Delivery in day(s): 4
Early Childhood Care and Education Proof Reading Services
2. Using the Enrolment Form Handout as your guide, conduct an interview with a family wishing to enrol their child at your service. (If you are not currently in a position to do this, you may role play this activity with either a fellow staff member or Student.)
Discuss the individual child’s health requirements and routines with the family. Document this on the enrolment form.
3. Describe some questions or concerns about a child’s health needs that you may need to convey to their family.
Ensuring a child’s health needs is very essential in every care service. If the child care service finds that the child’s family is unaware of certain health needs of the child, it is their responsibility to convey that to the family. These concerns may be related to either their physical or mental health. For instance, if a child has shown allergic response towards any kind of food item, the child’s family must be informed about it to avoid all kinds of future troubles. Similarly, if a child has shown signs of mental illness or that the child would require any kind of special assistance; this must be conveyed to the family as well.
4. How do you maintain confidentiality regarding children’s individual health needs?
It is recommended that a child care program should be created that complies with a written policy describing how all the confidential information should be stored, handled and documented. Each and every staff must familiarize themselves with these policies. In regards with maintaining individual children’s health needs, a few instances may be considered. In case if a child is detected with a communicable disease, like impetigo, chicken pox, head lice or any other such related illnesses, the program staffs and the parents or family members of the child should be notified immediately. It is also essential to notify the parents of the children who are in immediate contact with the infected child and this should be done discreetly without revealing his/her identity. The advised parents must be instructed to keep their children under observation and should seek medical attention in case of occurrence of symptoms. In case the child care institute has children with special needs due to chronic health and disabilities or specially – abled children, the institute should have separate policies for all the parents. These policies and notifications should contain certain sets of instructions that prohibit bringing foods items, or other related articles. For example, if any care centre has diabetic child at their institute, they must notify all the parents not to sugar – laden cookies or cakes to the centre during any celebrations. This would ensure the confidentiality of the child’s health without compromising their identity.
5. Identify where your service would access information on current hygiene practices.
Information on current hygiene practices can be accessed from various sources. These could either be in the form of electronic media or print media. There are several manuals available on hygiene practices in the country or state library. By accessing them, one can get an idea regarding the hygiene practices required at care services. One can also get information from health magazines and other related magazines. Information related to current and updated hygiene practices can also be accessed through online sites that provide updated hygiene regulations. These regulations are mostly co-regulated with National Quality Standards and other allied associations. Therefore, it is essential to follow the guidelines specified by them.
6. Explain how you would maintain written procedures and schedules to ensure a regular regime of washing children’s toys and equipment.
Regular washing of children’s toys and equipment is very important. Maintaining a written procedure and schedule would ensure a regular regime of cleaning them. The cleaning of toys and equipment needs to be done daily at regular intervals to maintain the hygiene of all the children. Toys should be properly cleaned prior to keeping them in the allotted places. Children’s sand pits may get dirty with the urine of kids and animals as well. Kids can urinate in them while playing with water. Therefore, the sand must be replaced from time to time and special attention must be paid if any pungent smell is coming from it. The sand pit must be kept covered overnight to prevent any animal from soiling it. Play cloths should be washed regularly with hot water and detergents. If any cloth gets dirty, it must be kept away from the play area.
7. List some important hygiene information that services may provide families. Discuss different ways in which a service can give families this information.
Hygiene is an essential part of human health. All care centres must follow hygiene practices at their institutes. It is equally important to inform the parents and families about the hygiene practices. The important hygiene information that the services may provide to the families include:
1. Importance of washing hands prior and after having food, using toilets, etc.
2. Encouraging the families to not send a sick child to the centre, especially those suffering from communicable diseases.
3. Encourage them to follow clean hygiene practice themselves as well, as children tend to follow their elders.
4. Encouraging them to follow proper toilet practices at home to train the children.
5. Encouraging them to keep their bathrooms, toilets, kitchen and other surrounding environments clean.
6. Let them know the importance of following proper hygiene care in the kitchen as well, especially during cooking and food handling.
The service can provide this information to the families in various ways. They can conduct meetings with the parents and families of the children attending the institute. They can also provide the families with hand-outs, pamphlets, flyers, etc. The service may also display posters on the notification boards of the institute.
10. Explain how you ensure that your service has current records of a child’s immunization status and that they are up-to-date? What procedure is in place to maintain the currency?
By maintain a proper charting system, the immunization status of children can be well maintained. As an educator, it is their responsibility to update the chart from time to time by contacting the parents and families of the children. Regular meetings must be conducted with the parents and families to follow up with the children’s immunization status. These meetings should be conducting either weekly or monthly, based on the age of the child. The child care service can also create an official web page where they can open an online portfolio which is accessible by the parents and families; they can update the records of the children’s immunization over there from time to time.
12. Explain how configuring groupings of children can minimise risk of illness and injuries.
Configuring grouping of children can minimise the risk of illness and injuries to a great extent. Having a large number of children in a limited space makes it difficult for them to freely move about. It helps to create a balance between the children and the physical environment surrounding them. Arranging the physical environment becomes easier by grouping children and assigning them to different areas. This reduces the risk of them getting injuries. More space gives children more chance to develop their skills as they can engage themselves in various activities. Configuring grouping also helps to keep a check on the spread of any kind of illness. This is very common in infants and toddlers as they wipe off their noses with their hands. Handling of toys of such children by their playmates would only increase their chances of getting infected. If a sick child is present in a large group of children, the spread of the infection increases. Whereas, if the child is in a small group the spread of the infection will be limited and contained within that small group.
13. What is an allergy? Describe some symptoms and possible causes of an allergic reaction.
Allergy is an individual’s immune response against certain substances present in the environment that are normally harmless to other people. The substances responsible for triggering an allergic response in an individual are known as allergens. Some people have inherent tendency towards these allergens. These allergens are found in various forms such as:
1. House dust mites
4. Insect bites
5. Pets’ dander
6. Some food items like milk, peanuts, eggs, sea food, etc.
7. Certain medicines
The symptoms of allergy can be mild or potentially life threatening, depending on the adversity of the immune response towards that particular allergen. These symptoms can be:
1. Redness and swelling of nose, ears or eyes; hay fever
2. Skin eczema, hives
3. Asthma attacks – in severe cases
4. Vomiting and nausea
With proper precaution and care, allergy can be avoided. If timely medical attention is provided, adverse reactions can be prevented.
14. Access your Service Allergy Policy and procedure. Describe the risk management strategies in place for children with severe allergies.
The risk management strategies for children with severe allergies at the child care service are as follows:
A. To ensure that the children with allergies have their own management plans. This should be made aware of to all the staff, including those belonging to kitchen if there are food related issues.
B. Encouraging awareness of allergies and ensuring that the risk is minimised by making all the parents and families aware of the type of food that are allowed and those not allowed inside the centre; if the allergies are food related.
C. Have an updated list of contacts of the children, in-house doctors and trained staffs for emergency situations.
D. Ensuring that all the staffs are trained with updated certificates.
E. Ensuring first aid kits and medicines are updated regularly and their expiry dates are not due any time soon.
15. What is anaphylaxis? What are the most common triggers of anaphylaxis?
In most allergy cases, the person develops mild to moderate, non–life-threatening symptoms; such as runny nose, rashes or watery eyes. In some people, they experience adverse life – threatening reactions towards allergies, known as anaphylaxis. These reactions can put the person into shock. Anaphylactic shocks are generally immediate reactions, but sometimes the reaction may be delayed. This is known as biphasic reaction and can occur even after 12 hours.
The common triggers of anaphylaxis include:
1. Food such as peanuts, tree nuts likes, walnuts, etc., sea food, milk, milk products, eggs, soy, wheat, etc.
2. Medications including aspirin, penicillin, ibuprofen and other non–steroidal anti–inflammatory drugs, etc.
3. Breathing in allergens such as pollens, dusts, latex, etc.
4. Bites or stings of insects such as ants, wasps, hornets, bees.
16. What are the symptoms of anaphylaxis?
The initial symptoms of anaphylaxis may appear like typical allergic reactions like skin rashes, watery eyes, runny nose, etc. Within approximately 30 minutes, more adverse signs start to appear. These symptoms include:
a. Wheezing, itching, swollen, tightness of throat
b. Shortness in breathing or troubled breathing
c. Rapid heartbeat
d. Rashes, hives, red, swollen skin
e. Dizziness, fainting, weakness or confusion
f. Runny, stuffy nose
g. Itchy, swollen tongue and lips
h. Diarrhoea and vomiting with cramps
i. Weak pulse and paleness
j. Lowering of blood pressure
k. Cardiac arrest
17. What is an EpiPen? How does it help an anaphylactic reaction?
EpiPen is a pen – shaped injection containing epinephrine, otherwise known as adrenaline, which narrows the blood vessels, relaxes muscles and opens up lungs airways. It has become a necessity in families with individuals suffering from severe allergic reactions such as uneven breathing, wheezing, decreased or increased heartbeat and other such related potentially lethal reactions. It is helpful during the anaphylactic reactions caused due to insect bites, drugs, food, etc. It can also be used in treating exercise – induced anaphylactic reactions. The patient can easily administer the EpiPen by themselves; they need to pull the cap and ram the needle into their own thigh. It generally requires 30 seconds to kick in but the effect is not long – lasting. It wears off within 10 to 20 minutes of administration. It is generally administered for immediate relief and the patient needs to be taken to the hospital for proper medical assistance.
18. Provide an example of an action plan for anaphylaxis.
The following would be a well presented example of an action plan for anaphylaxis:
a. Lay the person with anaphylactic attack on a flat surface
b. Do not allow them to walk or stand
c. If the person is having difficulty in breathing, allow them to sit
d. Administer them with EpiPen or Adrenaline Auto – injector
e. Call the ambulance
f. Contact the family or the person listed on emergency contacts
g. A second dose may be administered if the person is unresponsive even after 5 minutes of the first dose, if another injection is available
h. Commence CPR if the person is unresponsive
19. Read the scenario, and then answer the question that follows.
Zahli’s mum has informed you that Zahli has a Milk Allergy. She has requested that Zahli is provided with A2 milk rather than normal milk.
Conduct research use the following site http://kidshealth.schn.health.nsw.gov.au/fact-sheets to identify if using A2 milk is suitable for a Milk Allergy. Explain your findings in the space below.
The findings from this page are as follows:
A2 milk is produced by a separate kind of cows bred specially for this purpose. These cows have undergone genetic modification to produce milk that contains a type of milk protein which is different from that of regular cow’s milk. Furthermore, through the research it was found that consumption of this milk can still result in allergic reactions. Thus this milk cannot be used as a substitute for regular cow’s milk.
20. Explain the next steps you would take after checking the health information fact sheet.
From the finding of the research conducted, as a representative of the child care centre, I would advise Zahli’s mother to not provide A2 milk to the child. It is better to provide the child with other alternatives such as vegan milk as they are devoid of the protein present in regular cow’s milk.
21. Explain how to use an adrenalin auto injector for anaphylaxis.
Adrenaline auto-injectors are administered for anaphylaxis as immediate first aid during emergencies. It rapidly subdues the symptoms related to severe allergies such as dizziness, wheezing, fainting, vomiting, breathing difficulties, chest pain, etc.
For people with emergency anaphylactic reactions who don’t have anybody else around during the attack, can self–administer an adrenaline auto-injector. An adrenaline auto–injector can be directly injected through light clothes as well. When self–administering auto–injector, one needs to inject it into the muscles of outer thigh. A little liquid might remain as residue after the use; one doesn’t need to be concerned about it as each device is meant to be used only once.
For some people, administration of one dose may not be sufficient due to adverse reaction. In such cases, a second dose is to be administered after 5 – 10 minutes, if need be. After the administration of an adrenaline auto – injector the patient must be rushed to the emergency ward of the nearest hospital. While waiting for the arrival of ambulance, the patient must be lying down with the legs raised. Also the patient must carry the packet of the adrenaline auto–injector used.
22. Research and explain briefly how children’s oral health can impact on their general health and wellbeing, including signs of tooth decay.
Tooth decay is one of the most common chronic illnesses in children. It can have deep impact on children’s health and life, as well. It is necessary to identify the early signs of tooth decay to avoid future complications. Tooth decay can impact children’s health in various ways:
a. They can be affected by the discomfort and pain caused due to tooth decay.
b. They might find difficulty sleeping due to the discomfort.
c. Difficulty in chewing would affect the growth and development as they won’t be able to consume the required amount of food.
d. Tooth decay leads to bad oral odour and tooth display which in turn lowers their self-esteem.
e. It leads to speech development problems.
f. Since they have milk teeth, bad oral health practices lead to higher risk of new decay in other baby teeth.
g. Bad oral health practices also damage the developing permanent teeth, as well.
It is therefore necessary to identify the early signs of tooth decay. These include:
1. Development of dull, white band along the gum line of the upper incisors.
2. Formation of brown spots or discolouration on the teeth due to the loss of tooth enamel.
3. Swelling and redness of the gums.
In advanced stages:
1. The gums develop blackened areas
2. The gums get very red and inflamed
23. What are the symptoms of asthma? Name possible triggers?
The most symptoms of asthma are:
a. Tightness and pain in the chest
b. Breathlessness or shortness of breath
c. Wheezing and coughing
d. Fatigue and nausea
One needs to pay attention if the onset of these symptoms occurs immediately after exercising, running or due to other physical activities. Other possible “asthma triggers” from the surrounding environment which leads to asthma, include:
a. Sudden change in the weather (cold dry or humid air)
b. Emotions such as laughing, crying, stress, anxiety
c. Medicines such as penicillin, aspirin
d. Allergens like moulds, pollens, spores, dust mites, pet dander
e. Strong perfumes, air pollution and other such irritants
f. Smoke from tobacco
g. Infections like cold, sinusitis, flu
24. What is an Asthma Management plan? Provide an example.
The Asthma Management Plan is a well written plan that one needs to develop for their child with the help of a doctor to keep the child’s asthma under control. The main aim of the Asthma Management Plan is to prevent or reduce absent of the child from school, admission to hospitals, use of reliever medication, etc. The Asthma Management Plan contains clear instructions on what needs to be done in response to an asthma attack. Even the process of development of a well written plan is essential; this should be done with proper discussion with the child’s doctor. Having a well written step – wise plan provides clear instructions for:
1. The trigger elements and how they can be avoided
2. Identification of early symptoms to trigger and how to prevent them from getting worse
3. Precautions to be taken prior to exercising
4. How to manage a sudden onset of asthma
5. List of different medicines and their dosages that are to be administered
6. Whom to seek in case of emergency
7. Contact details of emergency care facilities
It is essential to have all these necessary details in one place so that people in the immediate surroundings of the child should be able to respond even in tense situations.
Asthma Management Plan can be organized in a number of ways. One may use “zone systems” in their action plans. This system is based on the three basic colour system, similar to that of traffic light; green, yellow and red. These colours define the various levels of severity of asthma management. The action plan comprises of peak flow readings and symptoms to help one identify the zone in which the child is.
The Green zone is the safety zone;describes how asthma can be managed daily, even when the child is feeling good.
The Yellow zone is the caution zone;elucidates on how to be sure if the child is having an asthma attack and if it is getting worse.
The Red zone is the danger zone;consists of detailed explanation on what needs to be done in case the flare – up is severe.
The colour system makes it easier for people around the child to understand which instruction needs to be applied to the child’s peak flow meter readings.
25. What are parent’s responsibilities in managing their child’s asthma?
Parent’s role in the asthma management of their child is very essential. They need to learn about the different risk factors related to asthma. Also, they need to understand how to recognise and respond to asthma flare–ups and warning signs. The parents’ have the responsibility to identify the child’s asthma triggers and learn how to avoid them or minimise the contact with them. Here are a few tips the parents can follow to manage their child’s asthma:
A. Learn about the various asthma triggers and work on reducing them in your home and the surrounding environment. B. Know when to take your child outside and when to keep them inside.
C. Avoid exposure of child to areas where they can get in contact with passive smoke. Avoid smoking in home and keep the child away from places designated for public smoking.
D. The parents need to help their child in understanding what asthma is. Prepare them on how they can avoid the asthma triggers and how they need to respond in case of asthma attacks. Help the child understand what the early signs of asthma include.
E. Prepare an Asthma Management Plan with the help of the child’s doctor. Keep the plan ready all the time and ask the child to carry with them. Make the child understand what the action plan includes and how to implement them.
F. Carry out periodic allergy tests to understand if there is any change in the allergens. Sometimes the allergens may vary with the change in season. Parents need to be absolutely sure about this change in the pattern of allergens.
G. Make a clear list of all the medications the child needs and have a clear instruction attached along with the medicines.
H. Get the child vaccinated for flu periodically.
I. Keep the home healthy and use only non–toxic products for cleaning, as it helps to decrease asthma triggers.
26. Access your Service policy regarding asthma and describe your role in administration of asthma medication.
There are certain basic principles related to administration of medication that one needs to follow. These include:
A. Right child
B. Right medication
C. Right dosage
D. Right method of administration
E. Correct date and time of administration
F. Correct expiration date of the medicine
As a part of the child care centre, every individual holds an important role in taking care of the children. My role, as part of the centre, in the administration of asthma medication includes:
A. Ensuring that a proper medication record of the child is maintained.
B. Prior to administration of medicine, it has to be ensured that the medicine has been prescribed to the child. It is essential to administer only prescribed medication.
C. Ensure that the medicine is taken from the right container.
D. Make sure that the medicine has not expired and that its expiration date is a far away date.
E. Be sure of the dose required by the child and maintain a time table for administration.
Collect a written consent letter from the parents or family of the child prior to administering the medicine.