Earth System Processes Oz Assignment Help

Earth System Processes Oz Assignment Help

Earth System Processes Oz Assignment Help

Introduction

Water balance is an important and essential parameter often appraised in the catchment area. The importance of the water balance is of significant importance to the overall area as a whole.

Water balance mainly defined as the overall correlation between the inflow and the outflow in line with the catchment. The aspect mainly expressed in terms of water balance equation as indicated below
Precipitation (P) = stream-flow (Q) + evapotranspiration (E) + (- changes in storage) (S)

Often, the water balance mainly affects imminently the existing water in the parametric stored system. For instance, the effects in line with the business processes in the overall seasonal patterns tend to differ from one region to another and this is based precipitation which that area receives.

Conversely, hydrological cycles mainly defined as the makeable process which describes the overall flow of water as well as its distribution between the atmosphere and the earth. Moreover, hydrological models mainly utilized in designing and establishing the water circulations between the atmosphere and the earth. Some of the aspects incorporated by the system include vegetation, land, atmosphere as well as the water bodies. The diagram below illustrates the water flow between the earth and atmosphere (Li et al., 2018).


Figure showing the hydrological cycle and the processes

Most of the hydrological processes in line with the water budget and balance mainly occur on the land phase. Some of the processes mainly exhibited and manifested on the earth surface include evapotranspiration, losses due to ground percolation as well as the overall permafrost and leaches (Schneider et al., 2017).

Aim of the Research Project

To apply the available data given in outlining and assessing the water budget characteristics in line with the seasonal periods in the catchment

Quantify the overall available changes in the water availability in line with the seasons ranging from 1979-2000 up-to 2050. Explaining the significance of the catchment changes in line with the water budget to the area dwellers

Methodology

The method which one adopts in computing and evaluating the water balance for a given area is not only important but also essential. Below are the key steps and procedures used in determining the water balance for the area.

Plotting the water budget in line with years giving the typical variations across the board

Notably, appraising the period in which the evapotranspiration rate is high and also the actual evapotranspiration mainly estimated and recorded.

Utilize the computer spreadsheets as well as excel software in plotting and drawing the overall graphs.

Analyze the establish excels and state conclusions based on the graph findings

Answer the following questions

Questions

What is the surplus water volume for the whole year? (1 mm of rain falling on 1 km2 provides a total water volume of 1 ML (megalitres).

Surplus = precipitation – actual evapotranspiration rate

But actual annual precipitation is 46.67/365(mm/day)

Surplus = 1-46.67/365

=0.872mm

=0.872 x 1ML

=0.872ML

How does this change in the different months of the year?

The differences in levels of surplus across the months mainly recorded as a result of differences in the level of solar heating across the month. Winter have less radiant heat and thus, accounting for more surplus. On the other hand, summer has got the highest solar radiations and thus accounting for fewer surpluses.

What does the surplus tell us about the stream flow?

The stream flows are often seasonal with the highest levels of flows recorded during the summer periods when there are a lot of heating and water losses (Fisher, 2017).

Is the stream likely to be perennial or intermittent?

Basing on the analysis and the data provided the streams mainly established to perennial since across the board no zero surplus often recorded (Thompson, 2017). 

Results

Results obtained for the catchment mainly tabulated as indicated in the tables below

Table showing 1971 – 2000 data

Also the graph for the 1971 – 2000 data mainly assessed and demarcated as indicated below

Graph showing 1971 – 2000 data and the outputs for both the presentation actual and potential evapotranspiration

Furthermore, the table below indicates the summary for thee data analysis of 2050 in line with the viable precipitation, potential and actual evapotranspiration (Arheimer, et al., 2017, April).

The graph for data mainly indicated and illustrated as per the analysis given below (Good, Noone, & Bowen, 2015).

Discussion

Both the data on the past and the future data on the climatic variability forms part and parcel for the computation of the overall systems related to the water budget availability. In instance, the increase in temperature can result in the overall increase in both the actual as well as the potential evapotranspiration. This will in turn affect the overall climatic parameters and the availability of the water in the catchment areas (Elmarami, Meyer, & Massmann, 2017). This system has affected a number of countries such as the western regions in the United States of America. In essence, the impacts have been immense with the level of precipitations recorded in the area diminishing as well as increase in the overall level of runs as a result of the emergences of the runoff. From the data gathered it clear that the climatic variations of the specified area are likely to change imminently as per the overall trends recorded in the two graphs. Although, the cause for the increase as well as the decrease in the amount of precipitation and evapotranspiration is not mentioned, the obvious reason could be due to global warming. The increase in the population continues to pile pressure on the existing area as well as the development of the industries and these tend to interfere with the hydrological and the water balance systems (Ma et al., 2017).

Conclusion

Water balance and the overall hydrological systems in a designated area tend to have a number of importance in the long run. Some of the importance include providing source of water for the area people. Also, the water budget can be used by the hydrologists and the engineers in determining the crop water level, gross irrigation water and the net water requirement which forms essential design considerations in developing the type of irrigation and the crop to be planted and grown in an area.

References

1. Arheimer, B., Andersson, J., Crochemore, L., Donnelly, C., Gustafsson, D., Hasan, A., ... & Pineda, L. (2017, April). Global, continental and regional water balance estimate from HYPE catchment modelling. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 10583).
2. Elmarami, H., Meyer, H., & Massmann, G. (2017).The combined approach of isotope mass balance and hydrological water balance methods to constrain the sources of lake water as exemplified on the small dimictic lake Silbersee, northern Germany. Isotopes in environmental and health studies53(2), 184-197.
3. Fisher, J. B., Melton, F., Middleton, E., Hain, C., Anderson, M., Allen, R., ... & Kilic, A. (2017). The future of evapotranspiration: Global requirements for ecosystem functioning, carbon and climate feedbacks, agricultural management, and water resources. Water Resources Research53(4), 2618-2626.
4. Good, S. P., Noone, D., & Bowen, G. (2015). Hydrologic connectivity constrains partitioning of global terrestrial water fluxes. Science349(6244), 175-177.
5. Li, X., Cheng, G., Ge, Y., Li, H., Han, F., Hu, X., ... & Zhang, Y. (2018). Hydrological cycle in the Heihe River Basin and its implication for water resource management in endorheic basins. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres123(2), 890-914.
6. Ma, Y. D., Zhao, J. B., Luo, X. Q., Shao, T. J., Dong, Z. B., & Zhou, Q. (2017). Hydrological cycle and water balance estimates for themegadune–lake region of the Badain Jaran Desert, China. Hydrological Processes31(18), 3255-3268.
7. Schneider, U., Finger, P., Meyer-Christoffer, A., Rustemeier, E., Ziese, M., & Becker, A. (2017). Evaluating the hydrological cycle over land using the newly-corrected precipitation climatology from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). Atmosphere8(3), 52.
8. Thompson, S. A. (2017). Hydrology for water management accounting. CRC Press. Schneider