Community Development Plan Oz Assignments

Community Development Plan Oz Assignments

Community Development Plan Oz Assignments

Definition of assigned chronic disease condition:

Morbid obesity can be defined as the serious health condition that can interfere with the different physical functions like breathing as well as walking. Individuals who are found be morbidly obese remain at the greater risk management for illness like that of diabetes, high blood pressure , sleep apnea, gastroesophagal reflux like GERD, gallstones, osteoarthritis, cancer as well as heart disorders.

Morbid obesity can be diagnosed by the determination of Body Mass index. BMI can be defined as the ratio of the individual’s height to the weight. Normal BMI of the individuals is mainly seen to range from 20 to 25. When the individuals are seen to have BMI over 25 to 30, the individuals would be overweight and when beyond 30, the individual would be considered obese (Leslie et al. 2015). When the individuals are above BMI 35, they are considered to be suffering from morbid obesity. Morbid obesity is considered a medical condition where patients are seen to have excess amount of body fat and a body mass index of above 35.

Obesity not only acts as the risk factors for other chronic disorder but also affects the mental and emotional health and well-being as well. Obese individuals are seen to suffer from depression, anxiety as well as social exclusion. Suicides are also seen to be positively correlated with such disorder. Therefore, obesity has become the sole factor of the occurrences of many chronic disorders along with poor mental health conditions and self-harm tendencies. Often people suffering from co-morbid disorders are seen to live poor quality life and their sufferings increase day by day (Lubans et al. 2016). Hence, obesity has become one of the most important health concerns in the nation as it has become one of the greatest contributors to diseases burden in the nation. Therefore, preventative strategies need to be adopted by every community to ensure that the community members are safe from the risks of the disorder and lead better quality lives.

Background information and need for the project:

With the increasing disease burden of obesity in the nation of Australia, it had become a health concern and needs to be handled with urgency. Obesity is increasing the disease burden in the nation by various ways. People who are seen to suffer from obesity are often seen to become resistant to insulin action, which is important for maintenance of the sugar level in the blood. Therefore, they are seen to have high blood sugar and this increases the risk for developing Type-2 diabetes. Moreover, obesity is also seen to increase the blood pressure of affected individuals. Hypertension thereby occurs in the patients that in turn leads to development of severe situations where patients get affected by strokes and damages their heart and kidney (Bolton et al. 2017). Another important chronic disorder that obesity often results in affected individuals is osteoarthritis of the weight bearing joints. Additional weights are seen to be placed on the joints especially on the knees and the hips that cause rapid wearing and tearing of the joints along with pain and inflammation. Decreased mobility is also seen to be associated as it also contributes to the disk proems, and pain.

Excessive weight gain in the tongue and neck can result in blocking of the air passages for people who sleep on their backs. This makes them lose their sleep and make them suffer from sleep apnea and respiratory issues. Gastroesophagal reflux disease is also seen to occur with hiatel hernia and heartburn (Maatuog et al. 2015). Excess gaining of the weight causes overloading and weakening of the valve present at the top of the stomach allowing stomach acid to ensure the esophagus. This situation is called the gastroesophagal reflux and heartburn and acid indigestion is seen to occur. Depression is also seen to occur as people who suffer who are seen to be obese need to deal with constant as well as depressing emotional challenges. Failed diets, disapproval from families and friends, remarks from strangers are seen to be some of the contributing factors for developing depression (Lobstein et al. 2015). Infertility is also seen to occur as obesity disrupts the normal actions and functioning of the male and female hormones resulting in difficulty or inability to conceive. Urinary stress incontinence also results. When abdomen is seen to become large and heavy, it causes relaxation of the pelvic muscles along with compounding of the effects of the childbirth. This causes weakening of the valves of the urinary bladder causing leakage of urine when coughed sneezed or laughed.

This above mentioned health issues can reflect the need of the project that would help in preventing the occurrence of the disorder. Researchers are of the opinion that illnesses associated with obesity have significant impact on the Australian economy. Reports state that direct financial costs to the healthcare system include higher healthcare cost along with higher demands of the healthcare services. Such healthcare services are seen to include general practitioners, allied healthcare professionals, specialists, pharmaceuticals, administrations and other healthcare direct costs (Lacy et al. 2015). The different types of the indirect costs are seen to include productivity losses, carer costs, welfare payments and forgone taxations revenues. The different other costs associated with the disease burden are healthcare aids, equipment transports, accommodations, respites and other governmental programs. Huge amount of expenditure of healthcare resources on treatments and surgeries are also high. Therefore, in order to reduce the diseases burden and develop the GDP and quality of life of people in the nation, the project is important.

Statistics:

In the year 2014 to 2015, data obtained showed that two third of the Australians that accounts for about 63% of the population aged 18 years and over were found to be overweight or obese. En were seen to be having higher rates of obesity and overweight accounting to about 71% in comparison to that of women who accounted for about 56%. In the same year, studies have shown that 18% off the adults were classified as class 1 obese, 6% as class 2 obese and 3% as class 3 obese (Pettman et al. 2015). If the trends of obesity prevalence are analyzed closely, it can be seen that there is an increasing graph of the disorder in the nation. Prevalence f overweight and obesity was seen to be 57% in the year 1995 that increases in the year 20117-2008 to 61%. This increased to 655 in the year 2014-2015. Hence, it can be expected that the prevalence will tend to grow and unless proper interventions are applied, the situation will become more strenuous. About 1 in every 4 children in the nation in 2014-2015 accounting for about 27% of the children are food to be overweight and obese. The rate was 21% in 1995 but the present percentage in 2014-2015 is 25% among the children. Therefore, it is high time to look into the matter in a priority basis (Brownell and Walsh 2017).

Goals and objectives:

Long-term Impact or outcome:

1. Changing the health behaviors of the individuals towards safer and fitter lifestyles
2. Addressing the social determinants of health that lead to selection off poor choices of diet
3. Arrangement of health screening systems and primary healthcare services and evidence based care services from healthcare professionals.
4. Development of community based interventions making the community a safe place to live
5. Long-term outcome indicator:
6. Waist circumference of the individuals
7. Basal metabolic index of the individuals
8. Less reporting of obesity as risk factors for chronic disorders among patients
9. Buying of healthier foods and decreased buying of fast foods
10. More awareness among the community members and development of health literacy

Theory or Framework:

Health promotion can be described as the process of enabling people in way by which they can increase control over and thereby improve their health. The healthcare promoters and the concerned authorities would follow the Ottawa charter framework. Each of the domain of the healthcare needs and requirements of the affected individuals and the social determinants of health enhancing the disorder should be addressed with this disorder (Whelan et al. 2018).

Creating supportive environment:

This action area mainly ponders over the natural as well as the build in environments and includes the conservation of the natural resources. The project would initiate strategies by which the children in the schools communities should be taught about the importance of healthy weight and concept of obesity by including a specific chapter in their academics. The working environment of the organizations is very strenuous which forces individuals to adopt sedentary lifestyles. The organizations should be advised to include gymnasiums in their workplaces, lessen the work burden of the employees, and incorporate spot activities in the weekends and many others. The canteens in the schools and the offices should change their menus to healthy food options and should stop selling fast foods and others (Wang et al. 2018). Fields and parks should be developed in every community so that members can take physical exercises here. Moreover, health promotion programs should be arranged in the offices, schools and community halls in the communities where they can educate people and arrange for screening sessions. All these would help in development and creating a supportive environment that would promote health development towards a fitter life (Bleich et al. 2017).

Strengthening of the community action:

This action area would include the strategies for community development. It mainly draws on the existing human and material resources. This would help in the enhancement as well as social support and develop flexible systems for strengthening community participation. This would be only possible when the various kinds of social determinants of health would be addressed in such a way by the different improper health behaviors can be altered (Smith et al. 2014). The project would attend the social determinants of health and develop interventions to address them. Often the people who are unemployed, have low social income, belong to low socioeconomic classes cannot get access to high quality food; they buy cheap calorie dense foods that result in weight gain. Hence, interventions for making nutritious food available in the community markets should be ensured and this foods needs to be cheaper so that those cohorts can buy them. Low education is yet another determinant that leads to improper health behaviors like sedentary lifestyles, increased intake of calorie-dense foods and many others. Therefore, schools, colleges, employment centers and many others should conduct education and health promotion sessions to help them develop change their behaviors towards fitter lives.

Building of the health public policies:

This would be including health promotion policy, which will combine with diverse but complementary approaches. This would include legislation, fiscal matters, taxations and organization changes. The project would incorporate eminent policy makers who would develop the public policy on the disorder (Roberto et al. 2015). This will discuss the different important strategies that the various organizations like healthcare organizations schools, governmental and non-governmental sectors, and the legal system of the nation, the taxation departments and many others would come together and collaboratively develop interventions (Langford et al. 2015). Laws and regulations, tax and price interventions, Community-based interventions, health promotions and others are to be discussed in the health public policy.

Reorientation of the healthcare services:

This action area would be including development of the role of the health sector beyond the responsibility of the providing clinical as well as curative services. Reorientation of the health services would require stronger attention to health research as well as professional education and training. The healthcare professionals need to growth and develop screening programs in the community healthcare centers of the vulnerable individuals and accordingly educate them about the necessity of the change of their health behaviors. It is important for the project to allocate funds for the healthcare professionals to educate them about ways to develop health literacy of patients. More funds would be allocated for helping the professionals undertake more researches and come out with interventions that help in development of health of individuals (Daniels et al. 2015). Cognitive behavioral therapy, family centered care and other psychological therapies would be helpful in managing mental disorders arising from the disorder. Nurses need to be empathetic and compassionate for providing client based education.

Implementation plan with timeline:

1. Proper statistical analysis of the prevalence of obesity in the nation would be done
2. In-depth research of the impact of obesity on the mental, physical and emotional health of individuals and their economic impact on healthcare and GDP of the nation would be done and report would be prepared
3. Effective advocacy of the strategies developed and would be discussed with the other governmental and nongovernmental organizations who are included in the collaborate output (Kozica et al. 2016)
4. Resource allocation plan should be developed and accordingly resources would be disused ad distributed among the stakeholders for the initiation of the actions

Screening programs implementation, development of policy and publication, health promotion programs in the community, schools and offices, cognitive behavioral sessions, training of healthcare sectors, allocation of resources to all and many others would be implemented accordingly

The monitoring bodies would then carry on evaluation programs accordingly.

Timeline: (Prepared by author)

Gant chart: (Prepared by author)

References:

1. Bleich, S.N., Vercammen, K.A., Zatz, L.Y., Frelier, J.M., Ebbeling, C.B. and Peeters, A., 2017. Interventions to prevent global childhood overweight and obesity: a systematic review. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.
2. Bolton, K.A., Kremer, P., Gibbs, L., Waters, E., Swinburn, B. and de Silva, A., 2017. The outcomes of health-promoting communities: being active eating well initiative—a community-based obesity prevention intervention in Victoria, Australia. International Journal of Obesity41(7), p.1080.
3. Brownell, K.D. and Walsh, B.T. eds., 2017. Eating disorders and obesity: A comprehensive handbook. Guilford Publications.
4. Daniels, L.A., Mallan, K.M., Nicholson, J.M., Thorpe, K., Nambiar, S., Mauch, C.E. and Magarey, A., 2015. An early feeding practices intervention for obesity prevention. Pediatrics, pp.peds-2014.
5. Kozica, S.L., Teede, H.J., Harrison, C.L., Klein, R. and Lombard, C.B., 2016. Optimizing Implementation of Obesity Prevention Programs: A Qualitative Investigation Within a Large?Scale Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journal of Rural Health32(1), pp.72-81.
6. Lacy, K.E., Nichols, M.S., de Silva, A.M., Allender, S.E., Swinburn, B.A., Leslie, E.R., Jones, L.V. and Kremer, P.J., 2015. Critical design features for establishing a childhood obesity monitoring program in Australia. Australian journal of primary health21(4), pp.369-372.
7. Langford, R., Bonell, C., Jones, H. and Campbell, R., 2015. Obesity prevention and the Health promoting Schools framework: essential components and barriers to success. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity12(1), p.15.
8. Leslie, E., Magarey, A., Olds, T., Ratcliffe, J., Jones, M. and Cobiac, L., 2015. Community-based obesity prevention in Australia: background, methods and recruitment outcomes for the evaluation of the effectiveness of OPAL (Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle). Advances in Pediatric Research2(3), pp.1-16.
9. Lobstein, T., Jackson-Leach, R., Moodie, M.L., Hall, K.D., Gortmaker, S.L., Swinburn, B.A., James, W.P.T., Wang, Y. and McPherson, K., 2015. Child and adolescent obesity: part of a bigger picture. The Lancet385(9986), pp.2510-2520.
10. Lubans, D.R., Smith, J.J., Plotnikoff, R.C., Dally, K.A., Okely, A.D., Salmon, J. and Morgan, P.J., 2016. Assessing the sustained impact of a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent boys: the ATLAS cluster randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity13(1), p.92.
11. Maatoug, J., Msakni, Z., Zammit, N., Bhiri, S., Harrabi, I., Boughammoura, L., Slama, S., Larbi, C. and Ghannem, H., 2015. Peer Reviewed: School-Based Intervention as a Component of a Comprehensive Community Program for Overweight and Obesity Prevention, Sousse, Tunisia, 2009–2014. Preventing chronic disease12.
12. Pettman, T., Bolton, K., Love, P., Waters, E., Gill, T., Whelan, J., Boylan, S., Armstrong, R., Coveney, J., Booth, S. and Swinburn, B., 2015. A snapshot of the scope of obesity prevention practice in Australia. Nursing and Health promotion international31(3), pp.582-594.
13. Roberto, C.A., Swinburn, B., Hawkes, C., Huang, T.T., Costa, S.A., Ashe, M., Zwicker, L., Cawley, J.H. and Brownell, K.D., 2015. Patchy progress on obesity prevention: emerging examples, entrenched barriers, and new thinking. The Lancet385(9985), pp.2400-2409.
14. Smith, J.J., Morgan, P.J., Plotnikoff, R.C., Dally, K.A., Salmon, J., Okely, A.D., Finn, T.L. and Lubans, D.R., 2014. Smart-phone obesity prevention trial for adolescent boys in low-income communities: the ATLAS RCT. Pediatrics, pp.peds-2014.
15. Wang, Y., Cai, L., Wu, Y., Wilson, R.F., Weston, C., Fawole, O., Bleich, S.N., Cheskin, L.J., Showell, N.N., Lau, B.D. and Chiu, D.T., 2015. What childhood obesity prevention programmes work? A systematic review and meta?analysis. Obesity reviews16(7), pp.547-565.
16. Whelan, J., Love, P., Millar, L., Allender, S. and Bell, C., 2018. Sustaining obesity prevention in communities: a systematic narrative synthesis review. Obesity Reviews19(6), pp.839-851.