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Introduction

Psychosocial development is the growth of the temperament as well as the gaining of societal attitudes and abilities from infancy through adulthood. The age group between 2-5 years also known to be the pre-school years is the developmental stage through which children develop from obstinate toddlers to active discoverers of their world. During this stage, a child develops and gains skills at his/her own pace. Some skills develop ahead of others like motor may develop prior to cognitive. Therefore, understanding this development stage can help one to identify the needs of the child earlier and be in a position to handle it with a lot of healthcare.

Important aspects of psychosocial development that occurs in children between 2-5 years.

Since psychosocial development is an endless interaction process between the child and the environment around it, it is vital to identify the normative and non-normative examples of this stage of development. The theory of Erik Erikson is essential in understanding the psychosocial development stages. According to Erikson, the features of understanding psychosocial development consist of physical paleness and power, historical and cultural factors, the existing development stage and life antiquity. A child develops in several vital areas such as sensory and motor development, language, emotional and social development, and cognitive as well as physical development(Araujo, Dormal, & Schady, 2018). Each area has got benefit in development where by like in language, by the age of two years most children are able to speak at least fifty word like in this case of Julie speaking in four to five-word sentences.

The cognitive and physical changes enable children to progress psychosocially, interact effectively with other children and form independent identities. According to Erikson psychosocial development starts at the phase of trust versus mistrust. During this phase a child needs safety and love from the parent or initial contacts in order to create a favorable self-security and develop a sense of trust towards oneself and others. At the age of 2-3 years, there is a psychosocial crunch of autonomy versus doubt and shame, at this stage the child develops a sense of favorable self-concept through associations with friends and family members (Miller?Slough et al, 2018).

The repercussions of the psychosocial development become clear when a one shows unscrupulous behaviors in future that he or she could have elucidated during developmental stages. For instance, a child who adequately receives good toilet training at the age of 2 years to 3 years may develop a favorable self-concept and a sense of self-recognition (Newman & Newman, 2017). Self-recognition assists the child in identifying fully with age mates, this enhances age mates’ interactions and reduce embarrassment as they grow further. Since there is no embarrassment, the individual will develop a sense of satisfaction and voluntary control of defecation and urination. Without proper toilet training at an early age, a child may portray complications like mistrust, stingy, not completely developing a sense of self-awareness or grow up to be rigid adults. The case of Julie not yet toilet trained comes in here because for her attending day care only twice a week limits her from interacting fully with her age mates where she could have learnt so. Parents, peers and social childcare play significant roles in the psychosocial development of a child. Through the interaction with parents and peers, children learn aspects of life like language, problem-solving skills and social-emotional skills. Through the relationship with the child, parents are also able to spot abnormal manners earlier, for instance in the case study Victoria is able to discover that Julie has not grasped the toilet training skills similar to her age mates. (McLeod, 2013).

Factors that influence psychosocial development

There are a number of sovereign aspects of psychosocial and ecological factors that influence child psychosocial development. Urie Bronfenbrenner developed a theory to enlighten how factors within the child and the child's environment impact the child progress and development. Bronfenbrenner pointed out diverse levels of the child's environment that include microsystem, ecosystem, macrosystem and mesosystem (Rosa & Tudge, 2013). Three features that sway child psychosocial development are; passionate bonds, physical surroundings and health of the child.

Passionate bonds

The chief environment that the child come across since birth is the family. From the time when child is born, the expressive situations that the child experiences through seeing and mood will figure the child temperament, and the union that the child shares with the parents assist her to learn how to express her worries and love (Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer, 2012). Parents and child emotional bond should be steady and loving, this will make the kid feel cherished and essential. Parents can enrich their relationship with their child through spending time with them to expression love and being there for the child constantly. For instance, a child may not be capable to efficiently converse with others due to inadequate emotional bond with her parents (Britto et al, 2017).

Physical surroundings

A favorable environment for the child is an important factor to enhance psychosocial development. Parents should create a favorable environment in order to ensure and enhance skill development of their child. The family should provide occasions that will enable the child to discover even the environment within the home setting and outside the home. Comfortable and encouraging home environment will assist the child to essence on her studies effectively. Parents should try to avoid congested and boisterous environment because it can influence child character negatively. According to Vygotsky's theory community plays a significant role in social interaction, therefore, the community set up should be satisfactory to ensure that the child absorbs the desired cultural values (Alparone & Pacilli, 2012).

The healthiness of the child

The dietary status which governs the health and welfare of a person is very crucial in child’s development. Children who have unhealthy situations often do not depict the same organisation development cycle as others, they usually experience delayed psychosocial developmental features. Unhealthy psychosocial conditions that are portrayed include delayed motor and lack of sleep in children. Unhealthy conditions may be as a result of low level of cleanliness or lack of accessibility to hospital. Features that can promote a clean environment, improved nutrition and cure or prevent illness are of significance to ensure better psychosocial development (Garbarino, J. (2017).

Significanceof psychosocial development knowledge to my profession

Psychosocial development understanding is vital for all nursing students because it provides discernment into finding strategies to advance child growth and progress. In the case of a child who has difficulties in development, the nurse will deliver creative strategies to recover the condition of the child in her care. The empathetic of psychosocial progress is critical because it assists the nurse to deliver adequate developmentally care to the child with psychosocial development difficulties (Batra, 2013).

Conclusion

The essay has exhaustively given an outline of the important details of psychosocial development and how they come about. It is of great significance that nurses get the knowledge of the psychosocial development in order to build up competence in the service delivery. There are some instance in the day to day life when some children my experience delay in displaying the expected kind of development level, but that does not mean that they have disabilities only a slight medical consultation and advise can aid to bring back the situation to normal.

Reference

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2. Araujo, M. C., Dormal, M., & Schady, N. (2018). Child Care Quality and Child Development. Journal of Human Resources.
3. Batra, S. (2013). The psychosocial development of children: implications for education and society—Erik Erikson in context. Contemporary Education Dialogue, 10(2), 249-278.
4. Britto, P. R., Lye, S. J., Proulx, K., Yousafzai, A. K., Matthews, S. G., Vaivada, T., ... & MacMillan, H. (2017). Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development. The Lancet, 389(10064), 91-102.
5. Garbarino, J. (2017). Children and Families in the Social Environment: Modern Applications of Social Work. Routledge.
6. Gonzalez-Mena, J., & Eyer, D. W. (2012). Infants, toddlers, and caregivers: A curriculum of respectful, responsive, relationship-based care and education. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
7. McLeod, S. (2013). Erik Erikson. Retrieved August, 9, 2013.
8. Miller?Slough, R. L., Dunsmore, J. C., Zeman, J. L., Sanders, W. M., & Poon, J. A. (2018). Maternal and paternal reactions to child sadness predict children's psychosocial outcomes: A family?centered approach.Social responsibility Development, 27(3), 495-509.
9. Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2017). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Cengage Learning.
10. Rosa, E. M., & Tudge, J. (2013). Urie Bronfenbrenner's theory of human development: Its evolution from ecology to bioecology. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 5(4), 243-258