Construction Project Management Processes Editing Services
Evaluation of the logistical problems of the project
There are several factors that pose logistical problems to this project. Some of these factors are location of the site, different stakeholders involved in the project and the type (size and shape) of wind turbine components that have to be transported from the fabricator or company depot to the site. Logistics is an essential element of supply chain management in the construction industry[ CITATION Yin14 \l 1033 ]. It entails flow of human resources, including materials, finance, information and services between the contractor and other stakeholders. Logistical problems have significant impact on project delivery because they affect movement of resources from one stakeholder to another[ CITATION Jan18 \l 1033 ];[ CITATION Yin15 \l 1033 ]. The logistical problems evaluated in this report include weather factors, environmental, sustainability, socio-cultural and risk assessment. Some of the logistical problems that may affect this project include the following:
From the rainfall data provided in Table 1 below, the region receives some rainfall every month. The project is scheduled to be undertaken from August 2018 to December 2018 when rainfall in the area is mostly above average. This weather conditions may affect transportation of materials from the depot in Coopers Plains to the site in North Stradbroke Island and also ongoing construction activities on site. This problem can be resolved by planning to transport the materials during hours when it is less likely to rain, covering the materials properly so that they are not damaged when rained on and also ensuring that workers wear appropriate personnel protective equipment that protects them from rain.
Table 1: Rainfall Data
Months Average days that rainfall > 2.0mm
Average monthly rainfall (mm)
Construction activities may be affected by disagreement or misunderstanding of various stakeholders involved on the best methods to use for minimizing waste, recycling and reusing waste, disposing waste, reducing air, noise, vibration and water pollution, etc. The materials and methods of construction will also be selected by considering their environmental impacts. There are natural flora and fauna, and a state owned park in the region that have to be monitored strictly to avoid destruction. This problem will be overcome by developing and adopting a comprehensive environmental plan that is aimed at minimizing the impacts of the project on the environment.
Source of materials
Construction of the access road may require sourcing materials locally to minimize transportation delays, pollution and costs. The site is located on an island and some materials may not be available. As such, the company will be forced either to buy materials from nearby sources at high prices or order them from far and experience possible transportation problems.
These factors include variables such as language, attitude of local communities, educational levels, lifestyles, values and norms, etc. Construction projects involve stakeholder with varied levels of knowledge and skills. Some of the stakeholders such as interest groups, local community and the general public may not have any technical knowledge about the problem and therefore it takes time to explain to them about some technical elements of the project. One strategy of resolving these problems is ensuring that project managers and supervisors develop and adopt appropriate management and leadership styles[ CITATION Eng09 \l 1033 ]. This will help in ensuring that all stakeholders are handled based on their “special” needs so as to avoid or minimize conflicts and disputes.
This is a logistical problem that cannot be avoided. The materials will mainly be transported on city roads and ferry where the likelihood of traffic congestion is high due to the large urban population[ CITATION Rad17 \l 1033 ]. Considering the weight and dimensions of the wind turbine components, traffic may be diverted thus affecting road users and this may cause opposition to the project. However, the problem can be overcome by collaborating with relevant government agencies to organize for traffic diversion or road closure.
Opposition from residents or road users in the region
Activities related to this project may be a nuisance to local communities. This includes traffic congestion caused in the region, air pollution, high noise levels, dust, etc.[ CITATION Aya14 \l 1033 ]. These problems can be overcome by ensuring adequate consultation and collaboration between the company and all other stakeholders, including the communities and the general public[ CITATION Sam14 \l 1033 ].
The project has to be sustainable as much as possible. This may be a problem as other stakeholders may not understand the need for sustainability measures to be proposed and how to adopt them. The problem can be overcome through extensive discussions and sharing of information on the benefits of sustainability and easy ways of achieving it, such as improving efficiency of resources, minimizing waste, use of renewable resources, etc.[ CITATION Der181 \l 1033 ]; [ CITATION Rid172 \l 1033 ].
Inadequate or delayed payment by the client may also affect the project because the contractor will not have the necessary financial resources to hire equipment and pay her workers, suppliers and consultants[ CITATION Sel161 \l 1033 ]. This problem can be resolved by ensuring that the project is financially viable and developing a payment schedule that is agreed upon by the contractor and client before the start of actual construction works[ CITATION Aka15 \l 1033 ].
The project is also susceptible to a wide range of risk factors including, but not limited to, safety risks, environmental risks, political risks, legal risks, financial risks[ CITATION AlK17 \l 1033 ], technical risks and technology risks, among others[ CITATION Jay161 \l 1033 ]. The company will evaluate all these risks and develop appropriate management strategies including avoiding, mitigating, sharing or transferring them[ CITATION Jon171 \l 1033 ]; [ CITATION Odi13 \l 1033 ]. All construction projects are susceptible to risks but the best way o to minimize their impacts on project delivery is to identify, evaluate and manage them properly.
Description and assessment of the transportation and delivery process
The company’s depot is in Coopers Plains, which is a southern suburb of Brisbane located approximately 11 km from Brisbane CBD. This is where most of the construction equipment, materials and wind turbine components are stored. These materials, equipment and wind turbine components will have to be transported to the site in North Stradbroke Island. The island is about 30 km from Brisbane CBD. The distance from Coopers Plains to North Stradbroke Island is about 51 km. These materials, equipment and components will be transported from the depot to the site using a combination of several transportation modes including train, buses, trucks and ferry. But since the company can hire trucks and other vehicles to transport all the materials, equipment and components needed for the project, they will be delivered to the site using trucks and ferry. The designated route for the delivery of materials, equipment and components to the site is described here. After packing and loading all the materials, equipment and wind turbine components onto trucks, they will depart from the depot at Coopers Plains along Orange Grove Road towards Rookwood Avenue.
After travelling for about 1.1 km and crossing Riawena Road, they will turn right to join Kessels Road. They will move along Kessels Road for a distance of about 8.2 km after which the name of the road changes to Mount Gravatt Capalaba Road. They will travel along this road for about 7.7 km and then turn right to join Moreton Bay Road. They will travel along Moreton Bay Road to join Finucane Road at the roundabout where Moreton Bay Road, Finucane Road, Old Cleveland Road Old Cleveland Road E meets. They will move along Finucane Road until reaching the intersection with Wellington Street then move straight onto Shore Street W. They will move along this road until reaching the roundabout where they will take 3rd exit onto Passage Street. They will move along this street until reaching the roundabout where they will take 1st exit to join Middle Street. They will travel along the street and turn right onto Emmett Drive until reaching North Stradbroke Island Ferry. At the Toondah Harbour, the trucks will board one of the vehicle ferries provided by Stradbroke Ferries. Figure 1 below is an example of a vehicle ferry at Toondah Harbour
Figure 1: Vehicle ferry at Toondah Harbour[ CITATION Vis18 \l 1033 ]
On arrival, the ferry will dock at Dunwich Ferry Terminal. The trucks will disembark from the vehicle ferry and take the main access road (sealed). They will move along the road until reaching the roundabout where they will exit at 2nd exit to join East Coast Road. They will travel along this road that will change name to Logan Cres. They will then turn right to join Ballow Road. They will continue on this road and turn right to join Sewage Line Trak. They will travel along Sewage Line Trak until reaching near the site where they will leave the main access road and join the access track (unsealed) that is to be graveled by the company. They will travel along the graveled road to reach the site.
The designated route obtained from Google Maps is provided in Figure 2 below:
Figure 2: Designated travel route
The type of trucks and weight loaded will be chosen by considering the weight restrictions of roads in the region and also obstacles along the road like roundabouts. These factors restrict load length and vehicle tonnage[ CITATION The7a \l 1033 ]. The time of transportation and the lanes to use will also be considered to avoid violation of state rules[ CITATION The7b \l 1033 ]. Since the steel towers are very long and heavy (their weight and dimensions details are provided in Table 2 below), their transportation from the fabricator to the site will require the company to obtain permit from relevant state and local authorities. If necessary, the company will organize with relevant authorities for traffic routing and road closure during transportation of the wind turbine components by road. The ferries are big enough and therefore there will be no requirement for special arrangement for transportation of the components by the ferry.
Table 2: Weight and dimensions details of wind turbine component
Top steel tower section
Length 8 m
Tapers 1 m dia to 1.5m dia
Bottom steel tower section
Tapers 1.5m dia to 2m dia
3.5 m length and 2m max dia
6.5m length and 1.2m max da
Selection of construction equipment and construction of graveled road construction
Equipment for construction work
Some of the main machines and/or equipment to be used for the road construction work are provided in Table 3 below
Table 3: Construction equipment and machines
25t crawler excavator
It will be used for excavating and breaking rocks and earth, moving or lifting them and loading them to dampers[ CITATION Mah16 \l 1033 ].
It will be used for scooping debris or any surplus materials and transporting them to the dump trucks or the desired location.
It will be used for leveling the road surface and creating a flat surface where gravel is laid and leveled properly (for grading the road).
It will be used for compacting road materials, such as fill (soil) and gravel after they have been laid down[ CITATION Thu18 \l 1033 ]. The type of road roller to be used is smooth-drum vibratory soil compactor.
It will be used for lifting heavy materials, equipment and components to the desired location on site.
it will be used for mixing soil and a binding agent for the access gravel road
12t tipper truck
It will be used for transporting gravel from different sources to the site
26t prime mover
It will be used to deliver wind turbine components from the fabricator to the site
25t and 100t mobile crane
It will be used for hoisting the steel tower sections
It will be used to provide power for the site
It will be used together with the road roller for spreading water on the road base before it is compacted
Gravelled Road Construction
Surveying of the access road has been done and therefore the site and use of the road have already been assessed. The proposed road is a gravel access road that will be used to access the site from the main road. The road will be flexible pavement complete with a gravel surface. The reasons for choosing flexible pavement have been influenced by the nature of the soil and environment in the area and the type of load that will be applied during transportation of construction equipment and materials and the wind turbine components to the site. Just like a typical flexible pavement, the proposed gravel access road will comprise of multiple layers. These include subsoil layer, base course, surface course and surface dressing. Since the subsoil is sandy, as shown in Figure 3 below, the subgrade will have a CBR (California Bearing Ratio) ranging between 5 and 15. There is also no indication of water table present in the area and the whole site contains sandy soils hence no need for installation of complex drainage systems during road construction. Simple drainage health systems such as culverts will be enough. The length of the road is 2.4 km. This being an average service road, it will have a width of 3.4 m and a shoulder of 2.0 m.
Figure 3: Bore log for North Stradbroke Island
The calculations of cut and fill for the access gravel road are provided in Table 4 below.
Table 4: Cut and fill volumes for the gravelled access road
Fill inclusive of 10% bulking factor (m3)
Cumulative volume (m3)