Delivery in day(s): 4
Cross Cultural Management Proof Reading Services
Cross culture management assignment help communication is essential for organizations which have various workforces as well as participate in the world economy. It is also essential for the workers for understanding the aspects which are part of an efficient and assorted workforce. The feature of cross culture management is quite vital in the company’s strategically settings because of the developed business globalisation in the working atmosphere. Cross culture communication is actually culturally competent as a manger allows efficient management by identifying the range between employers along with their principles and values (Cross Culture, 2015). It has been confirmed that the nations culture which verifies a person has deep effect on their principles and values that automatically has an effect on how an individual associate to work.
Various companies in today’s twenty first century operate at international stage as well as leadership deals along with different cultural changes. Numerous researchers along with practitioners signifies the efficient leader of future is only flexible and at the same time competitive in order to move around boundaries and disciplines, during the exact time verifying cultural variations from a world viewpoint(Ivry, 2010). This paper conveys the cross cultural management between American cultures and Japanese cultures along with their theoretical implications till their working atmosphere are considered.
Cross- Cultural Concepts of American Cultures and Japanese Cultures
Cross- culture communications has now become quite essential aspect for the organizations because of the development of worldwide business, industries, markets, technologies as well as the internet Appropriately identifying cross- culture concept is necessary for every firm that has a varieties of workforce as well as strategies in order to conduct world business. This kind of communication contains an understanding of how individuals from different nations and cultures communicate, perceive and speak the world surrounds them(Ivry, 2010). Cross cultural communication is actually an organizational deal along with the understanding of varieties of different beliefs, customs as well as marketing communication strategies.
The Japanese culture is a multi- layered system which has been growing into itself as well as forming new layers for hundreds of years, whereas, America is actually a country of colonists which resulted as a cultural mish- mash in almost every sense of the word. But both Japanese and American cultures reveal a huge level of societal variations along with Japan consuming an same middle class, homogenous society, whereas America have range of ethnic groups in income(Flowers, 2016). The American culture can be categorized along with the distinctive aspects of consuming different subcultures which presents into the huge culture of the surroundings. Whereas Japan’s subcultures are different as well as negligible as they are not varied and it found in the United States of America. Japan’s subcultures stand out as gatherings that relates to religion, age, ethic, gender, geographical region as well as remarkably in relation to potentiality as a human. In almost every culture, different aspects are quite same along with the macro-culture with various Americans aligned with various subcultures. Unlike America, Japan is not a country where the people can meet colonists creating the subcultures to be developed, thus homogeneous(Flowers, 2016). There is a negligible racial and ethnic diversification in presence in Japan. The religious association of many Japanese is quite unique along with many of them being supporters of Shinto or Buddhism that are the former as well as ancient state religion in Japan(Nepelski& De Prato, 2012). In relation to racial variants, among the over 120 million people staying in Japan, whereas only 1% are able to found to be culturally aligned with Japan.
Americans are same in utilizing logical reasoning during trusting on matters collected, examining the facts in analytical, logical as well as scientific way. In comparison, the Japanese are much within instinctive reasoning along with their idea or thinking style being through reflective self- analysis. In America, their cultural idea is knotted to the importance of the accomplishment of a person as contrast to the verification of a group as well as the phenomenon is announced early in the life of a people at childhood (Gillman, 2010). This allows an individual to develop formed along with a mindset which targets at performing their best into the societal setting. The strategy in America is for teaching people to be responsible by facility of excellent choice, hence providing the chance to the people to varyingly succeed. Another aspect which is similar with American culture is charity and people are refers to conduct huge inclination to help their time as well as resources for the numerous political activities, charitable as well as civic reasons(Nepelski& De Prato, 2012). The noticeable sense of person efficiency, responsibility as well as confidence has hugely risen an unusually alignment to life in the nation.
On the other hand, Japanese culture reflects on the domestic system as well as expanded family transferring concentrate from group membership at the same time volunteerism. Almost, Japanese do not take participation in volunteerism like American culture(Anand, 2013). Instead of standardization as well as modernization of Japan from World War II, the national culture of Japanese’s life style is quite different in contrast to America, even house wife is concerned rather depreciating for a career woman, in comparison to Japan, women signifies achievement with performance as well as few referring it as the unique lifestyle of a women. With increased gender equity as well as the declining performance between couple because of low birth rates, women are becoming much career oriented in Japan instead of viewing the full time house jobs as an unique lifestyle("United States", 2011). Along with excellent and maximum percentage of women within support of women’s place is in the house contrast to the America, transgender separation had been widespread in the Japanese twentieth century workplace.
Evaluation of Japanese and American Cultures
By evaluating the national cultures of the two countries, one of the signified aspects of the American culture contains full concentration on the individualism as well as independence. The qualities of family knotted well fixed in the culture of America which cannot be referred as powerful as the Japanese ones. As per example, an American kid becomes much independent once reach at 18 years age and the parents rarely interfere in their life, whereas is not allowed in Japan where inter communication within the family is quite common and are usually lives in same house and hence quite close to each other with family as well as relation is being maintained in tight-knot way(Anand, 2013). There is also exists a social understanding which the youth generations will provide for their elders such as their parents looks after them in their childhood. This forms the elderly to rarely depend on gratuity or forcing one to reserve for retirement throughout their prime age. Whereas, the American culture shows that the elders are mainly dependent on their pensions as well as retirement advantages with the youth generation have no responsibility to provide for their elder like in Japan (Stephens &Vasunia, 2010). This has concluded to enhance existence of the houses for the elders to provide for the older generations into an institution with social employers as well as healthcare professional in order to look after them with relatives’ that only stays for visiting.
Observing the culture of speech in America, one core beliefs of its culture is attached in the freedom of speech as well as the common right to question to government allowing the law. This promotes authorization as well as transparency allows individuals within the surroundings which have a performance in shaping the features of authority as well as law for safeguard their basic fundamentals rights and laws(Amaram, 2011). Whereas the Japanese culture is almost ranked along with elders and they commands great respect as well as their wisdom into the family of community set up this is highly valued. An excellent comparison in relation to communication is actually about addressing to someone in authority; in America talking to someone while ignoring eye contact is apparent to portray negative values, on the other hand the same in japan is referred as disrespectful. With relation to the performance of nationalism, in Japan, people are very patriotic, but still tend to ignore politics like the Americans. But yet Japanese have an excellent sense of pride to their peaceful.
By analyzing the work relations as well as the attributes of punctuality and discipline to perform, Japanese shows a remarkable work ethic. Many individual in japan are hardworking, quite punctual to work as well as self- driven (Winther-Tamaki & Yoshida, 2016). Observing at the transportation segment, the trains are quite punctual at the same time the passengers forms their trips as routine. But, in the event of disaster such as the triple disaster, chaos and looting rarely occurs as well as the people are almost in calm mind, even line up effectively for receiving their food supplies during the same time be helping each other out. These cultures in relation to discipline as well as punctuality can be contrast to American culture, Japanese culture set up to stand out brilliantly compare to the American culture (Hosokawa, 2015). With enhanced standardization, America views to become much globalized and modernized on the other hand Japanese culture views to maintain its principle and values in the existence of enhanced industrialization and globalization. The Japanese national culture seems unbelievably unaffected to external encouragement, Japanese national principles, attributes and values are similarly rooted in the new fashionable lifestyle as well as way of associating with the society and organization context.
Theoretical frameworks related to Cultural Dimensions
The cultural patterns that are utilized at work portray cultural patterns in the wider society. The managers of multinational companies share the culture of their society and of their organization with their respective team members. For Illustration, the techniques and training for the project managers have been developed almost exclusively in various countries. In USA, the cultural assumptions are based on the collectivist cultures(McMahon, 2011). Though at the time of managing the international projects, the involved partners of the assignments had to bear in mind that discussing the performance or ability as he or she will likely to clash with the harmony of the organization. For understanding the national cultural differences was encouraged by both countries, namely, Japan and USA after the completion of Second World War(Cross Culture, 2015). The critical examination and understanding of the cultural differences of nations brings effective comprehension on how the managers work for the completion of any international project and how it has its influences on the employees that come from diverse cultural backgrounds. The cultural backgrounds of both the countries show and indicate different collection of social responsibility. In one hand the Japanese culture represents a properly homogenous and middle-class society and on the other hand the cultures of America are one that portrays an increasingly changing ethnic mixture and income dissimilarity. The cultural diversity of Japan is incredible and has very rich heritage. The people of the respective country are very organized and are from traditional society(McMahon, 2011). They place great importance on the values like loyalty, responsibility, and team work. Other important trait of human’s life such as hard work; patience and determination regarding the work are always paid huge importance.
During the last decade, the conception of a successful management system has been changed significantly with the time. From the most recognized as successful management system known worldwide, the Japanese and American Management system is emerged as the most successful international management system in 20th century. The management system of Japanese have had achieved huge success and was widely recognized in the 70s and 90s period, when the industrial age was at its peak(McMahon, 2011). Not only companies of America but almost most of the international successful companieshad examined and analyzed and tried to imitate the Japanese management system. But, up to the last decade the economy of Japan had come in recession and many of the international company of the country had lost their reputation and competitiveness("United States", 2011). The management system and thinking of peoples of Japan are different from the sense of self of America’s. The people of Japan build an identity that encourages and develops friendships, coworkers and always like to share feelings and try together to improve on weakness. Different from the thinking of Japanese, the employees and workers of America are mostly prefers the part of individualist. They are in the favor to work independently and always tries to be self-sufficient as much as possible. It can be seen that while the Japanese employees are sitting altogether and singing the organization’s traditional song, the people of America’s view it as an action of cultural tribe(Rozkwitalska, 2012). The Japanese culture is portrayed by the tendency that leads to over-stereotyping of cultures with the focus on extreme differences instead of agreements. The culture of America is diverse and hence the managers of multinational companies of the country have found it important to hold the cultural diversity and encourage and develop the efficiency within the work environment. Hence, in the presence of differences between the cultural interplay of these two nations, there have been ups and downs with respect to the attribute in consideration. The need to examine and acknowledge the theoretical models touching the cultural diversity is required and Hofstede model is the perfect model to portray and to show the aspect of culture and its values.
Hofstede cultural Dimensions
The most appropriate way to study and to identify the organizational behavior across the cultures is the study of Hofstede framework of cultural dimensions. Prof. Geert Hofstedeled the most comprehensive way to acknowledge how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. Prof.Hofstedeanalyzed and developed a model that identifies the major dimensions to assist the different cultures in a workplace. He proposed five cultural dimensions in his study and these dimensions generalized the framework showing the most evident and prominent facts of cultural relativity. The dimensions mentioned by Hofstede illustrate the effect of a society or business culture on the values of its members and also examines how these values has connection with the behavior. He on his survey conducted research on more than 55 countries and analyzed that there are systematic differences in the various cultures based on the major five key dimensions of culture(Rozkwitalska, 2012). According to him, the national culture involves a set of collective beliefs can be identify and distinguish individuals and groups from various nationalities. Form this it can be identified that the cultural aspects of the workplace stand out among the workers and thus serving as a critical point for the reference of that workplace(Rozkwitalska, 2012). The five cultural dimensions mentioned by Hofstede includes; power distance, individual collectivities, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and long term versus short term orientation.
Power distance involves the way society directly addresses to the issue of inequalities among the people whenever they occur. This dimension describes the level up to which the less positioning members of the organization come into acceptance and expect the power to be distributed unequally. The culture of America has been vibrant and dynamic with respect to addressing the biasness among the gender, race and ethnic groups(Gillman, 2010). The gender equality looks to get proper empowerment and ensure that both the gender at their early age gets equal opportunity to reach their goals and dreams and to get ahead in life.
The second cultural dimension, individualism is the degree to which the individuals are integrated into a group. On the individualist side, we find the societies where the connection between the individuals is loose and everyone is expected to look out themselves in their own way. On the other hand, collectivism there issocieties in which the people from their birth are integrated into a strong relation of team members(Rozkwitalska, 2012).This dimension gives a yardstick about the measurement up to which the cultural values are essential for the achievements of individuals in comparison to the group’s achievement. Every member in a group holds qualities and skills that benefit them to perform efficiently and effectively within the context of the organization. Furthermore, the contribution given by the team members brings the successin the collective manner to the organization or to the society.
The third cultural dimension, namely, the uncertainty avoidance deals with the society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity and ultimately refers to the man’s search of truth. This dimension indicates to what extent a culture can programs its members to feel in both ways, namely, in comfortable or uncomfortable conditionand situations. It reflects unto what extent people within a social and cultural workplace feels threatened by the improbability, hence trying to evade the situations merged with uncertainties by providing inevitability and obviousness(Gillman, 2010). In the American and Japanese cultures, both of them has been modernized to become world economic giants and to become the world’s best management system.
Masculinity vs. Femininity
The fourth dimension mentioned by Hofstede is includes the masculinity versus femininity that is basically the performance that is driven by the culture. In masculinity culture, individuals are expected to be ambitious, competitive, and assertive and are always willing to take risks to meet the desired goals. This aspect can be clearly observed in the culture of Japan and America where many great innovations had taken place. The aspect of femininity can be clearly outlined in the cultural values of Japan as the culture of the country majorly connects the quality of life with the teaching values at the early stage of schooling. The country has the more femininity as it gives the same opportunity and caring values to women as compared to men. On the other hand, the culture in America has high masculinity factors as they seek men as most assertive and competitive asset for the organization(Lustig& Koester, 2010). This is usually because it is understood from the business point of view that men in comparison to women have more competency and skills to give more effective results.Both the countries makes the human resource policies is the most effective and efficient manner.
Long-term Orientation vs. Short-term Orientation
Long- term orientation is when people are concentrate on the future, when the individuals are demanding to delay short term material or short term emotional satisfactions for preparing the future. If an individual has this culture perspective then they value determination, saving and being potential to adapt. This culture refers to the degree that individuals require to describe and clarify the incomprehensible as well as is strongly associates to nationalism.
Short term orientation is when the people concentrate on the past or present and at the same time consider them much important that the future, if an individual have a short term orientation and values traditional as well as recent social ranks and accomplishing their social responsibilities. People care much regarding sudden satisfaction than long term achievement(Lustig& Koester, 2010). The concept of long-term orientation and short term orientation conveys the various distinct cultures view time as well as the importance of the present, future and past.
It has been found from the above study that cross-culture communication is essential for organizations which have various workforces as well as to participate in the world economy. It is also essential for the workers for understanding the aspects which are part of an efficient and assorted workforce. The feature of cross culture management is quite vital in the company’s strategically settings because of the developed globalization in the working atmosphere. It has also been analyses from the above discourse that cross culture communication is actually culturally competent as a manger allows efficient management by identifying the range between employers along with their principles and values. It has been identified that cultural diversity is a very critical aspect in twenty-first century with respect to ensure the effective management practices. The cultural differences between Japan and USA vary significantly but also have various similarities as described in the essay. It has been found in the study that the Japanese culture is homogenous and relatively slow to the external changes. On the other hand, the cultural diversity of USA is diverse and is still changing with increased modernization and immigration.
In this discourse, it is a point to note that with respect to cross-cultural management also includes the understanding of various cultural diversified individuals that needs to be eventually promotes performance in the workplace. In order to raise the cross-cultural awareness, importance should be given to multicultural professional development programs and awareness should be given to build in-service programs. Multi-cultural awareness can be raised by well preparation of the induction programs that incorporates training for cultural awareness. The managers of different international organizations must holds certain knowledge regarding the cross-cultural system and must be aware about the potential cultural differences of his or her team members. Hence, cross cultural training and management of diverse culture raisemulticulturalawareness among the people.
Amaram, D. (2011). Cultural Diversity: Implications For Workplace Management. JDM, 2(4), 1.http://dx.doi.org/10.19030/jdm.v2i4.5017
Anand, R. (2013). Internationalisation of the small and medium family firm in Japan.International Journal Of Business And Globalisation, 11(2), 117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/ijbg.2013.055598 Cross Culture. (2015).
Flowers, P. (2016). Resilient Borders and Cultural Diversity: Internationalism, Brand Nationalism, and Multiculturalism in Japan by Koichi Iwabuchi. The Journal Of Japanese Studies, 42(2), 350-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jjs.2016.0037
Gillman, D. (2010). The idea of cultural heritage. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hosokawa, N. (2015). Nationalism and Linguistic Purism in Contemporary Japan: National Sentiment Expressed through Public Attitudes towards Foreignisms. Stud Ethn Nation, 15(1), 48-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sena.12135
Ivry, T. (2010). Embodying culture. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.