Clinical Management of Neuropathic Pain Oz Assignment

Clinical Management of Neuropathic Pain Oz Assignment

Clinical Management of Neuropathic Pain Oz Assignment

Introduction

The neuropathic pain is a chronic pain that results due to the nerve damage or by a cancer tumour which presses on a nerve or several nerves of the nervous system. Neuropathic pain is experienced as stabbing pain especially at the middle of the night when someone is asleep. It's hard for a person experiencing the neuropathic pain to bear such a severe painful situation. If the appropriate operation management and treatment are engaged, nerve pain can be sufficiently controlled.

Impact of pain on quality of life

Pain causes a reduction in the physical activities of a patient. Several studies that have been carried out shows that there is a high correlation between pain and reduction in physical activities. Duration, location or intensity of pain have a substantial influence on the physical performance of a patient. It diminishes their physical activity which in turn influences negatively other aspects of the patient's daily life like walking, performing domestic chores, and participation in social activities [1].

Pain influences the ability of a patient to carry out essential activities. Since patients who experience pain seem to be unconscious the ability to carry out necessary activities is negatively distracted. Crucial activities like sitting down and getting up are affected undesirably by pain.

Pain hurts the mental state of an individual. The adverse impact of pain on the mental wellness of an individual causes deteriorating effects on the quality of life. Pain causes anxiety and depression which affects the mental wellness of a patient.

Sleep disturbance is another common effect of pain. Individuals who are experiencing pain often portray difficulties in sleeping. Sleep disorder may result to an increase in stress, stress makes an individual experience difficulty in performing simple tasks and even damage their cognitive ability which may, in turn, affect their activities at home and in the workplace [2].

Types of pain

The different types of pain include;

1. Chronic pain is a long-lasting pain condition which does not decline even with treatments. It is mainly linked to conditions like fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis.
2. Acute pain arises unexpectedly, but it is temporarily. It is mainly related to emotional stress and anxiety and heals after the injury heals.
3. Nociceptive pain is a type of pain that arises from an injury in tissues; it includes damage to bone or muscle of the body. It is mainly caused by fractures, cancer, burn, bruises, surgery and cuts. Nociceptive pain mainly reduces when an injury heals.
4. Neuropathic pain is a kind of pain that arises due to damages of the nervous system; it can be peripheral or central. Neuropathic pain is mainly caused by pinching, injury or disease. Neuropathic pain can last for an extended period even when the injury has healed.
4. Psychogenic pain is a type of pain that arises due to psychological factors, tissue damage or nerve damage. It is prolonged by conditions like fear, stress, depression or anxiety.
5. Pain is also classified by the body part involved or the kind of tissues affected. For example, muscular pain, soft tissue pain and bone pain.
6. Some types of pain are also classified based on the syndromes. For instance, myofascial pain syndrome is pain experienced in the body muscles .

Recognition of neuropathic pain

Some of the signs of the neuropathic in the body peripheral includes; steady commencement of numbness, tingling and pricking of the victim's hands or feet. These body changes can spread to the upper body parts such as arms and legs. The person having neuropathic pain experiences jabbing, sharp, freezing, throbbing and burning pain throughout the body. The patient has extreme sensitivity to touch and lack of body coordination balance which sometimes leads to falling [4].

When someone is experiencing such serious symptoms, it is advisable to seek health professionals for treatment. The neuropathic pain results from damage of the nerves in the nervous system either in the central or in the peripheral. Neuropathy is a chronic pain which is not necessarily designating an underlying injury, but the pain itself is considered a disease. It is essential for such symptoms assessed as nerve problems themselves of which they are the source of pain. The most common cause of neuropathic pain is known from the spine disorders. As the neuropathic pain affects the peripheral, it is easier to recognize because of its function in the vast communication network of coordinating signals between the central nervous system and all body parts. Thus, when the peripheral nerves are disrupted there is nervous malfunctioning, and complex functions could lead to a stop [5].

Management of the neuropathic pain

The of nerve pain is challenging even with it being most focused on by the extensive research. In a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinical practice guidelines, the project management neuropathy pain assists physicians to select the appropriate management recommendations. The neuropathic pain is a chronic pain known to affect the quality of lives of many people [6]. The estimated prevalence of the neuropathic pain is about 1% to 5% of a country's general population according to the result of systemic and meta-analysis review. In examining the effect of numerous treatments of the neuropathic pain several double-blind types of research were conducted in oral and topical medications. The studies were conducted in journals together with the unpublished trials that were retrieved from clinical experiments, government and from the websites of companies of pharmaceuticals were included [7]. Regarding the analysis of the studies by a member of authors the first-line recommended for the neuropathic pain management medication were serotonin-noradrenaline, the tricyclic, antidepressant, gabapentin and reuptake inhibitors, the researchers proposed that the lidocaine patches are useful for the second line therapy [8]. Though, the researchers recommended more evidence-based updates concerning the treatment of neuropathic pain management [9].

Conclusion

The neuropathic pain disease affects the somatosensory nerves and cells of the brain. The nerve pain is regarded to be associated with the peripheral nerve problems like neuropathy due to diabetes, brain and spinal cord injuries which leads to severe chronic pain. Neuropathic pain is accompanied by abnormal sensation known as dysesthesia which is the pain that occurs from the actual non-painful stimuli, and it may happen in episodic or continuous components. It is essential for a person experiencing the severe pain in the body to seek medical consultation from a health professional for easier recognition and to determine the type of pain he/ she is experiencing. The primary medication that is recommended for the management of the neuropathic pain include amitriptyline, pregabalin duloxetine and gabapentin; they treat different specific pain within the body.

References

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2.) Schiffman E, Ohrbach R, Truelove E, Look J, Anderson G, Goulet JP, List T, Svensson P. Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) for clinical and research applications: recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group. Journal of oral & facial pain and headache. 2014;28(1):6.
3.) Parker SL, Godil SS, Shau DN, Mendenhall SK, McGirt MJ. Assessment of the minimum clinically important difference in pain, disability, and quality of life after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. 2013 Feb;18(2):154-60.
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6.) Gilron I, Baron R, Jensen T. Neuropathic pain: principles of diagnosis and treatment. InMayo Clinic Proceedings 2015 Apr 1 (Vol. 90, No. 4, pp. 532-545). Elsevier.
7.) Moulin DE, Boulanger A, Clark AJ, Clarke H, Dao T, Finley GA, Furlan A, Gilron I, Gordon A, Morley-Forster PK, Sessle BJ. Pharmacological management of chronic neuropathic pain: revised consensus statement from the Canadian Pain Society. Pain Research and Management. 2014;19(6):328-35.
8.) Smith EM, Pang H, Cirrincione C, Fleishman S, Paskett ED, Ahles T, Bressler LR, Fadul CE, Knox C, Le-Lindqwister N, Gilman PB. Effect of duloxetine on pain, function, and quality of life among patients with chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: a randomized clinical trial. Jama. 2013 Apr 3;309(13):1359-67.
9.) Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, Ely EW, Gélinas C, Dasta JF, Davidson JE, Devlin JW, Kress JP, Joffe AM, Coursin DB. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Critical care medicine. 2013 Jan 1;41(1):263-306.