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A linear project is an arrangement that is extended in parallel to schedule the resources and utilities, used in construction industries like the construction of the highway, pipeline, high-rise building, rail construction etc. The linear project is the overcome over critical path method (CPM) (DefinedTerm, 2014).
On the other hand, the linear project schedules an activity which dominates on the factor which is in the following ways:
a.The resource utilization in the construction is done in maximum.
b.The time consumption in the transportation of the resources is done in minimum.
c.The interruption between two live activities is done in minimum.
d.The production rate of the project is done in maximum.
In linear projects, the process may break into different segments according to the risk level of the particular project. As per the segments are divided on a different level then the risk level of the project will decrease and the construction rate will increase.
For example: In the construction of Rail the company divides the project into different segments as follows:
1.Sub grade construction
3.Ballast and sub-ballast
These different sections are divided into different segments so that the commercial construction time will decrease and the risk factor also may decrease (Tripathy, 2014).
2.Time chainage diagram:
Time chainage is a chart on a 2D graph having time on the one axis and location on the other axis. On the other hand, the line and activity are shown in the main body of the chart. For example Representation of two activities L1 and L2 with respect to time and location
Figure 1- Representation of two inspection activities
Above figure represents two inspection activities which are in progress towards each other and meets at 170 about 13:00 on 12th December. The advantage of this type of representation is therefore significant.
Several time this chart also called as a time-location chart, time-distance chart, Gantt chart etc. They are generally made on software package like Microsoft Project, Primavera P6. It is very easy to study the Time chainage chart but very difficult to explain on the Bar chart so the Time chainage chart is also the overcome on the Bar chart.
The purpose of the Time chainage graph is to sure that so many activities of repetitive production will remain in balance and the speed of the production process will not interrupt and the process will complete the set goal of time.
Time chainage process is very suitable for the repetitive projects like the construction of the residential building etc.
When several small spans are connected together so that the dry, wetland, valley or rivers can be crossed by taking the help of flyover is called as viaduct. Viaduct is a Latin word which means ‘via for road’. Firstly it is build by the Romans to transfer their cargo from one place to another over the river by taking the help of the viaducts.
In this project viaduct of length 1920m is made over the river. One side is treated as a north side and opposite to this is treated as south side. To keep the record of all the construction related to the viaduct time chainage diagram is used. Time chainage diagram is generally used when the connection is required to connect the linear nature with the work. By this, a graphical indication of location and time can be developed against each work like construction of rail, road, pipeline and tunnels etc. Time chainage diagram can be used to depict complex construction in very easy manner. In this all, the major operations are listed in proper schedule manner. Time chainage diagram is the updated version of the Gantt charts. In this on one axis time is listed and on another axis amount of work has been completed and sometimes called as the distance (Burr, 2016).
Construction of the viaduct includes various steps. All the steps have to be plotted on the time chainage diagram in proper and schematic manner. Workers are working on six days week basis. Firstly the site preparation has been initiated. In this visiting the site, testing of the soil, geographical conditions etc are there which has to be properly tested and documented. All these results help in construction of the viaduct in easy and proper manner. In this project it took four days to complete the preparation of the site. After that foundation has to be dug out. It has been initiated in two steps. One started from the north side of the river and another is constructed from the south side. As the distance of south side is less therefore it took fewer days to complete the task. In this project it took three days to complete the task and this step is named as ‘dig foundation 2’. Whereas ‘dig foundation 1’ is started from the north side of the river and it took four days to complete the task. It is due to the long distance. After foundations has been dug out completely then bridge foundation initiated. This process is completed in two half. One half is started from the north side of the river and it took five days to complete the task. Whereas the second half took only four days to complete due to shorter distance from the river. After completion of bridge foundation step hardcore has been laid down. One has been laid from the north side of the river. It is named as ‘lay hardcore 1’ and took around three days to complete the task. In the second phase it started from the south side of the river and took only two days to complete the task. In this project this step is named as ‘lay hardcore 2’. After that bridge base has been installed. It is installed on the pillars by taking the help of machines. After the bridge base has been installed, phase of the brickwork start. One phase of the brickwork has been started from the north side. This phase is named as ‘brickwork 1’. This phase took around three days to complete the task. Second phase of the brickwork is started from the south side of the river and it is named as ‘brickwork 2’ in this project. It took around two days to complete this phase. After that site clearance is done. In this step site inspector fully test the viaduct. After completion of the tests by the site inspector viaduct is open for operation. In this project it took two days to complete the task. In this way viaduct phases are plotted on the time chainage diagram.
Figure 2- Time Chainage Diagram
The viaduct is series of the bridge usually have a number of segments in between tall towers or piers. The main purpose of the viaduct is to carry a path for the railway tracks above the water or roads for the local transportation.
Viaduct structures are usually constructed using the pre-cast segments moulds and installed under the girder technique. Viaducts are the divided segment of a bridge that is used to cross the roads or river or valleys. A normal viaduct is 40m to 50m span and 400 ton in weight (Gautrain, 2009).
Steps involved in the construction of viaduct
Stage 1: Each segment of the viaduct is transferred to the location by using the truck and trailer. When they reached to their appropriate location then they lifted on the pier by using a large crane. Before the crane move to the viaduct position they have rotated the segment by 90 degrees and placed on the segment loader cantilever.
Stage 2:When the first half-pier segment is placed on the segment loader, cantilever then allows waiting up to segment when it has been transported to its appropriate position. On the other hand, the second half-pier segment is transported by using truck and trailer.
Stage 3:All segments are placed in the same manner in their appropriate position expect the last one.
Stage 4:The last segment which remains unplaced is now placed to its desired position and is adjusted to their final alignment.
Stage 5: After the each segment is reached to their fix position then high-pressure epoxy glue is transferred in between the viaduct chambers that allow the segment to paste with each other. After the epoxy glue is placed inside each segment then segments have to go under the stress towards each other for perfect pasting.
Stage 6: When the stressing in between the segments is done then long internal tendons that are made up of iron or steel are placed in between the segments for their continuity. If there is any space left in between the segments then internal tendons are placed to fill those gaps.
Stage 7: After complete the segment the crane is transferred to next Pier and segment loader is also transferred to that position.
Stage 8: The second part of the span which is on the pier is now placed and then placing of segments is similar to the previous segments (Gautrain, 2009).
Construction plant and equipment used on the project
1.Launching beams and Precast segments: These are the precast bridge made up of concrete and steel. This is mainly used for the construction of the deck of the bridge.
2.A.S.S (Advance Shoring System):This ASS is used for the casting of the span of length up to the length of 50m. The girders of ASS are positioned along the bridge and supported on the piers. According to the pier height, the structure that supports the girder is directly loaded on the pier so that the brackets will remain on rest. Once the casting is done the girder is shifted to the next pier.
3.Hoisting Cranes: Hoisting cranes are the cranes that are used to transfer the loads on their hooks. It is the multiple supporting cranes that supports on the jib crane, tower crane, special crane.
4.Form Traveller: A Form traveller is a self-launching machine which is suitable for the pre-cast segments. By the help of form traveller, the long segments of length up to 120m-140m can be framed easily. The form traveller is mounted on the both side of the pier to balance the load.
5.Formworks: It is the mould in which the segments are moulded. They are generally made up of wood and steel. These are designed according to the requirement of the client. These are also used for the safe installation of the segments.
6.Handling Equipment’s: These are generally used to transport the heavy segments to their appropriate position. Generally, we use the carriers on tires or rails to transfer the segments.
7.Incremental launching equipment: These are used for the extra support for the cantilever and reduce the net weight of the segments over the cantilever.
8.Cable-stayed erection equipment’s: These are used to support the deck or the segments for the life long period, or we can say that they also perform the extra support for the deck or segments.
9.Bridge hosting/ setting equipment’s: These are the extra supporting cranes that are used to transport the small equipment’s from one place to another. They may transfer the weight of 2 tons very easily. These cranes are very easy to install and they work electronically (Spicinternazionale, 2010).
The hazards and risks involved in the project with particularly with the use of an SLJ900
1.The extended load on the column of the SLJ900 on which it has mounted the arm make the resistance fatigue failure of the pier, or the machine fall from the pier height and causes floor penetration.
2.Manual handling may the major hazard by using SLJ900 on lifting, pulling, pushing, carrying, assembling may damage the site or worker with an inexperienced driver.
3.From the bunch of steel, grid meshes the floor grid might be not in a safe condition which may cause major injury in future.
4.The epoxy glue which is filled up in the internal column of the segment gets heated up more than the prescribed temperature will lead to the fail of SLJ900 from the pier.
5.The raw materials, finished products, and semi-manufactured products are in the short supply.
6.Delay in the transportation of the raw material.
7.Bad weather condition and the environmental hazards like floods, an earthquake will affect the SLJ900.
8.Half-baked segments considered as irrelevant for the construction site and for SLJ900 also.
9.Undesirable condition on the construction site that is not suitable for construction like instability in the water supply, power supply, and gas.
10.The geographical location for the construction is not beneficial because the SLJ900 is very heavy in weight so it is impossible to carry such type of machine on every location (Li, Zhang, & Fu, 2012).
Process tracking is a group of several processes and task which supervise the compliance of a process with its initial requirements and decide the process that will go in the desired direction of compliance and provides us the desired outcome. It also tracks the lifecycle of the process.
Basically, the process tracking mainly are of two types depending upon the curve which is as follows:
1.As-planned schedule:This is the hypothetical curve; the companies target this curve to complete the work as the desired interval of time.
2.As-built schedule:This is the live curve which tells about the status of the ongoing project. This curve may be below the as-planned curve or above the as-planned curve, if the curve is below the as-planned curve then the project is delayed from the completion time or if the curve is above the as-planned curve then it is before the completion time (Brienza, & Hildreth, 2007).
Figure 3- Compression in between the As-planned and As-built curve
The PIB project manager is investigating the tracking of project commodities for progress control whilst the railway is being constructed by tracking following terms:
Tracking Earthwork volume
Earthworks mean to move or dislocate the large amount of rock, soil. Earthwork is done by redesigning of the ground site to acquire the design level. The earthwork required cutting and filling to get the required shape.
1.Cutting:In cutting process removal of the earth material from the project location or get some rocks to achieve the required shape.
2.Filling: In the filling process, the excess ground material and rocks are transferred to the work location.
The calculation of Earth volume is done be using four methods:
1.Average method: This is a very simple method; this is used only when there is cutting and filling are both done on the surface.
2.Block Method: In this method, we calculate the volume of cutting and filling both which will provide the final volume on addition. It is more accurate than the average method.
3.Section Method: This method is more accurate when the construction area is large. The calculation in one time becomes more difficult so we find the intersection line to meet the required area (Akhtar, 2012).
Crushed rocks are the main part of the railway track & it is also known as railway ballast. The railway ballast behaves as a bed for the railway tracks. The main use of the crushed rocks is as following:
1.They easily distribute the weight of the train from the track.
2.They also help in the levelling of the track.
3.It reduces the vibration from the track
The track of the ballast depends upon the spacing in between the rail track. The deformation of the ballast track depends upon many factors that may include the spacing in between two consecutive ballasts. The life of the crushed rock or ballast depends upon the following factor:
3.Particle size distribution
The platform over which the railways run is collectively called rail tracks. The tracks consists a structure in which two continuous & parallel rail tracks, to provide the transportation of the railway coaches. They are located on a bed of crushed rocks or ballast. For the continuous movement of the railways, there are many pairs of track for the movement in every direction.
The railway tracks are supported on the rectangular piece which is called sleepers or ties. These sleepers are also maintaining a proper distance in between the two rails which are parallel.
When the rail lines are constructed then the angle is the inclination of tracks is the major point of construction. The angle of inclination helps the railways for the proper movement at high speed without any dislocation of tires (Mundrey, 2009).
The girder is launched in between the two piers of the bridge. The moulded or pre-casted viaduct segments are lifted up by using the heavy cranes because the each segment of the viaduct is a ton of weight. By using a trolley system these segments are transferred to their final position. The construction of viaduct is performed in the both direction of the piers to achieve the balancing of the bridge.
After the placing of the viaduct, high strength epoxy glue is then applied to the segments joints. This glue is protecting the joints of the viaduct segments from the water (Gautrain, 2009).
On the behalf of the above term the PIB, project manager investigate the project commodities for progress control whilst the railway is constructed on time or not, if the construction is not going on the set goal of time then project manager have to take some important decision to speed up the construction.
Aerial drones or UAV’s to assess construction progress over the route of the railway make the supervision very easy. By using the aerial drone or UAV’s one can capture the high-resolution images at the different parts or site of the construction. The main benefits of using aerial drones are, they are light in weight, higher in performance, efficient than a manpower. They capture the images of particular construction area from high as well as low altitude.
The main UAV used in the inspection of the railway construction is AscTec Falcon 8 that basically consist 3 parts i.e.
1.Remote control: This component is used to provide the signals from the point where the pilot is located to the point of inspection. The RC help in the survey by decreasing the human effort by checking the miles longs railway tracks.
2.Flight control software:This component is used for balancing of the drone in all three axes. This software will help the drone in self-balancing so that the effort of the pilot in balancing will decrease and also help the survey site on high altitude which is located at lofty hills.
3.Camera: This provides the high-resolution images of the railway tracks inspection to the survey room. Due to the use of the camera, a shorted details of the construction is provided to the inspector whit out any field inspection.
By use ofthe UAV’s the experimental result we get are very accurate and they clearly elaborate each and everything about the construction site by the high-resolution image that will help in the management of the construction process, time of construction at very low cost and in relevant interval of time (Trung, Huu, Van, & Minh, 2017).
Basic management that is done over the railway construction site by aerial drones
1.Progress Monitoring:The survey inspector can make daily or weekly progress monitoring over the construction site with the help of the films captured over the entire job site of construction. This monitoring makes the calculation very easy of calculating the distance, different perimeter, and volume of the raw material used in railway construction.
2.Asset Management: This management plots the different basic requirement that includes aggregates, raw materials, construction equipment’s, transporting roads location on the construction map (Kespry, 2017).
Usage of the UAV’s equipment for aiding the tracking of the construction progress over the route of the railway
1.Easier: Inspection of the railway track installation is very difficult to do because the railway track is horizontal long structure up to miles of kilometres the visual inspection that consists personnel walking along the track is not possible. Many railway tracks are located at the lofty hills so, at multiple times important information gets out of reach from the survey. To get the high-quality check and to generate a quality report of the railway track the aerial drones are used.
2.Faster: By using the UAV’s work become easier and can be achieved very easily. The aerial inspection by drone can highlight the coverage area. Construction speed can be controlled on the predefined flight path by manual control of the pilot. By using the aerial drones, a survey about the construction site is done. By doing so one can track whether the construction is diverting or not from the design which is assigned.
3.Cost Effective: The manual inspection may take time in days or in weeks for inspection and the large numbers of workers can engage in this inspection which makes the loss of money as well as time, so the aerial inspection is done for the cost point of view.
4.Safer:Inspection of the railway tracks with a drone instead of the manual inspection is much safer, in the case of the track which is located at the lofty height may have uncertainty with the life of worker which is on the manual inspection. There is not such a problem with aerial drones (Sky, 2015).
Long Lead Items
Long Lead item is referred to those components or the part of a machine which require the longest time in design, forge and production. It is also needed in order to meet the earliest date of completion.
Generally, the long lead items are common in the large industries like oil & gas because of the complexity in their supply chain. The long lead items generally depend upon the end users because end users redistribute the equipment, products, and system to the contractors. When the end user is on the final implementation it expects that the contractor will execute that equipment, products as fast as possible.
During the design of a machine, the design department prepares the layout of the materials, products, or equipment where problems may be generated. The purchasing department should review the design and make a list of the products that are considered as long lead items. The execution departments review the list and recommend purchasing those items. When these items are purchased then they are sending for the approval of subcontractor and then subcontractor is responsible for the installation of those items (Urban Construction, 2017).
The company should undergo the understanding with Quality, Quality control, and Quality Assurance.
1.Quality: Quality can be notified as all the feature and quality of the product or services that have an ability to satisfy the customer requirement.
2.Quality Assurance: The manufacturer has planned and systematic actions including verification and also have confidence that the product and service will be according to the design requirement and the quality has been achieved.
3.Quality Control: The parameters that regulate that the produced item is according to the design requirement (NSW Procurepoint, n.d.).
Special requirement that are required by the OEM on the project quality planning
1.The project team will be established within proper time and with proper skills.
2.The people who are working on the project have technical and skill capabilities.
3.The use of external organization will also be taken to complete the project or service.
4.It is also being confirmed that the external organization is helping on the project will have a proper quality control and will go the specific quality capabilities.
5. There must be a cell which performs an induction and tanning to ensure that everyone who is involved in the project will aware of the project specific quality system.
6.The communications between the persons who are involved in the project will aware have the changes that may do in the project.
7.The site of project, equipment, instruments and documents should be on their projected mark.
Procedures to deliver the items to site on time by the OEM
1.Identify Job Quality Objectives:In this, the OEM will study the client expectation and need.
2.Document Procedure: In this step, all the requirement that are involved in the product will be specified that what, who, when, where, how, why the product is needed.
3.Acquire Resources: In this step, the OEM will search the requirements that are related to the product like HR, equipment’s, documents, materials.
4.Perform Work to Procedure:In this step, the investigation is done be the OEM about the status of the work done.
5.Verify Work Requirement:There is a team that tests the product that allows the product is in the customer requirement or not.
6.Client Acceptance: After the inspection by the team of the finished product the product is allowed to send the client.
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DefinedTerm. (2014). Linear Project. Defined Term. Retrieved 23 May 2017, from https://definedterm.com/linear_project
Gautrain. (2009). CONSTRUCTION OF SEGMENTAL VIADUCTS. Gautrain. Retrieved 23 May 2017, from http://www.gautrain.co.za/construction/2009/03/construction-of-segmental-viaducts/
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Li, Q., Zhang, P., & Fu, Y. (2012). Risk Identification for the Construction Phases of the Large Bridge Based on WBS-RBS (1st ed.). Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. Retrieved from http://www.maxwellsci.com/print/rjaset/v6-1523-1530.pdf
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Trung, C., Huu, N., Van, T., & Minh, T. (2017). THE USE OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES IN MONITORING CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS OF HO CHI MINH CITY URBAN RAILWAY PROJECT (1st ed.). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273438823_THE_USE_OF_UNMANNED_AERIAL_VEHICLES_IN_MONITORING_CONSTRUCTION_PROGRESS_OF_HO_CHI_MINH_CITY_URBAN_RAILWAY_PROJECT
Urban Construction. (2017). Long Lead Items. Gristprojectmanagement. Retrieved 23 May 2017, from https://www.gristprojectmanagement.us/urban-construction/long-lead-items.html