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BUMKT 2602 Consumer Behaviour Assignment
Advertising campaign which is selected for this assignment is internationally acclaimed tourism campaign which is initiated by government of India. This campaign is known as “Incredible India” and it is states with a punch line “Atithti Devo Bhava” which is a religious phrase from Sanskrit language which roughly translates into “a visitor is equivalent to god” for us. This campaign was initiated in year 2002 and it was primarily pushed by department of tourism of Indian government as a global appeal to the tourist to visit India and experience its uniqueness, history, natural beauty, culture and immensely rich heritage. This campaign was a multi pronged campaign and it was designed in a multi pronged manner to capture the essence of a complex and versatile country like India. This campaign was designed to instigate the intrinsic motivation of viewers and make them attracted towards India and visit it to explore more. This campaign was designed and created by globally known advertising firm Ogilvy and Mather (O and M) who is very well known for its immensely successful and high impact advertising campaigns. In this campaign different aspects of Indian culture, its heritage richness, its natural variation like mountains, plains, jungles, valleys, deserts, deltas all are included and projected entire country as a complete package for a tourist’s need. Incredible Indian plan also ensures that previous image of India as a relatively unsafe country for international tourist is also modified (Assael, et al. 2007).
Yoga and spirituality of India is also included as showcased as a major part of this campaign because these two attributes of Indian culture are very well accepted and practiced by western civilization and it helps them connect with them. This entire campaign by government of India was budgeted for a 200 million USD for a period of 10 years. Many internationally known Indian personalities, celebrities are showcased in this campaign like “Amitabh Bacchan”, “Aamir Khan”. This campaign was further extended with addition of domestic tourism promotion as well in year 2009 and for that 12 million USD was earmarked separately (Kant, 2009).
This campaign is targeting international tourists primarily from European countries, American continent and Asian countries like Japan, Australia etc because these countries traditionally do not send out many visitors to India. This target market is the affluent upper market management in tourism industry that is capable of spending more than 2000 USD per visit. They are educated individuals in age range of 30 years to 60 years and belong to middle and upper middle class strata of the society. Target segment includes all kind of tourist, be it an adventure tourist, a cultural tourist, a nature tourist, a historical tourist and a spiritual tourist. All kind of tourist can be invited to India because as a country India has something to offer to all kind of tourist. This campaign is targeting markets which can be attracted to India because of their different interest which could be personal or professional (Babin & Harris, 2011).
Psychographic analysis would reveal that most of the target markets of this campaign for Indian tourism are previously visiting similar countries in search of similar experience but they are avoiding India because of its image like unsafe, unhygienic and third world country with relatively low standard in quality of life. This campaign is trying to make change in this mind set and giving a makeover to the image of India. In this campaign India is presented as a new and refined country where guests and visitors are more than just welcome. This is a place where visitors are now considered as equivalent to god and they are treated with outmost experience.
This target market is mostly also looking for value for money when they take a tour and India is ideal for them because of its relatively weak currency and low wages etc which makes travelling really affordable in India. Thus it can be said that this target market is a existing market segment which is currently travelling to other destinations of world. Most of the countries which are visited by these target markets are Asian countries only like Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia. Malaysia, Nepal etc.
For every advertisement and every campaign there is a identified need which is fulfilled and targeted in the campaign. In this campaign there is a well identified need of spreading the proper information about India and projecting the right and better image of country as a tourist destination. Conventionally India is considered as a mysterious country and most of the people outside Asia are only aware of the information which is shared through immigrants and news channels. This information is usually one sided and biased and that creates an unclear picture out the country. Secondly it is also observed that so far India is mostly know for its IT industry, cost effective educated human resources, natural resources like coal and minerals and their global contribution like Yoga and Spiritual books.
Tourism industry on the other hand is growing in India recently and their appears to be a immediate need to inform global tourism industry about the offerings made by India. India offers a unique combination of extremities and it is also considered as a melting pot of cultures which is difficult to find in any other country or region around the world. Tourism industry would also be able to get India much needed foreign exchange which will help them in reducing their trade balance deficit. Thus for macro economic reasons, for employment reasons and for growth reasons of tourism industry this campaign is needed (Smeral & Weber, 2000).
Motivation and Relevant Theories
In the words of Brech, motivation is a general inspiration process which gets the members of the team to do their share of work fairly and effectively, to be faithful towards their group, to carry out the tasks they have been assigned properly and effectively participate in the task that the group has undertaken. The way in which people behave is motivated and has meaningful reasons as quoted by majority of psychologists.
In a broader sense, the process of motivation has following characteristics:-
- Motivation is an Internal Feeling: Motivation is an emotional state of psychology that generates the feeling that an individual lacks certain things and thus to acquire those things, he does efforts. Thus, motivation is like a driver that drives the inner soul of a person, and inspires him constantly to accomplish the goals or behave in a certain way.
- Motivation is related to Needs: The needs are those deficiencies which are created whenever there is a state or condition of physiological or psychological imbalance. Therefore, motivation is closely related with needs of a person. A person whose needs are satisfied is in many instances, a motivated person.
- Motivation Produces Goal-Directed Behavior: Goals are often influenced by the personality attributes that we possess. Goals are anything towards which an endeavor is directed.
- Motivation can be either Positive or Negative: Motivation can be a result of social influence and coupled teamwork that furnishes positive motivation in terms of efforts. Motivation can be positive or incentive motivation that is based on the rewards. According to Flippo, "positive motivation is a process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward", (Sherman, 2009).
- Maslow's need-hierarchy theory of motivation: Maslow’s theory of hierarchy is another theory of motivation which can be used to determine the need and satisfaction level of consumers. This theory was developed by Abraham H.Maslow. Every human being has wants and needs, and one’s behavior is only influenced by their unsatisfied needs. He arranges them from complexes level to basic. The lowest level of need must be satisfied to move to another level. He believed that the people are always motivated by the needs which are unsatisfied. He also believed that every person has different needs and are not satisfied by same levels. In other words this theory states that people have hierarchy of needs that they will fulfill from bottom to top. There are also some deficiency needs, they will also affect any other movement if they are not Fulfilled, and some growth needs, that can be further satisfied once the basic needs have been covered.
The needs, starting from the basic to the most complex, are as follows:
- Physiology (hunger, thirst, sleep and many more)
- Safety/Security/Shelter/ Health
- Belongingness/ Love/ Friendship
- Self-esteem/ Recognitions/ Achievement
- Self-Actualization (Blackwell, et al. 2006).
When a person meets his basic requirements like food, shelter, security etc and then he is in need to travelling, making new friends and understand new cultures, thus there would be a need to visit different places and update knowledge and experiences. This is the motivation which is intrinsic in nature and it would help in creating a demand for international tours. India tourism is situated on a cusp of this demand because there are different aspects which can be fulfilled by travelling to India like experiencing new cultures, new customs and mixing with people who are ethnically, racially and religiously different. This will bring a fresh perspective in life.
Relevent area of personalities, life style and salf concepts
Target market for this campaign is western world which includes American population and European population. Even with all the differences they have there are some commonalities in their life style like they prefer to save from their income for annual tours and travels. Unlike eastern civilization this market segment gives a higher importance to travelling and gaining experiences of the world. Their life style is more dynamic and they are willing to spend a good part of their annual savings in travelling and leisure. One reason for such life style and self concept is the fact that government of these countries are providing a lot of social security and health care services to its citizens thus they do not need to save a lot for their future needs or emergencies. For them spending good amount on tours and travels is relatively easy, specially international tours.
Self concept target market is of an individual who is free willed and interested in exploring world around him or her. They are well educated and good earning individuals who have a sufficiently enough self awareness and self actualization needs that they are interested in travelling and visiting new places to enrich their own lives. Most of the target market segments are working individuals, businessmen, students and scholars who are leading a highly stressed and busy life. By providing incredible India campaign a chance is provided to them to break free from their hectic life and working schedules and explore nature in its raw form. There is one more theory which is applicable to demonstrate the personality type and motivational force which promotes such individual to be a successful recipient of promotional campaign like Incredible India. This theory is called Hertzberg’s 2 factor theory. This theory was developed by Frederick Herzberg's. He believes that some factors are satisfying in a workplace which results in job satisfaction but if they are not present they do not even cause any kind of dissatisfaction. This theory is the most widely used and replicated in business management . It separates motivational factors from hygiene factors. The motivational factors are related to the ability to achieve something and experience psychological growth while the hygiene factors are related to pain and avoidance that will lead to dissatisfaction when they are not satisfied (Miller, 2003).
This campaign proved to be one of the most successful campaign ever created and designed by tourism department of India. This campaign is in effect since 10 years and so far annual growth rate of international tourist is on the rise. A sudden movement of tourist numbers is seen after year 2012 when O and M is again gives a contract of 3 years to redefine the brand name and campaign. In last quarter (Sep-dec 2014) India observed a growth rate of 421 percent in international tourists and in last one year a 92 percent growth rate is seen in total number of tourists visiting. Ever since this campaign is in effect growth rate of international tourists in India is increasing at a much faster rate and secondly they are also spending more than ever before in exploring India. A few states and cities are actively becoming a partner in Incredible India plan and they developing their infrastructure in such a manner that they are more welcoming and comfortable to the visitors. Some of the well known partner Cities of India in this campaign is “Banaras”, “Udaipur”, “Agra”, “Goa”, “Jaipur” and “Imphal” etc. these cities and a few other are also trying to provide extra security cover so that their tourist can stay safe while visiting this place.
Incredible India is a very successful and effective international marketing campaign design and executed for government of India to promote tourism. Incredible India is a very well though off and executed plan by one of the globally known advertising agency O and M. one of the unique and complex thing about this plan is that in one integrated approach it has covered all the different colors and hues which are available with India. India as a country has more than 3000 dialects and 31 states and each of them is known for its distinct language, clothing style, culture and natural resources. Integrating all these attributes of a country into one common campaign and making it universal for a large market segment is something which is no less than a marketing achievement. Incredible India was also able to improvise the standards of Indian tour and travel industry and brought it at par with the international standards. According to Anne Morgaon Scully who is president of McCabeBremer Travel Company of Virginia, USA Incredible India campaign made a huge impact on their inquires and sales of tours for India. She said “The promo campaign is decision making a powerful visual impact and creating a perception of India being a magical place to visit". Online marketing and presence on virtual world is also a part of one of the strategies of this campaign to influence behavior of young customers and visitors. They have their own Url www.incredibleindia.org and they are also in partnership with wonobo.com to launch walking tours for its visitors. By providing them a virtual tour of places of interest a lot of queries can satisfied and tourists can be attracted to visit the places in person (Shaw & Coles, 2004).
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