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Childhood Obesity Research Editing and Proof Reading Services
Childhood obesity can be explained as serious medical conditions that exert an adverse effect on the overall health of the children and adolescents population. a child with above normal body weight in compared to his or her age or height can be defined as an obese child. Essential to highlight that BMI (Body Mass Index) above 30 indicate obesity while BMI Within the range of 25-29.9 indicate overweight condition (Barbour, 2011).
In the present 21st century along with increasing number of global population, childhood obesity has become one of the major challenges of the present day healthcare system. Childhood obesity research is evident to have created its impact over both low and middle income countries. According to the statistical report produced by the World Health Organization, about 42 million children belonging to the age group of 0-5 years are found to be obese as of the year 2013. It has been further estimated that about 31 million children belong to this age group are obese in the developing nations ("Childhood overweight and obesity", 2016).
Considering the situation for past decades, WHO data has revealed that obesity has nearly doubled from 5.4 million in 1990 to 10.6 million in 2014 wherein, about half of the children under 5 years of age are obese and belong to Asian countries ("Obesity and overweight", 20160.
Important to highlight that overweight and obese children are more susceptible to remain obese while entering into their adulthood stage if not checked. Such obese children population are also found to be more vulnerable to develop symptoms of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in a comparatively earlier stage of their life. Therefore it is essential to convey that prevention of childhood obesity should be one of the priorities of every nation. WHO has put forwarded that fact that increasing consumption of high energy food with high fat and sugar content and a reduced physical activity are the major causes of obesity in the children. The tendency to consume good with low vitamin, minerals and micronutrient contents is also found to directly contribute in childhood obesity ("Childhood overweight and obesity", 2016).
New Zealand has been identified to hold the third leading position with respect to the largest percentage of overweight and obese children in the OCED after Greece and Italy. According to current report it is observed that one third of the children population of this country are obese. Presently about 11% of the New Zealand children are belong to obese category ("Obesity and overweight", 2016).
Referring to that statistical results 2014/2015 produced by New Zealand Health Survey it is observed that one in nine children belonging to the age group of 2-14 years is obese resulting to 11% of obese children population of New Zealand. However 22% of the children were reported to belong to overweight category and are not obese. Variation in childhood obesity is also found to be evident in different ethnic background. About 15% of Maori children are obese while 30% of pacific children are found to belong under the obese category. Interesting to note that children living in the economically weaker sections indicate greater tendency towards obesity compared to the children belonging to a better economic class. However on a comparative note it is observed that child obesity has increased from 8% in 2006-2007 to 11% in 2014/2015 ("Obesity data and stats", 2016).
The easy and cheaper access to high calorie, palatable and fact foods along with reduced tendency to perform physical exercise can be considered as the major factors that resulted in obesity to take an epidemic form. Essential to covey that several community based approaches has been undertaken like Healthy Families NZ along with implementation of regulatory control by the government of New Zealand to control the high prevalence of childhood obesity evident in the country (Kelly & Swinburn, 2015).
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Purpose of research
The sole purpose of the proposed study is to perform an extensive social research in order to understand what the factors that directly or indirectly contributes in the increasing childhood obesity in New Zealand. In this respect the purpose to be unearth the social, educational and lifestyle factors that are responsible for prevalence of childhood obesity in the said country.
This proposed study if accomplished successfully shall result in proper identification the potential factors that are responsible for bringing obesity in the children population of New Zealand. Hence through identification initiatives can be subsequently undertaken to restrict such factors and also to improve the overall health of the children population of the country. Important to highlight that the proposed study can become an eye opener creating a social awareness towards the fact that presence of poor childhood health can subsequently result in ill health of the future adults of the concerned country.
- What are the presently existing patterns of childhood obesity in New Zealand?
- How the presently exiting trend of childhood obesity is different from that in the previous year’s evident in the said country?
- What are the key factors to childhood obesity in New Zealand?
- What are the adverse effects an obese child is susceptible to face in future?
- How childhood obesity can be aligned with deteriorated health of the future adult?
Brief literature review
Childhood obesity has been evident to bring both immediate and long term adverse effect on the health and well being of an individual. An insight into the immediate effects of childhood obesity reveal that the obese children are more vulnerable to develop cardiovascular disease and are also reported to have high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure. In accordance to a population based study sample of 5-17 years old wherein 70% of the population is obese has at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore obese adolescent population are more susceptible to have pre-diabetic condition. Greater risk to develop complications in the skeletal and muscular system is evident in obese children. Sleep disorders, indications towards psychological problems like stigmatization and lower self esteem and lack of confidence can be identified as other adverse impacts of childhood obesity (Freedman, Mei, Srinivasan, Berenson, & Dietz, 2007).
In context of discussing about the long term impacts of childhood obesity it can be stated that obese children or adolescent show greater tendency to grow as obese adults wherein the risk of cardiovascular diseases are also carried over. Obese children when developed in obese adults are more prone to develop heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and osteoarthritis (Langwith, 2013).
Prevention of childhood obesity can be undertaken through various approaches. Initiatives towards lifestyle modification including healthy eating habits and bringing restrictions in children towards consumption of fast food is found to be a positive step in lowering childhood obesity. Also it is essential to improve the dietary and physical exercise behaviour of the children wherein involvement of the parents, communities, school, child care settings and Government agencies are significant. Worthy to mention for controlling childhood obesity the schools play a pivotal role through developing safe and supportive environment for embedding healthy behaviours within the children. It is through implementation of practice healthy eating habits and encouraging physical exercise in children the school authorities are found to play a contributory role, reducing childhood obesity ("Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up?", 2006).
It is justified to highlight that children cannot be blamed for childhood and it is the parenting behaviour that greater influence the physical growth and development about of a child. Lack of knowledge regarding the adverse health effects of childhood obesity and lack of proper education of the parents can be directly linked with childhood obesity. For this reason childhood obesity is prevalent more in the uneducated and weak economic class. Higher price of nutritious food and lower and easier access to fact food are the causal factor to this issue. Communities with lesser access to safe parks and biking or walking pathways also lower the children’s tendency to involve into physical exercise. Studies have further revealed that time spent in watching television bear a direct link with increased prevalence of childhood obesity (K. Chung & C. Romney, 2012).
Source: ("Part 3: Child obesity – some facts — Office of the Auditor-General New Zealand", 2016)
Understanding the nature of research proposal it is suitable to integrate interpretivism as research philosophy. Through application of the above mentioned research philosophy it shall be possible to interpret the key elements responsible for childhood obesity in New Zealand. Also as this study reflects an integration of human interest interpretivism research philosophy is considered to be better suited (Denscombe, 2007).
Research approach and the rationale behind it
Referring to the proposed topic of research emphasis shall be given to implement mixed method research. Hence by including the nixed method the concerned research scholar shall give equal priority towards performing both qualitative and quantitative research. In order to perform quantitative research survey based study shall be performed while for the qualitative research interviews shall be conducted with the help of open ended questionnaires (Morse & Niehaus, 2009).
The rationale behind considering mixed method research is the fact that it shall enable the research scholar to obtain in-depth information about the topic concerned. By implementing this research approach triangulation is possible that further aid in understanding the particular issue in a more accurate manner by approach it from different directions. Further mixed method research approach has been selected in order to along the results obtained from primary and secondary data analysis. Also through this approach more compete and comprehensive understanding of the research problem is feasible.
The variation observed in research designs comprise of descriptive, causal and explanatory wherein effective data assimilation, logical explanation of the obtained data and formulation of the concluding remarks are the major aspect. Understanding the requirements of the proposed research it is suitable to perform the study aligned with causal research design as the primary objective is to identify the factors responsible for childhood obesity in New Zealand. However research onion developed by Saunders et al shall be incorporated for performing the said study in layer wise manner as depicted by the principles of the research onion (Grand & Jonas, 2012).
Research strategy is an inherent part of every research based study and in mainly of two major types: the experimental and non-experimental research strategy. The former involved intensive level of field work like survey and interview sessions and the latter depend on the information gathered from the related literatures. The research strategy has is found suitable for this proposed research is both experimental and non-experimental strategy that shall enable the scholar to acquire a vast information and better analysis of the assimilated research data (Kumar, 2005).
Data collection procedure
In order to pursue the further analytical works research data collection procedure has been observed to bear a high priority. Hence understanding the nature of the proposed research emphasis is required to be given towards both primary and secondary research data collection. For the purpose of primary research data assimilation the information gathered from survey based study and interview with the selected respondents shall be considered. However an extensive literature review shall be performed that shall serve as secondary research data reserve. Needless to mention that both primary and secondary data assimilated shall bear equally significance in the said research proposal (Vogt, 2010).
Systematic Random sampling which is under the domain of probability sampling technique shall be considered wherein the sample chosen shall be considered as representation of the particular population (Jha, 2008). Hence for the purpose of survey study a total of 60 respondents shall be considered including physical exercise experts of schools and parents of obese children for the survey the respondents shall be divided into two groups: parents and physical exercise experts associated with different schools of New Zealand. For conducting the qualitative research interview shall be conducted with selected 10 paediatric consults of the country.
Data representations and analysis
The task of data representation can be considered as one of the other vital aspects of research methodology. It is the responsibility of the concerned research scholar to focus on the above said task as the quality standard of the performed research is greatly reflected by how systematically the research data has been represented to the reader. Hence considering the proposed research it is important to convey that emphasis shall be given towards presenting the primary and secondary research data is a well organized manner. For the primary research data, tabular and graphical representation shall be considered. Representation of the secondary data shall be including diagrams wherever applicable. Coming to the aspect of data analysis the primary research data assimilate through closed ended survey questions shall be analyzed by Likert scale analysis. Apart from this focus shall also be given to properly analyze the secondary research data collected from extensive literature review (Jha, 2008).
Research ethics can be explained as the application of fundamental ethical principles while performing a research based study. This is inclusive of research design and implementation of research that involve human experimentation, animal experimentation and several aspects of academic scandals namely scientific misconduct, data fabrication, and plagiarism. Important to highlight that research that involved human subjects give rise to unique and complicated ethical, legal, social and political issue. Hence research ethics is evident to be closely linked with analysis of ethical issues wherein survey based studies are involved. Protection of human subject, taking the consent of the research participants and to restore the ethical soundness of the said research can be considered as the major objectives of research ethics. Considering the proposed topic of research it is observed that emphasis shall be given to undertaken the potential contributors to childhood obesity of New Zealand which is a sensitive social issue. Hence while performing the survey based study and also during the interview sessions with the research respondents it is essential to take the consent of the participants. The proposed study shall emphasis being the study only after collecting the signed consents from the respondents. Apart from this maintaining the confidentiality factor with respect to the identification of the respondents shall also be considered as a part of research ethics in this said study. Needless to mention that slightest extent of data fabrication shall not be encouraged in this study and only the authentic primary data shall be included within the research results. Also the research data obtained through secondary research conducted via literature review shall be well references in order to maintain the originality of the secondary research data source (Oliver, 2010).
In every research based fact the presence of limiting factors can be considered as an inevitable aspect of a study. It is the responsibility of the concerned research scholar to identify the possible factors that may act as a limiting factor to research. Prior identification of research limitations enable the research scholar the address them and also to accomplish the study in a much easier manner. The above said approach is also act as a key component to time saving in research. Hence similar to ever other research based studies this particular research has also certain limitations. to begin with time limitation can be considered as one of the major constraints of the said study as the study is required to be complete within a brief time interval. Moreover as this proposed study has mentioned a survey to be undertaken proper arrangement and selection of the respondents is another research limitation. Also scheduling of interview with the selected respondents is also is another constraint in this respect. Important to mention that that task of secondary research data assimilation through extensive literature review can also be identified as a research limitation as proper availability of information cannot be predicted unless the literature review is being initiated.
Barbour, S. (2011). Obesity. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Childhood overweight and obesity. (2016). World Health Organization. Retrieved 6 September 2016, from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en/
Denscombe, M. (2007). The good research guide. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Freedman, D., Mei, Z., Srinivasan, S., Berenson, G., & Dietz, W. (2007). Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Excess Adiposity Among Overweight Children and Adolescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study. The Journal Of Pediatrics, 150(1), 12-17.e2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.08.042
Grand, S. & Jonas, W. (2012). Mapping design research. Basel: Birkha?user.
Jha, N. (2008). Research methodology. Chandigarh: Abhishek Publications.
K. Chung, E. & C. Romney, M. (2012). Social Determinants of Childhood Obesity: Beyond Individual Choices. Current Pediatric Reviews, 8(3), 237-252. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157339612802139370
Kelly, S. & Swinburn, B. (2015). Childhood obesity in New Zealand - New Zealand Medical Journal. Nzma.org.nz. Retrieved 6 September 2016, from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/read-the-journal/all-issues/2010-2019/2015/vol-128-no-1417-3-july-2015/6572
Kumar, R. (2005). Research methodology. London: SAGE.
Langwith, J. (2013). Childhood obesity. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.