Environmental Economics Environmental Economics Student s Name

Environmental Economics Environmental Economics Student s Name

Environmental Economics 1





Environmental Economics



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Gold Ore Mining in Australia.

Introduction

The research paper looks at how Gold Ore Mining as a major economic activity in Australia causes pollution to the surrounding environment. The research considers Tasmania in Australia as the main case study and uses the explanatory research as the type of the case study.Ore mining is one of most practiced economic activities in Australia. The mining activity has negatively impacted on the environment hence causing a lot of pollution. It involves in the removal of vegetations and soil covers hence causing the destruction of the natural ecosystem(Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011). There are about two types of wastes from mining such as the waste rocks from the ore that has been uncovered and the tailing of mines after the ores have been processed. There are different mining impacts that are caused within the environment such as the destruction of physical habitats hence the bio diversity resource is lost. Similarly, the accumulating pollution is also at a high rate of about 70% every day (Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011).

Background.

There are different types of economic activities in Australia that have caused an increase in pollution (Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011). Although these activites are earning income for the nation, they have totally degraded the environmental nature hence causing pollution (Goldlücke, Susanne, Schmitz and Patrick W., 2018:Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011).However, this paper looks at the Gold ore mining in Australia as the major cause of pollution.The production activities from the ore mining has totally raised the effects of pollution into the environment. Pollution has both health effects on human life and ecological isssues about health. Mining of Gold Ore does not only produce pollution that affects the environment but also air and water (Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011). The contamination of both water bodies and fresh oxgen leaves the people living the surrounding environment into a big threat of acquiring diseases. The solid wastes from the ore body has significantly increased environmental pollution (Ramasobana, 2014:Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011). According to the research, environmental pollution has been a constant concern in most states of Austrslia. These air pollutants like the carbon monoxide have seriously impacted on human health causing premature deaths. The most affected are the children and the elderly peoples who are in a range of 75 years and above(Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011). The epidemiological reports have reported the relationship between human health and the many pollutants created (Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). Many scholars have reported the strong and positive correlation between carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Hence scholars report that it becomes difficult to determine the real pollutants that cause air pollution. There has been a persistent concern about the effects of the hazardous wastes on the environment (Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). It is due to the dependence on the regulatory levels of control. There are different types of hazardous wastes such a the bio-degradation of the environment and recycling. The table1.1 shows the effects of pollution.


Analysis

The research analysis usesd the PM10 which is the pollutant index that helps in quantifying the social, economic and health costs (Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). The approach best suits the analysis because of the soundness in the epidfemiological studies that show thses effects to be contuinous. The table 1.2 below shows the health cost of pollution in Australia(Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011).

The analysis shows the level averages of pollution which have accumulated form the year of 1999/2000 to 2001/2002. The analysis shows that the levels of emmisisons of pollution creating health costs have been estimated to be around $1.0 billions and $8.40 billions annually (Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). During the analysis, costs of health are estimated which assumes there are no thresholds for PM10. The world Health Organization has consistently reported that there are no clear pollution levels in Australia. It indicates that, these levels differ depending on rate of emission by different Gold mining companies (Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). The results of the analysis are shown in the table 1.3 below. The tables shows that the costs of health per year due to pollution are higher when there are no thresholds of PM10(Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011). But these costs reduce as the thresholds become into existence.

The economic efficiency framework shows that pollution has largely affected the market equilibrium since it creates social costs (Eisenstein and Charles, 2011). When producers of the products incur much costs due to pollution, prices are likely to be high for consumers. They do so to compensate the costs incurred during production. However, the consumers may react by imposing restrcitions on the company responsible for creating pollution (Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). For example, when the producer has rights to the environment, the company responsible forn pollution will aonly produce to that limit put by the producers. According to (Ramasobana, 2014)Argues that any pollution beyond the set limit will be paid and compensated by the company responsible for pollution. While the other compensates Gold ore mining if the limit is not surpassed. All this scenario creates effecieinces in the market since any of them can violate the agreement and sometimes they not come into one agreement. It is believed that the cycle of economic efficiency is always altered when such arguments come in (Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). For instance the figure 2.1 below explains the how pollution affects the economic efficiency(Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011


From the figure above, shows that economic activities that produce pollution have an ffect on both the resources and the economy (Eisenstein and Charles, 2011). Pollution created out of these activities sometimes cause the ineffectiveness in weather conditions. Since there would be condensation and changes in the clouds hence forcing the new weather to happen(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). According to research, natural resources like water bodies are also affected which retard the economic performance of the nation. Social costs in this case become much to be compesanted which leaves the polluting company with no choice(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). Once the ecnomy declines as a result of poor performance and low production, it then results into the inefficiency of the market (Tausch and Arno, 2016). This is explained by the right hand of the figure above. While on the other side, effects would then result such as high costs and low production which would mean inefficiency of the economy.

According to the thermodynamic view, environmental pollution assumes that pollution also contribute to the suffering of fonaanf fauna as they suffocate due to polluted air (Marikar, 2011). The thermodynamic view assumes that all kids of pollution created is referred to as the symptomatic nature of the earth scuh as water bodies, land scape and air. It believs that these are then changed inot the technology of individuals while using the degraded environment. It also argues that from the ouset, environment is also polluted by the fire from forest( Lagrue, 2012:Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). That is not only Gold ore mining that creates air pollution but also foret fire pollutes (Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011). It makes the point clear that these types of pollution created are not any different from the pollution created by the technological sources.Most operations about process of planetaries like formation of the atmosphere and hydrosphere are well explained by the thermodynamic views(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010).

Part of the pollution quantity is always emitted to the environment as egines of heat are yielded by consuming the certain pollution quantites (Patrick, 2018:Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011). That is to say, suppose Q0is the quantity of pollution supplied, W*is the produced work and finally Q+is the pollution emitted then we obtain the following equation(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010);

Q0= Q++ W*. Then the market efficiency becomes; W/Q0. Therefore, most scholars indicated the importance of Q+which important in the second law of thermodynamics (Stavins, 2008). The law states that pollution is not converted completely into work(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). The figure 2.2 explains the euivalence of pollution dissipated and technological energy inputs(Sabah Abdul-Wahab and Fouzul Marikar, 2011).


Most scholars have argued out that ecology science is differiated from the philosophy of economic dominance (Carlos, et’l., 2010). However, ecology points out that there is a need for balancing the utilization of resources. Ecological view stresses the use of both economic policies with the energy concepts in pollution abatments to be key in controlling these allocations(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). It finally argues that best economic policy makers should be used in the cyclic systems to minimize the pollution threats. The figure 2.3 shows the flow of economic schemes.


According to the Ecological view point, pollution creates changes which are not desirable to the sourrounding(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). It argues that it has harmful impacts and effects on to the human life, vegetation, wild and domestic animals. Such incidences happen when the long term social costs of the ecological benefits foe human life are have been made from an ecological gain during the short term. According to the view, human is largely dependent on the different types of products from waste, hence calls for the pull up of pollution(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). According to the ecological view, there are different classifications of pollutants such as the non consistant pollutants and the degradable pollutants(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). However, the natural processes such as the discarded vegetable have helped in breaking the non persistent pollutant. It is believed that these types of pollutants are capable of remaining on surface for a long period of time. While on the other hand, the natural process does not degrade the non degradable pollutant. Since it is more difficult to be eradicated once it has fallen inot the environment. So, with that, it is believed that these pollutants such as the watses of nuclear and toxic substances will continue acculating in the environment(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010).



Discussion

Under this research, pollution has hindered the economic performance of the country(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). This is seen aas most individuals mind a lot about reducing pollution than putting controls about it. The polluting companies on the other hand have constantly polluted the environment which has also made suffocation of living things like animals (Spash, 2013). From the analysis, it is predicted that if no controls are put across pollution, it is likely that in 2033 pollution rate would be 80% with an increasing companies(Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010). This is a big threat to the country as they would incur a lot in controlling the diseases that would be created as a result of pollution. Therefore, it is good for the government to come up now and put some resrtcitions on the polluting companies. The proposal would be setting levels for the which the polluting company should exceed. When such limits are put by the government, it becomes hard for the polluting companies to disobey the policy as they would be fined heavily in case they do so (Janicke,2012: Gómez-Baggethun and Erik, De Groot, Rudolf, Lomas, Pedro, Montes and Carlos 2010).















Bibiliography

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Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 46-56. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21511/ee.08(1).2017.05