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Question 38 Two of the six sections people can search to know about the agency and immunization.

There are six sections in the website namely home, contents, diseases, vaccines, recommendations and resources. Out of this the following are the two sections one can find about the agency and immunization;

1. Home- The home section gives information about the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunization as an agency of developing immunization guidelines, their location and the stakeholders involved. In addition, this section gives the important human resources the agency currently have, current people used in consultation and the references they have used("The Australian Immunisation Handbook", 2018).

2. Contents-The contents section provides all information one needs to know about immunization including fundamental of immunization, vaccination procedures, catch-up vaccination, vaccination for special risk groups and vaccine-preventable diseases.("The Australian Immunisation Handbook", 2018)

Question 39 Benefits relevant for people who have reached a threshold of costs for health services.

When the patients are out of pocket and have reached a threshold of cost, through the Medicare Safety Nets, the government provides various benefits as follow;

The first threshold- In the first threshold, through the use of Original Medicare Safety net, the Medicare benefits are increased up to 100% of all fees starting from 85%(Institute for Health Care Improvement, 2012)

The second threshold- In this threshold, people get benefits through the use of Extended Medicare Safety Net which covers 80% of all personal costs or the agreed level of benefits.

In addition to Medical Safety Net, a person who has reached a maximum threshold of cost can benefit from Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme safety Net which reduced the cost of medicines when a person produces a concession card(Institute for Health Care Improvement, 2012). Other than that, a person getting treatment overseas can get reduced costs through the use of Reciprocal Health Care Agreements. Private Insurers can get reduced cost through Medicare Two-Way.

Question 40, three common factors that affect thehealthof people

1. Physical activities and exercises- Physical exercises can improve personal health and reduce the risk of developing a disease such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. A minimum of one hour of regular activities can improve quality of life and increase life expectancy. Some of the benefits of regular physical activities include reduced heart attacks, lowering body cholesterol and body weight management(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2017).

2. Balance diet-People who eat poor balance diets are at risk of developing nutritionally related disorders like obesity and anorexia. Balanced diet enforces our body with strong diseases defense mechanisms thus improving the quality of life(National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health, 2015).

3. Hand washing and personal hygiene- Individuals who regularly wash their hand after toilet, before eating meals and practice personal hygiene have reduced risks of contracting communicable diseases like diarrhoea, typhoid fever, and cholera.

Question 41 Evidenced Based Practice and how it helps to maintain standards in Nursing

Evidence-based practice involves the use of current best practice and knowledge in making decisions about the care of patients individually(Culyer, Jatulis, Cannistraci, & Brownell, 2018). More, often experts usually talk about evidence-based practice as the process by which the already existing research evidence can be used to make decisions concerning a specific group of population(Culyer et al., 2018). Nurses can use evidence-based practice to maintain nurses standards in various ways. These include making interventions that are based on best practice, frequently conducting nursing research, help to bring better patients outcomes, increases nurses confidence in decision making, keeping nursing current and relevant and in developing guidelines, policies and procedures based on latest research(Levin & Chang, 2014).

Question 42

Health promotion strategy

Provision of timely and appropriate primary health care which also include the preventive care


The program has reduced bout a half of Potentially avoidable Hospitalization (PAH). However, this has not been well demonstrated in Australian remote areas, to people who are social economically and quantitative analysis disadvantaged, elderly.

Suggestion for the future approach

It is good to develop effective programs that address vulnerable populations like those with low social economic status, those with chronic illness, individuals with poor health literacy and elderly. The program should provide an approach that fit best so as to make sure that those who are needed are targeted.

Question 43 Patient scope and scope of practice

As a student Enrolled Nurse, it is not appropriate to accept an allocation of the patients. Postoperative patients with iv therapy and wounds drain will require frequent monitoring of vitals in order to check if there may rise any complications. This means a nurse will not be able to attend to other patients. In addition, an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients who need assistance with ADLs is also enough to be allocated one nurse due to the burden of work. Complying with the hospital will only lead to poor patient management and increase the risk of complication to all patients.

Question 45 Henderson Theory in process of assessment

Nurses can incorporate the fourteen components of Henderson theory during assessment in various ways(Ahtisham & Jacoline, 2015). For instance, the first component of breathing normally nurses can assess the respiration rates, oxygen saturation and any irregular and difficulty in breathing. The second component of eating and drinking adequately nurses can assess patient body weight, height, body mass index, skin turgor, the diet of the patient and knowledge of nutrition. Elimination of body waste nurses can assess whether the intact catheter is in place and input and output. Other assessment nurses can assess from other components include body fatigue, gait, experiencing of insomnia, dressings, body temperature, physical appearance of the patients like if they are well groomed, history of attempted suicide,activities of daily living psychological factors(Fernandes, Guedes, da Silva, Borges, & de Freitas, 2016).

Question 46

A nurse may be required to discuss funding sources an health insurance with the patient undergoing treatments for cancer such as surgery and chemotherapy. It is important to discuss such issue with the patients since such treatment is compulsory and usually costly. So, if the patient will be able to acquire a health insurance the cost will be reduced thus lowering the burden for the patient and his family.


1. The Australian Immunization Handbook. (2018). Retrieved from  https://immunisationhandbook.health.gov.au/

2. Ahtisham, Y., & Jacoline, S. (2015). Integrating Nursing Theory and Process into Practice?; Virginia ’ s Henderson Need Theory. International Journal of Caring Sciences,8(2), 443–450. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2004.070797

3. Culyer, L. M., Jatulis, L. L., Cannistraci, P., & Brownell, C. A. (2018). Evidenced-Based Teaching Strategies that Facilitate Transfer of Knowledge Between Theory and Practice: What are Nursing Faculty Using? Teaching and Learning in Nursing,13(3), 174–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2018.03.003

4. Fernandes, B. K. C., Guedes, M. V. C., da Silva, L. F., Borges, C. L., & de Freitas, M. C. (2016). Nursing process based on Virginia Henderson applied for a working elderly. Journal of Nursing UFPE,10(9), 3418–3425. https://doi.org/10.5205/reuol.9571-83638-1-SM1009201630

5. Institute for Health Care Improvement. (2012). A Guide to Measuring the Triple Aim?:A Guide to Measuring the Triple Aim: Population Health, Experience of Care, and Percapita Cost.

6. Levin, R. F., & Chang, A. (2014). Tactics for teaching evidence-based practice: Determining the level of evidence of a study.Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing,11(1), 75–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12023

7. National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health. (2015).Let’s Talk: Advocacy and Health Equity.National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health. Retrieved from http://collections.stfx.ca/cdm/compoundobject/collection/nccdh/id/2483/rec/30

8. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). Determinants of Health | Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Determinants-of-Health.