Delivery in day(s): 3
Climate Change Policy OZ Assignments
Climatic change is not an isolated problem in fact it is an initiation to economic, social and other related problems. The increasing temperature of the earth and the increasing emission of carbon dioxide and the deteriorating environmental balance of the whole works have called for a joint exercise to take care of the concerns of environment. In this line itself Kyoto protocol was a mile stone. Till now the clean development mechanism and the green house emission targets have been the most important of all in terms of fixing and maintaining the limits of green house gases. The major objective of this environmental protection drive is to take care of the developmental/ sustainable developmental aspects of developing nation and to reduce the carbon footprints. The clean development mechanism is an arrangement initiated under the recommendations of Kyoto protocol to ensure a considerable decrease in the emission of Greenhouse and dangerous gases and to help the countries (Named in Annexure – 1 in the UN List) to comply with their commitment of reduction in the emission of these green house gases (Brysse K., 2013). The recommendations of Kyoto protocol and the clean development mechanism have potential to improve the climatic conditions if implemented correctly. The countries of the world have to accept the recommendations ethically to stop the world from getting destroyed and the legal bindings to developed and developing countries should be made more stronger so that the needs of the world is taken care properly.
Q1) Relation of clean development mechanism to the united Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol -
The clean development mechanism finds its origin root in “Kyoto Protocol”. This flexible mechanism was suggested by the Federal Government of United States which states and calls for a considerable cut in the carbon emission and the emission of the green house gases by the Developing countries without a significant effect on the economic operations of the same. To ensure the clean development mechanism a carbon trust was also created, though it has invited some opposition from the developing countries (citing their fuel need and economic downturn as major reasons) (Akerlof A. & Karen A., 2012). United Nation Framework convention on climate change of 1992 was also related to climate change and it talks about the stabilization of the concentration of the green house gases in the atmosphere up to agreed level but it has not included/ fixed the emission limits of countries. No treaties between international counterparts were there and no solid mechanism was concentrated. Kyoto protocol was an extension of the United Nation Framework convention on climate change. It highlighted the dangers of Green house gases and also explained that these activities are largely due to the man made activities. Though the treaty under Kyoto protocol was actualized in 2005 and more than 190 countries have principally agreed to it. The basic objective of Kyoto treaty was to reduce the green house gases emission and to restore the climatic conditions and to stop the rising earth’s temperature. The clean development mechanism is an arrangement initiated under the recommendations of Kyoto protocol to ensure a considerable decrease in the emission of Greenhouse and dangerous gases and to help the countries (Named in Annexure – 1 in the UN List) to comply with their commitment of reduction in the emission of these green house gases (Arie S.I., Mattanyah Z., 2007). The effectiveness and efficiency of the designated projects relation to climate change and limiting the emission of the carbon dioxide and other green house gases determine the success of the clean development mechanism. The UNFCCC funds were installed and created to support the adaptation finance of the projects especially in the developing countries and such types of funds were also addressing the financial need in relation to the projects initiated by clean development mechanism to control the emission of the carbon dioxide and other green house gases.
Q2) Main Money Instrument Used by clean development mechanism -
Financial feasibility is the basic need and requirement of a successful project. The financial aspects related to the successful implementation of clean development mechanism are related to the sales of CER units. The source of income and its actualization for the clean development mechanism is related to the financial adaptation projects especially in developing countries. The basic objective is to obtain finance from those countries which are having rich endowments of natural resourced and which are more developed to the member countries which are poor for the purpose of establishment of the conventions which was established and decided under the framework. The basic financial support systems of the clean development mechanism are the CER units sold to the initiated projects related to limiting the emission of the green house gasses. Under the flexible arrangements the offsets credits are issue n the name of the countries (Developed countries, the names of which are mentioned in the Annexure – I of the arrangements) which invest in the developmental projects related to reduction of carbon emission and environmental protection in developing or non – annexure countries. As compared to the total value of CER sold and amount equivalent to 2% of the total amount/ final cost is contributed to adaptation fund which is the main source of finance (Yamin F., 2005).
Q3) Countries Involved and their respective roles -
The two types of the participating countries covered are developing countries and developed countries. The names of the developing countries are non annexure whereas the names of developed countries are mentioned in Annexure – 1. The basis of these classifications is related to the Purchase of CER. The developed countries purchase CER and the fund is invested in sustainable developmental projects in developing countries.
Role played by Developed Countries
1.To assist and help the developing and underdeveloped member nation to reduce the carbon emission and emission of green house gases.
2.To help the member countries to the targets of sustainable development through technical collaborations and initiating projects.
3.Establishment and implementation of the projects and structures related to emission reduction of carbon dioxide and other green house gases
Role Played by Developing (Non – Annexed Countries)
1.Transfer of CER to developed countries under specific arrangement.
2.Allowing structural support and commitments to reduce carbon and other green house gases emission.
Q4) Information Instrument for monitoring -
The projects and activities related to emission reduction of carbon dioxide and other green house gases related to clean development mechanism are to be certified if they are regarded as an additional activity in relative absence of any certified project activity; it has been mentioned clearly in Kyoto protocol. The reports related to the clean development mechanism are extensively monitored through informational instruments (Giffin M.J., 2013). The projects which are related to clean development mechanism are monitored according to the type and nature of projects and accreditation. The projects under the clean development mechanism are further classified into small and large scale clean development mechanism projects activities and clean development mechanism forestation/ reforestation projects.
The process of registration and verification, third part verification tracks the movement of information, documentation and funds. In most of the member country the respective government creates a nodal agency to carry out the process of evaluation. The information with respect to economic, social and environmental importance is taken care of and recorded, evaluated and tracked properly. CDMEB and UNFCC have formulated a comprehensive standard related to information instrumentation and monitoring,
The amount of green houses gases and carbon emission/ control related information is taken care of with the help of a document called Product design document. This document is designed to provide ample information to the clients, state involved and stakeholder. The preparation of the product design document is done with great care and once this is formed it has to be approved by DNA. The basic work of DNA is to check the project with respect to operation and sustainability. The product design documents are available in public domain for information and review. The letter of approval of project is obtained from DNA and is submitted along with validation report and PDD. After completion of all these formalities the other related stakeholders are also involved as their presence are well required for the purpose of monitoring and influencing clean development mechanism and procedures/ documents related to that.
The Kyoto protocol and other associated laws are framed to control the climatic condition and the emission of green house gases and the documents and informational requirements have to be monitored and shared between stakeholders to promote standardization and transparencies (Leontiff, 2014) .
Q5) clean development mechanism is a well designed policy or not -
To ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the projects and the policy the clean development mechanism is not regarded as the most appropriate document/ mechanism considered. The success and exactness of clean development mechanism is based on till how much extent it completes the targets and goals set by Kyoto Protocol (Kawahata H. & Awaya Y., 2006). The clean development mechanism is not fully justified in case of developing countries where the rate of population increase, economical and social imbalance is more. The legal compulsions which are associated with clean development mechanism are not too strong and the functional mechanism of the same is not too balanced in terms of its distribution between developed and developing nations.
The effectiveness and efficiency of the designated projects relation to climate change and limiting the emission of the carbon dioxide and other green house gases determine the success of the clean development mechanism. The external environmental considerations and control mechanism especially in the developing nation is not too efficient as a result of which a question mark is created on the success and prospects of clean development mechanism (Nicholas S., 2007). The results especially in developing countries, the overall result of the climatic conditions round the world suggest that despite of all well efforts the clean development mechanism cannot be regarded as the most justified tool in relation o climatic change and its control.
Instead of addressing the entire problem responsible for climatic change collectively separate agencies should be formed to take care of the different reasons responsible for climatic change. This should be discusses in the forthcoming meeting of the member nation and countries should come forward deliberately to take steps in relation to the burning issues. The strengths and weakness of clean development mechanism has to be considered to develop an alternative to this.
The increasing emission of Carbon dioxide and other green house gases had resulted into an increased temperature of the earth and have resulted into a misbalance in the natural balance of the Earth’s temperature. Different steps have been taken to manage this problem of climatic change and in this line itself the Kyoto protocol has played a major role. The recommendations of Kyoto protocol and the clean development mechanism have potential to improve the climatic conditions if implemented correctly. The countries of the world have to accept the recommendations ethically to stop the world from getting destroyed. The activities related to restoration of the environmental conditions and limiting the emission of carbon and other green house gases should be carried out in a coordinated manner and both developed and developing countries should come together for this noble cause without hurting the interest of each other. Instead of having a system to address the problem collectively the development of separate flexible system and a uniform code of conduct both for developing and developed countries is requires and the legal and other binding aspects should be made stronger to address the problem of worldwide climate change.
1.Burger T and Helmchen (2013), “ Market occupation in a circular market”, “The economics of creativity- Ideas firm and market”, Pp – 309, Routledge Publication- USA, ISBN- 978-0-415-52529-9
2.Brysse K., (2013), “Climate change prediction”, “Global Environmental Change”, Pp- 327-337. Cinage Publication – Singapore
3.Akerlof A. & Karen A., (2012) “Communication of Climate Projections”, “Nature Climate Change”, Volume - 2, Pp. 641-654.
4.Arie S.I., Mattanyah Z., (2007) “The pendulum of paradigm”, “Climate Change – Environment and History of the near east”, Pp- 3-6, Springer – New York, ISBN – 987-3-540-69851-7
5.Nicholas S., (2007), “Understanding the market failure that lead to climate change”, “The economics of Climate Change – The Stern Review”, Pp – 27, Cambridge University Press- UK, ISBN, 0521700809
6.Kawahata H. & Awaya Y. (2006), “Primary productivity response to climate change in north pacific”, “Global Climate Change and responses of carbon cycle in the equatorial pacific and Indian Oceans and Adjacent landmasses”, Elsivier – Netherland, ISSN – 13: 978-0-444-52948-0
7.Yamin F., (2005),” Supplementary issues in Climate Change”, “Climate Change and carbon market - A Handbook of Emission reduction mechanism” Pp - 17, Earthscan Publication – UK, ISN: 1-84407-163-4
8.Giffin M.J. (2003),“Assessing the damage from climate change”, “Global climate Change- The science economics and politics”, Pp- 92, MPG Books and Publishing House – UK, ISBN- 1-84376-190-4