# COIT20261 Network Routing and Switching Proof Reading Service

## Question Number

Mark

allocated

Mark earned

### Question 1: (7 marks)

7

Routing table of router R1:

 Mask Network address Next-hop address Interface /21 46.255.0.0 110.63.0.3 Gig 0/0 /24 202.8.24.0 110.63.0.2 Gig 0/0 /22 203.9.43.0 110.63.0.2 Gig 0/0 /22 110.63.0.0 110.63.0.1 Gig 0/0 /22 178.64.134.0 178.64.134.1 Gig 0/1 /22 135.64.193.0 135.64.193.1 Gig 0/2

7

### Question 2: (6 marks)

6

a)

1.Given 10.0.0.0/8, 4 subnet needed.

2.Required bits (2n) = 2

3. 22= 4 network

6.Slash notation = /10

7.1st Network 10.0.0.0/10

8.2nd Network 10.64.0.0/10

9.3rd  Network 10.128.0.0/10

10.4th  Network 10.192.0.0/10

1.Available 4194302

1

b)

Distribution of  this network into 4 subnets:

1.Given 10.0.0.0/8, 4 subnet needed.

2.Required bits (2n) = 2

3. 22= 4 network

6.Slash notation = /10

7.The value of the last 1 (highlighted) 26 = 64 which is increment bit for the network.

8.1st Network 10.0.0.0/10

9.2nd Network 10.64.0.0/10

10.3rd  Network 10.128.0.0/10

11.4th  Network 10.192.0.0/10

Subnet -1

Subnet - 2

Subnet - 3

Subnet - 4

4

c)

1.Available 4194302

In Subnet 1, there will be 210 computers

4194302 – 210 = 4194092

So 4194092 IPs are unallocated

In Subnet 2 we will have 700 computers

4194302 – 700 = 4193602

So 4193602 IPs are unallocated

In Subnet 3, 150 computers

4194302 – 150 = 4194152

So 4194152 IPs are unallocated

In Subnet 4, 70 computers

4194302 – 70 = 4194232

So 4194232 IPs are unallocated.

1

### Question 3: (8 mark)

8

a)

Version:4

.25

b)

Header length : 20 bytes (5)

.5

c)

SERVICE : - DSCP:  CS0, ECN: NOT-ECT

.25

d)

Total length : 52

.5

e)

Identification Value : 0*6169 (24937)

.5

f)

Flags set to not fragment as its not a large flag.

.5

g)

Time to live value is 128

.5

h)

TCP Protocol value is TCP (6)

.25

i)

As shown in figure TCP is used.

.25

j)

.25

k)

Destination : 104.199.13.175

.25

l

Source port : 56946

.5

m

Destination port : 443

.5

n

Length : 0

1

o

This is packet from client to server for a duplicate ack.

1

p

According to the reply of the last frame from server to client, server sent the TCP retransmission frame,so client sent the duplicate Ack to that frame.

1

Question 4: (14 marks)

14

a)

Internet of things is the worldwide used technology that makes the processes, operations and program executions much more frequent and realistic. Network connectivity is required to connect sensors to perform operations like data transfer and transmission of important information over a network. IOT ensures security and reliable connection of its users. These provide an optimal solutions for the security challenges or other related issues faced by the IOT users (Madakam 2015). IOT devices enables the internet connection for the users which allows users to access the automated components and also energy management tools to save up most of the power supply to home or work places. IOT devices are used in the two most important functional areas such as industries as well as for commercial purposes. The IOT devices include wearable smart devices, health monitoring devices. IOT devices for networking include wireless sensors for local network connection, WSN nodes, WSN edge notes, Wi-Fi (Micrium 2017).

Figure1: IOT Devices

Source: (Micrium 2017).

1.WSN nodes are deployed in the network to perform a single function and are used to harvest energy from external sources like solar or thermal energy.

2.WSN Edge Nodes are on the contrary provides IP connectivity that acts as a gateway for WSN and IP network.

3.W-Fi is ubiquitous and provides internet solutions to the users worldwide (Madakam 2015).

1.5

b)

IoT provides cross-platform deployment of networked devices to provide efficient data transfer for the network users. The communication protocols allow interaction of IoT devices with each other using specific protocols and IEEE standard. Communication protocols enable users to access network within well-defined IP addressing to avail privacy benefits (Postscapes 2017).

The IOT protocols are according to the requirements for a network

1.For infrastructure- IPv4/IPv6 for providing end to end datagram transmission across the IP network

2.Data protocols -WebSocket, MQTT, CoAP used for sending or receiving messages over a network channel

3.Multi-layer framework- Homekit, Alljoyn, IoTivity to provide client-server interaction within a network

4.Device Management- TR-069 which helps in providing security to the accessed information of the users. This also includes device monitoring, configuration and network diagnostics.

5.Identification- uCode, IPv6, URIs that are useful in identifying the IoT devices for a network. Identification is essential in an IoT network to analyse the connected devices in a network, their relative IP addressing scheme and the communication protocols associated with it.

6.Transport/communication- Wifi, LPWAN, Bluetooth connectivity for process and access management

7.IEEE standards: IEEE standards provides network-independent communication over a network and also ensures security/privacy to the accessed information in a network. For example IEEE 1888.3-2013 for network security (Postscapes 2017).

2.5

c)

### IoT would not be possible without IPv6

IPv6 is used as the primary version for transferring data packets in a network. IPv6 successfully covers all the necessities of IoT devices by providing IP addressing scheme for each device. It reduces the cybersecurity threats. IPv6 allows automatic allocation of IP addresses in a network. The IPv6 fields mainly consist of routing prefix, subnet ID and interface identifier to analyse the IP addressing scheme. IPv4 stores limited IP addresses, IPv6 provides a large amount of IP addressing scheme so as to access the online networking services provided to users that will be useful for IoT devices (Poulin 2014).

1. Efficient Routing and Packet Processing: It minimizes the size of routing network tables to increase the performance. Also, it does not have an IP-checksum level so no need of recalculation at each router. Hierarchy for IP addressing is less complex and is designed by reducing the size of routing tables used in a network.

2. Directed flow of data: Rather than broadcast it supports multicast. It allows multiple bandwidth intensive packets transmission at various destinations.

3. Easy Configuration: IPv6 offers self-configuring interfaces for a larger network that can be efficiently used for IoT devices. A prefix is sent to the local link for a router to create an IP addressing scheme. The prefix is usually of 64-bit.

4. Secured and support for new service- the end to end connectivity can be restored for any of the IoT networks by the elimination of NAT (network address translation) in a network.

1

d)

According to The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), there are different tasks groups that are used for IoT.

1.ZigBee-it is a global standardised network connection that is used for the process of a machine to machine communication. 128-bit AES encryption is used by ZigBee that ensures data security to the information accessed over a network.

2.IEEE 802.11: WiFi- for this wireless connection, radio waves (RF) are used to allow frequent communication in a network channel. The hardware components can be connected with using 802.11 network standard.

3.IEEE 802.15.1: Bluetooth and BLE- these wireless connections are used to transfer the information over the shortest distance in a network. These run according to the mobile phone batteries or other type of smart devices.

4.IEEE 802.16: WiMAX- Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access allows faster transmission of data packets with a speed of 30-40 megabits per second. This can be used in both external and internal environment of a local area network connection (link-labs 2015).

2

e)

Sigfox is the communication service provider company that provides a network connection for the different users. It provides IoT services for the wide area network. Sigfox services are comparatively available at a very low cost to the users and are compatible with the Bluetooth technology. Sigfox aims at providing services to its customers in terms of effective transmission of information so that users can share data with faster speed and accuracy. The company provides solutions that utilise less amount of battery requirements for accessing the IoT devices. Lastly, Sigfox believes in providing cost-effective services for their customers. The company provides an opportunity for the users to be connected with the virtual environment. It has been stated by the company that IoT requires separate network which is commented by other companies. Other IT industries have not agreed with this statement provided by Sigfox. They say that three networking technologies cellular, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi are enough to satisfy the conditions for accessing IoT network. So, there is no specific requirement for an IoT network as stated by Sigfox (Sigfox 2017).

Comparison with other networks

Cellular- this technology is useful for the users of a wide area network. This technology involves the use of cell phones by providing multiple access to the users. The most commonly used cellular networks are GSM and CDMA (Miller 2015).

Wi-Fi- this type of technology makes use of radio technology that provides high-speed for the internet connection. The wifi network allows connection to the remote users within a limited range. This can be utilized to connect multiple IoT devices with the same wifi connection. This type of network is used by most of the users connected to a wide area network. It makes it easier for the users to connect their smart devices such as tablets or smartphones (Miller 2015).

Bluetooth- this type of network is specifically used for providing personal area networking to the users connected in a wide area. This enables users to stay connected to their mobile devices and covers the short range. This allows various IoT devices to connect efficiently as users can share information using the point to point connection (Miller 2015).

4

f)

#### Conclusion

This is to conclude from this detailed report that the IoT technology is effective to be implemented by most of the IT industries. The report has discussed the importance of IoT technology in networking. The internet of things technology provides efficient connectivity with smart devices to the users. It is mentioned in the report that there are various communication protocols that can be used for the transmission of information within a specified network range. The users can share the network resources and required information using the internet of things technology.

The report has also covered the statement that was recorded by Sigfox about the IoT. It has been justified that the statement provided by Sigfox cannot be agreed as there is no requirement to add a separate network apart from IoT network. The three technologies that are used by the remote users in IoT network is also discussed in the report.

Internet of things technology can be implemented by the business organizations to enhance the quality of the business processes that are performed. Internet of things technology has influenced the IT industries and commercial areas around the world. In terms of deployment of networking for an organization, internet of things technology can be recommended for the wide area users.

2

g)

### References

1.link-labs 2015, 5 Types of Wireless Technology for The IoT, viewed 27 January 2018, https://www.link-labs.com/blog/types-of-wireless-technology

2.Madakam, S 2015. ‘Internet of things: smart things’. International Journal of Future Computer and Communication, 4(4), p.250.

3.Micrium 2017, How to Think about the Internet of Things (IoT), viewed 27 January 2018, https://www.micrium.com/iot/devices/

4.Miller, M 2015, The internet of things: How smart TVs, smart cars, smart homes, and smart cities are changing the world, Pearson Education.

5.Postscapes 2017, IoT Standards and Protocols, viewed 27 January 2018, https://www.postscapes.com/internet-of-things-protocols/

6.Poulin, C 2014, The Importance of IPv6 and the Internet of Things, viewed 27 January 2018, https://securityintelligence.com/the-importance-of-ipv6-and-the-internet-of-things/

1

### Question 5: (5 marks)

a)

FE8A:0000:0000:0000:0B00:27EF:FED4:10BC

1

b)

FE8A:0000:0000:0000:0B00:27EF:FED4:10BC

1111111010001010:0000000000000000:0000000000000000:0000000000000000:0000101100000000:0010011111101111:1111111011010100:0001000010111100

2

c)

0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:25C9:0E5F.

2

Total marks awarded

40 (max)

Less late penalties if applicable

Less plagiarism penalties if applicable

Total marks earned