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Coltan is actually extracted in various different parts of the globe form Australia to Russia, Canada to China as well as Brazil. Sub – Saharan Africa is a prime extraction area mainly in the DRC and Congo. This business ethics assignment help is mainly focused on The Congo and DRC as these two states are feeble states where the state has low means to safeguard populations saw well as monitor what is going on in the ground. Close to non- existence institutions, enforcement of rulesand legislations, high corrupt state as well as security issues plague these two states. The mining is described as artisanal as well as international companies operations in the grounds are not the object of public institutions inspection. Without demonizing specific group, the past as well as the present demonstrates that various organizations have so far fallen into the nastiest practices. This paper highlights that by excellent CSR practices organization can be able to develop as well as improve an economic benefits. Coltan associates to high-tech devices, the awareness potentiality of such a mineral is quite huge than specking about minerals.
The uses of coltan in high-tech devices
The word rare earth minerals point towards the 15 chemically same lanthanide elements that are lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium. On the other, two more chemical elements are yttrium and scandium that have same chemical properties which referred as rare earths. Rare earth can be categorized into heavy rare earths and light rare earths. Bothe heavyand light exists for varying degrees in entire rare earth deposits. Rare earth are processed as well as recovered altogether before consecutive separation into single rare earth elements. Amount for single rare earths in pure oxide form can differconsiderably with the heavy rare earth trading at higher values.
Coltan is a metallic ore which is short for Columbite Tantalite that includes two rare earth metals specifically valued for high- tech as well as digital products. Niobium and Tantalum, thee metals have specifically electric conductivity which enhances magnetic potentiality that resist heat and at the same time produce vivid colors which increase electric battery functioning andcreating them much attractive and eye catching in the digital industries. Niobium as well as Tantalum has a huge range of uses but sometimes it found in Surface Acoustic Wave that filters in mobile phones and sometimes in lenses with maximum refractive indices for digital cameras, spectacles and mobile phones. May be, found sometimes in compact capacitor which isutilized in smaller electronic devices like, pacemakers, games consoles, MP3 players and also in computer hard drives, along withthis sometimes found in layer in semiconductor circuits(Exenberger, 2011). But in average, about 20 to 30 minerals come into the composition of a smartphone. Mobilephones actually contain about 40mg of tantalum which is relatively inconsiderable amount.
A huge extractions zone of Tantalum is Africa mostly the Congo area but the biggest predicted world reserves are located in Australia, China and South America, this is associates to various factors. First most,it is affordable for multinational organizations for operating in the Congo area than in other regions, where the atmosphere norms mining conditions, labor rules and security issues are much persistent as well as under tight inspection that increases the price of extractions. On the other hand, secondly some nationswhichpossess important earth minerals reserves are acute on preserving their reserves for the time existence. Recently, the high-tech revolution overwhelming demand and desires, many countries have imposed shares as well as are earth element amount have increased.
Coltan Conflicts and Initiatives to oppose the harmful effects of Coltan mining
In eastern Congo, huge observed mines are recently regulated as well as into the influence of armed groups. The name of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda led by the organizers of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda which comes up in debate of these mines. Armed forces are ordered to regulate over 50 per cent of the 200 total mines in eastern Congo. Various companies do not have a recent system for tracing, auditing as well as certifying where their materials come from. Entire mobile phones as well as laptops include conflicts minerals form the Congo location. With extremely poor wages and along with no rules mining populations are continuously under threat of death. The average wage for a miner is between $1 and $5 per day(Exenberger, 2011). Even the mines filled with child laborers of about age 10 years old whose smaller physic fits into the smallest tunnel holes which is quite dangerous. On the other hand, it is stated by the World Wildlife Fund for instance is the ecological as well as the environment balance of the region. Whole forests are torn apart which destroying natural habitats as well as the ecosystem of the area. Chemicals have been constantly thrown into the forest which destroys the soil and the water system. The past decades has observed an enhancing international concentration on conflicts minerals which originates from mining operations in the DRC. Armed groups have been associates to mining operations in this area. Furthermore, inspection organizations have found that how native people are topic to serious human rights abuses, environmental system destroyed.
Governmental social issue focused groups as well as governmental industries like the Global Sustainability Initiative and the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition have extended awareness of all these abuses anddegradation that can bring changes in the field(Sandevski, 2014). The Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition and the Global Sustainability Initiative hasemerges into the most respected as well as utilized resources for industries. About 180 organization form seven different businesses participate in the CFSI andcontribute to the making of a range of techniques and resources containing the Conflict Minerals Reporting Template along with this a range of regulation documents on conflict minerals sourcing. The CFSI organize daily workshop on conflict minerals issues as well as contributes to policy development along with this debates with leading civil society companies and legal authorities. Also, the OECD Due Diligence Guidance is being organized for helping organizational management avoid contributing to conflicts by their minerals purchasing practices. With the help of establishing strongmanagement systems, identifying the risk and assessing in thesupply chain, by designing then implementing a strategy for responding to identified risks the organization can use these frameworks by Diligence Guidance to create a responsible supply chain(Bardone& Lind, 2016). The OECD Guidance standards are the only international frameworks available for helping firms in order to meet their due diligence reportingrequirements. The Dodd- Frank Wall Street Reform as well as the Consumer Protection Act was signed into federal law by President Barack Obama which directlyconcerns about the subject ofconflicts of Coltan. It intends to create transparent the financial interests which guide armed groups in the DRC region. This law aims to discourageorganizations from carrying out the trade which supports regional conflicts.
By this, as a result, the organizations that utilize conflicts minerals now deeply trace as well as audit their supply chains for ensuring that their commodities are not financing atrocities in eastern Congo. Moreover, it is critical to establish a clean minerals trade in Congo so that miners now work in decent situations as well as the minerals can transfer to facilitating societies rather than warlords. The certificationsystem in Congo along with the area strengthens as the firm can purchase clean as well as conflict free minerals from Congo.
Phronetic planning research
Phronetic planning research can be defined as the study of planning that visually based on practical wisdom, practical judgment, and common sense. In the words of Aristotle, phronesis is a rational virtue that is based on the reasonable action. Improving the knowledge of the gaps of social structures is an important silent perspective of research agendas. It can be analyzed that the Artisinal mining is illegal in the Democratic Republic in Congo which marginalizes the sector and also enhances the poverty level. Donors should work with the government of Congo so that the DRC mining conditions and codes can be improved ("Coltan", 2012). It should be done to formalize the cooperative societies and customary mineral groups. Miners are facing critical and dangerous conditions that can affect their lives. These factors make it more important to lower down or diminish the difficult level that these labors are facing during the mining (Brown, 2013). Efforts should be made in the trade mainly in conflict minerals and should be assisting by international federations so that the programs can get support for livelihoods and people can get other opportunities in eastern Congo. According to Flyvbjerg, the phronesis programs have deliberations about values to praxis. It should be Pragmatic and context dependent and should be oriented towards desirable action. The phronesis is mainly the analysis of the values that the things are either good or bad to the man (Murphy & McGee, 2015). The needs Congolese miners and their families are often entirety reliant on their inadequate income from mining and very few other options to lift them out from this severe condition.
By focusing on the phronetic planning research, the truths can be taken about the progressive and the promise of the planning and the researcher of the research should re-evaluate these contestable truths in order to understand the gainers and losers and how things should be done in future. The major prospective of phronetic planning research is to properly understanding the planning resources. The interpretation of the phronetic planning research does not require the researcher to agree with the actions completed every day (Bardone& Lind, 2016). It is not about the development of the universal method. It is a logical project which is neither theoretical nor methodological. Flyvberg in his article have developed a logical outline for the phronetic social science which is a mode of scientific enquiry which assist the reflective analysis done on the values to make social science a matter of political concern. The proposal posted by Fyvberg is interesting as it seems to imply on the matter that it is possible to conduct thought that provokes the analysis of contemporary form of power (Hargreaves, 2012). Thus it can be identified that the phronetic planning research explores the available practices to find the roads of solution.
As the Artisanal mining is often illegal in DRC that relegates the sector and also continually helps in poverty. The government of Congo should work hand to hand with the Democratic republic of Congo, so that the severe condition which Colton miners are facing can be reduced (Jønsson& Fold, 2011). The World Bank and other developed countries should also work altogether to reduce the poverty level to construct the roads that will link eastern Congo trade routes to western Congo. Since its independence in 1960, the democratic republic of Congo have faced obstacles to derive programs and organizations that can provide effective governance for its vast and different land mass for its ethnic and long-suffering people (Kamlongera, 2011). A good governance program if established in the territory of Congo, would definitely work to improve the capacity of the management and its accountability. It would also work to improve the methods of selecting legislatures and local governments by working relatively with ethnic society, and other community based organizations. The program would also assist in the parliamentary institutions at the central and will also play a role in its decentralization (Bryceson&Geenen, 2016). The knowledge of site-specific process is an essential requirement to perform various task that concern about the problem about the protection and management of Congo mineral resources. Though the prediction of the program’s administration behavior is often difficult as the lack of information about the minerals and its governing surfaces are very tough to analyze by the miners. The interconnection between the Colton and its performance on the human health cannot be calculated (Kippenberg, 2011). The relationship between them is giving devastating results to both human health in local and global areas. The programs should be emphasized in such a way that it awards grants to support advocacy for more budget execution and development. It should also provide better protection for miners against illegal land tenure insecurity and for better fiscal management.
Livelihoods of the Miners
Larger firms can raise the living standards of miners’ if several mechanisms are put in place to ensure that the corporations are not contributing to armed groups. They can also observe the health and safety, and labor standards at the mining sites. Private investment by multinational companies can be another solution if tracing mechanisms are in place and appropriate standards are put in place. Investment by multinational or foreign companies should be allowed so that they can step in agricultural development initiatives at the eastern Congo, where mining have been displaced in recent years (Jagger, 2012). Other livelihood initiatives such as small business enhancement projects can be promoted and these projects should be designed in close relationship with directly to the miners. The companies should also provide educational initiatives to the miners.
It can be derived from the above study that by focusing on the phronetic planning research, the truths can be taken about the progressive and the promise of the planning and the researcher of the research should re-evaluate these contestable truths in order to understand the gainers and losers and how things should be done in future. The major prospective of phronetic planning research is to properly understanding the planning resources. The study also examines the condition of miners in the democratic republic of Congo. The study also summaries that entire mobile phones as well as laptops include conflicts minerals form the Congo location. With extremely poor wages and along with no rules mining populations are continuously under threat of death. The average wage for a miner is between $1 and $5 per day. Even the mines filled with child laborers of about age 10 years old whose smaller physic fits into the smallest tunnel holes which is quite dangerous. From the above discussion, it can be outlined that the approaches of multinational companies can be helpful in the development of condition of the minors of Congo. Other livelihood initiatives such as small business enhancement projects can be promoted and these projects should be designed in close relationship with directly to the miners. The companies should also provide educational initiatives to the miners.
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