3079

4653

661597

14

3101

4631

658497

15

3123

4609

655374

16

3144

4588

652230

17

3166

4566

649063

18

3189

4543

645875

19

3211

4521

642664

20

3233

4499

639430

21

3256

4476

636174

22

3279

4453

632896

23

3302

4430

629594

24

3325

4407

626269

Thus, the Balance of loan at the end of the second year is $626,269

Now, Lisa Brown has two options. The first alternative is to increase the monthly repayment and the second alternative is to extend the period of the loan.

First Option

If Lisa accepts the first alternative then in such case the revised installments calculated using excel will be as follows:

Revised Instalments = PMT (10.2%/12, 12*10, 626,269)

                                    = $8,346

Thus, the new monthly repayment will be $8,346 if Lisa accepts the first alternative.

Second alternative

If Lisa accepts the second alternatives then the installment amount will be $7,732. In this case, the number of installments or the period of loan will increase. The calculated number of periods using interpolation for an instalment of $7,731 compounded monthly at the rate of 10.2% per annum to repay $626,269 will be 138 months or 11.5 years (Ally, 2015). Thus the extra period will be 11.5 years – 10 years = 1.5 years. Therefore if Lisa adopts the second alternative, the extra period that will be added to her loan period will be 1.5 years or 18 months.

Question 3

a) Risk and Return

Expected Return = WA* ER(A) + WB* ER(B)

Where W is the weight of security

And ER is the Expected Return of security\

Billy’s portfolio consists of two shares A and B. He has invested 1/4th of his investment in Share A and remaining 3/4th in Share B. Thus, W(A) = 0.25 and W(B) = 0.75.The expected return from Share A is 14% and that of Share B is 20%. Thus, ER(A) = 14% and ER(B) = 20%.

Expected Return on Billy’s Portfolio = W(A)* ER(A) + WB* ER(B)

= 0.25*14% + 0.75*20%

= 18.5%

Thus the expected return of Billy’s portfolio is 18.5%

Standard Deviation of Portfolio can be calculated using the following formula:

Portfolio Standard Deviation = √WA2σA+ WB2σB2 + 2WA WB σA σB p

Where W is the weight of security,

σ is the standard deviation of security

And p is the correlation of the security

The Standard deviation of Share A in Billy’s portfolio is 17% and that of Share B is 24% and the correlation between the returns of the two shares is 0.5 (Gajera, et. al., 2015).

Standard Deviation of Billy’s portfolio

=√0.25*0.25*0.17*0.17 + 0.75*0.75*0.24*0.24 + 2*0.25*0.75*0.17*0.24*0.5

=√0.041856

= 0.2045

= 20.45%

Billy has currently invested in a two share portfolio. He can either retain his investments in both the shares in the ratio of 1:3 as presently held or he can make 100% investment in any on the two shares. In order to make the recommendation about whether he shall maintain its existing two-share portfolio or he shall invest all his funds in one of the two securities the analysis can be made as follows:

Portfolio

Expected Return

Standard Deviation

One-quarter investment in Share A and three-quarter investment in Share B

18.5%

20.45%

100% investment in Share A

14%

17%

100% investment in Share B

20%

24%

It can be observed from the above table that both the expected return and standard deviation of Share A is higher and similarly for Share B both the return and risk is low. Win case of two share portfolios both the risk and return are medium. Thus, Billy is recommended to maintain its two share portfolio since in this case, he will be able to earn a good return with a medium level of risk (Merriman and Nam, 2015). However, if Billy wishes to invest in one of the two shares completely then he shall invest his funds in Share A since it has a lower risk as compared to that of Share B and has the potential to earn higher returns with lesser risk. If we compare the returns and risk of each of the two shares from the present risk and return with the two shares portfolio, then it can be observed that Share A will give good returns with lesser risks and Share B will give higher returns with higher risks.

(b) Valuation of Bonds

(i)  Calculation of Price

Face value of bonds = $100,000

Rate of interest up to 15th October 2016 = 8% per annum compounded half-yearly

Revised interest rate after 15th October 2016 = 8% + 2% = 10%

Future Value of Bond on 15th January 2017

= $100,000 + $100,000*0.08*92/365

= $102,016.44                                       

Future Value of Bond on 15th April 2017

= $100,000 + $100,000*0.08*182/365

= $103,989.04                                       

Calculation of price of bonds maturing on 15 April 2019

Present Value of Bond on 15th April 2017 = 103,989/PV Factor @ 4%, 4 half years

                                                                        = $103,989/0.855

                                                                        = $121,625

Sales value of Bond on 15 January 2017 = $121,265/PV factor @2%, 4 quarters

                                                                        = $121,265/0.924

                                                                        = $131,239

Calculation of price of bonds maturing on 15 April 2023

Present Value of Bond on 15th April 2017 = 103,989/PV Factor @ 4%, 12 half years

                                                                        = $103,989/0.625

                                                                        = $166,382

Sales value of Bond on 15 January 2017 = $166,382/PV factor @2%, 4 quarters

                                                                        = $166,382/0.924

                                                                        = $180,067

Thus the sales value of bond maturing in the year 2019 will be $131,239 and the bonds maturing in the year 2023 will be $180,067.

ii. Relative price movements in bonds

As evidenced in the above answer the price movements of both the bonds have been fluctuating. With the increase in the period of maturity, the value of bond also increases due to higher amounts of interest accumulated.

Question 4

a) Capital Budgeting

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

Total

Cost

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equipment cost

400000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest payments

 

40000

40000

40000

40000

40000

 

Working capital

27,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lease compensation

22000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Overhauling expenses

 

 

 

10,000

 

10,000

 

Total costs

449,000

40,000

40,000

50,000

40,000

50,000

 

Present Value Factor @14%

1

0.877193

0.769468

0.674972

0.59208

0.03779

 

Present value of costs

449000

35087.72

30778.7

33748.58

23683.21

1889.508

574187.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benefits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reduction in labour cost after tax

 

119,000

119,000

119,000

119,000

119,000

 

Salvage value after tax

 

 

 

 

 

21,000

 

Recovery of working capital

 

 

 

 

 

18,900

 

Tax saving on depreciation

 

24000

24000

24000

24000

24000

 

Tax saving on interest expense

 

12000

12000

12000

12000

12000

 

Tax saving on overhauling expenses

 

 

 

3000

 

3000

 

Total Benefits

 

155,000

155,000

158,000

155,000

197,900

 

Present Value Factor @14%

1

0.877193

0.769468

0.674972

0.59208

0.03779

 

Present Value of benefits

0

135964.9

119267.5

106645.5

91772.44

7478.672

461129

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incremental cash flows

-449000

100877.2

88488.77

72896.92

68089.23

5589.164

 

Above table shows the calculation of NPV and incremental cash flows.

(a) NPV =   Total cost-Total benefits

     NPV = 574787.7- 461129

      NPV = (113059)

In the present value terms, there is a net loss as total costs are higher than total benefits. Costs are higher than the benefits hence equipment will cause a net loss.

Calculation of incremental cash flow is shown in the above table.

(b) Purchase of equipment is to be finalized on the basis of NPV and this can be seen that the NPV of this project is negative which shows that this equipment will not be profitable for Capital Constructions Ltd (Becker and Ivashina, 2015). A cost of this equipment is higher than the benefits that are going to arise from this project. From this, it can be concluded that company should not purchase this equipment.

References

Ally, A.M., 2015, “An Empirical Analysis of Financial Performance of Higher Education Students’ Loan Scheme (HESLS) in Tanzania”, International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, vol 4, issue 3, pp 45-59.\

Becker, B. and Ivashina, V., 2015. Reaching for yield in the bond market. The Journal of Finance, 70(5), pp.1863-1902.

Elbannan, M.A., 2014, “The capital asset pricing model: an overview of the theory”, International Journal of Economics and Finance, vol 7, issue 1, p.216.

Fair, R.C., 2014, “How might a central bank report uncertainty?”.

Gajera, M.A., Vyas, M.P. and Patoliya, M.P., 2015. Risk and Return Analysis Of BSE Small, Medium & Large Capitalization Indices. Scholedge International Journal of Management & Development ISSN 2394-3378, 2(4), pp.32-37.

Merriman, K.K. and Nam, D.I., 2015, “A Managerial Perspective on Risk and Return for Corporate Innovation Projects”, Organization Management Journal, vol 12, issue 4, pp.200-207.

Noda, R.F., Martelanc, R. and Kayo, E.K., 2016, “The earnings/price risk factor in capital asset pricing models”, Revista Contabilidade & Finanças, vol 27, issue 70, pp.67-79.

Yu, J.C., Wee, H.M., Widyadana, G.A. and Chang, J.Y., 2010, “The effects of inflation and time value of money on a production model with a random product life cycle”, Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research, vol 27, issue 04, pp.437-456.